A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Then a mighty strange thing happened.  Guess you could call it fate. You see, a gust of wind blew the picture frame down and it landed on the muckety-muck's head And the mice they all went crazy. For the first time they saw the lie.

It was all a hoax on just simple folks. And the muckety-muck must die. And die he did. The members of his staff they just fled. They were scared. Hah. Just not prepared." - Song: The Proper Gander. Songwriter: Bobby Darin

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich
Article index

Scientific Revolutions: The History Of The Evolving Human Persona


Astronomy Helps To Define Social Order

Welcome To The New Age of Consensus Generated Reality

"Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors – Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally – as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of nature and natural law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded."

"It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology." 

"Locke and Voltaireapplied concepts of natural law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature."


Isaac Newton: The Scientific Revolution  source: PerniciousVision


"French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution. Some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes (French for 'the philosophers') of the period widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses, and printed books and pamphlets. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church, and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment.[7]

The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.[8] Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke and Baruch Spinoza.[9] The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, and Immanuel Kant. Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism.[10] Benjamin Franklinvisited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence (1776). One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787.[11]

The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie (Encyclopaedia). Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert (until 1759), and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers. It helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond.[12]

Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary; 1764) and Letters on the English (1733); Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality (1754) and The Social Contract(1762); Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations (1776); and Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws (1748). The ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an opposing intellectual movement known as Romanticism."


How science is used to shape human imagination and civilization.

The work of people like Sit Isaac Newton has had great influence on our shared global civilization. The scientific revolution would lead to the industrial revolution and the construction of the modern world of digitally enhanced social media and passenger jet travel.

Astronomy has always been used to support the current social order. The prior Ptolemaic system was one that reinforced the feudalistic system of the Divine Right of Kings. The system of men like Sir Isaac Newton would place the Sun at the center of the Universe, replacing the Earth and setting up a new cosmology that would eventually become accepted as fact despite all the seemingly contradictory patchwork and apologetics. The modern model of the universe with its black matter, black holes and black energy is a far cry from Sir Isaac's Divinely crafted Sun centered Universe.


"The Social Context of the Scientific Revolution"

"The new science played a major role in the profound change that occurred in the thinking of literate Europeans between the early seventeenth century and the middle of the eighteenth century. Historians used to view the Scientific Revolution as the legacy of a few great scientists whose mathematical and experimental genius created a profoundly new understanding of nature. Now, however, the acceptance and use by educated elites of the new science is seen as perhaps the critical factor in causing the historical phenomenon described as the Scientific Revolution. The science of Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Boyle, and Newton would have remained the specialized knowledge of the few – or worse still, a suspect, even heretical, approach to nature – had it not been for other social and political factors that permitted its acceptance.

The great scientists and their immediate followers or propagandists were hardly naive about those factors. Galileo appealed to the literate classes for their support and argued that this new mechanical science was fit only for them and not for the larger populace. He pitted the new science against the old learning of the scholastic clergy and tied their understanding of nature to the simplistic assumptions of the 'masses. In so doing he aroused the wrath of the clerical authorities who eventually silenced him. Persecution and censorship meant that the new science made far less of an impact in Catholic than in Protestant Europe.

Access to the printing press was critical to the acceptance of the new mechanical understanding of nature. Descartes understood that fact when he left France, after the condemnation of Galileo, and chose to publish and live in the Netherlands, where his exposition of the new science stressed at every turn its advantages in promoting order and stability and diverting people to the search for mastery over nature rather than having them meddle in state affairs.

The other social factor that contributed to the acceptance of the new science lay in the dream of power that mechanical knowledge offered to governments as well as to the early promoters of industry. In the seventeenth century, such knowledge was no more than a dream, but it nevertheless enticed monarchs and statesmen to give their patronage to scientific academies and projects.

The new mechanical learning—not that found in Newton's Principia, which was far too technical for most people, but the mechanical information in handbooks and lectures—gained application first in Britain and Scotland during the second half of the eighteenth century. The applied mechanics that produced the steam engine and improved coal mining and water engineering in general had its origin in the Newtonian lectures and books that proliferated in Britain during the eighteenth century. "

"The road from the Scientific Revolution to the Industrial Revolution is more direct than has often been realized."

source document link: The Social Context of the Scientific Revolution

The printing press would bring science to the (growing) literate, middle class.

Printing press - Wikipedia


Sir Isaac Newton's Conception of God Was That Of A Lord Who Made Laws

"He rules all things, not as the world soul but as the lord of all. And because of his dominion he is called Lord God Pantokrator. For 'god' is a relative word and has reference to servants, and godhood is the lordship of God, not over his own body as is supposed by those for whom God i~ the world soul, but over servants. The supreme God is an eternal, infinite, and absolutely perfect being; but a being, however perfect, without dominion is not the Lord God. "

— Sir Isaac Newton



Sir Isaac Newton Believed In God

"He wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies and religious tractsdealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible." 

"Newton's conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation."

Religious views of Isaac Newton - Wikipedia


"Newton's conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world."

"In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction. In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:"

"Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect other matter without mutual contact."

"Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke.

Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism and several biographers and scholars labeled him as a deist who is strongly influenced by Christianity. However, he differed from strict adherents of deism in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits. He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

"This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had many professors."

"On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish. Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies.

Newton's conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. "

Religious views of Isaac Newton - Wikipedia


Bible or Babel?

What Does The Word Cosmos Mean?

"c. 1200 (but not popular until 1848, as a translation of Humboldt's Kosmos), from Latinized form of Greek kosmos "order, good order, orderly arrangement," a word with several main senses rooted in those notions: The verb kosmein meant generally "to dispose, prepare," but especially "to order and arrange (troops for battle), to set (an army) in array;" also "to establish (a government or regime);" "to deck, adorn, equip, dress" (especially of women). Thus kosmos had an important secondary sense of "ornaments of a woman's dress, decoration" (compare kosmokomes "dressing the hair") as well as "the universe, the world." 

Pythagoras is said to have been the first to apply this word to "the universe," perhaps originally meaning "the starry firmament," but later it was extended to the whole physical world, including the earth. For specific reference to "the world of people," the classical phrase was he oikoumene (ge) "the inhabited (earth)." Septuagint uses both kosmos and oikoumene. Kosmos also was used in Christian religious writing with a sense of "worldly life, this world (as opposed to the afterlife)," but the more frequent word for this was aion, literally "lifetime, age.""

cosmos - Online Etymology Dictionary

Sir Isaac Newton: "However, he differed from strict adherents of deism in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits."

Neil deGrasse Tyson - Bible and Science cannot be reconciled  source: Tantan Taligatos


Sir Isaac Newton:

"In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."


Sir Isaac & Alchemy

"In the character of Morton Opperly in "Poor Superman" (1951), speculative fiction author Fritz Leiber says of Newton, "Everyone knows Newton as the great scientist. Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone. That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find."[139]

Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton's papers, about one million deal with alchemy. Many of Newton's writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations. Alchemical texts mix artisanal knowledge with philosophical speculation, often hidden behind layers of wordplay, allegory, and imagery to protect craft secrets.[140] Some of the content contained in Newton's papers could have been considered heretical by the church.[95]

In 1888, after spending sixteen years cataloging Newton's papers, Cambridge University kept a small number and returned the rest to the Earl of Portsmouth. In 1936, a descendant offered the papers for sale at Sotheby's.[141] The collection was broken up and sold for a total of about £9,000.[142] John Maynard Keynes was one of about three dozen bidders who obtained part of the collection at auction. Keynes went on to reassemble an estimated half of Newton's collection of papers on alchemy before donating his collection to Cambridge University in 1946."



Sir Isaac Newton Thought The Bible Was The Literal Truth

"Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727)[1] was, as considered by others within his own lifetime, an insightful and erudite theologian. He wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies and religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. "

"Newton's conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[6][7] Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity;[8] in recent times he has been described as a heretic."

Religious views of Isaac Newton - Wikipedia


"In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction. In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:"

https://youtu.be/D6_UVBAfdHA  source: alotan2acs


Neil deGrasse Tyson: Apologist & Propagandist

"Anyway, if you watched Cosmos or followed our coverage of it, you’ll know that Tyson already had made clear his attitude on Newton and religion. In the third episode, he acknowledged that Newton believed in God, but claimed that Newton’s religious belief “never led anywhere” and served as “the closing of a door.” According to Tyson, Newton’s religion was generally useless because it “doesn’t lead to other questions.”

According to Tyson, it was only when Newton wasn’t doing religion, and was doing science, that he contributed anything positive. When that Cosmos episode aired, I reviewed some of the relevant historical evidence showing that the religious faith of Newton and other scientists contributed greatly to sparking the scientific revolution.

Now Tyson insists that if he sounds anti-religious to you, it’s all a misunderstanding — on your part. All this reconfirms something else I wrote in reviewing Cosmos:

We live in interesting times. On the one hand, we’re constantly assured that science and religion don’t conflict. At the same time, we’re told — sometimes by the same people — that religion hinders science. Perhaps this is to be expected. Materialists want to project a religion-friendly image because popular culture expects it, while at the same time they make arguments that they hope will ultimately erode religious belief.

That’s exactly what’s going on here. Celebrity atheists like Tyson want to remake the world without religion, even as they claim that that’s the furthest thing from their intent. But hey, a little taradiddle never stopped Tyson before, so why should it now?"

Once Again, Neil deGrasse Tyson on Isaac Newton's Religious Views ...


A Social Order Defined: The Royal Society Was Founded To Create Atlantis

"The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards.  A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library.[4] After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College.[5] It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society."



New Atlantis = The New World

"New Atlantis and other writings of Bacon inspired the formation of the Royal Society. Jonathan Swift parodied them both in book III of Gulliver's Travels."

"This novel may have been Bacon's vision for a Utopian New World in North America. In it he depicted a land where there would be freedom of religion – showing a Jew treated fairly and equally in an island of Christians, but it has been debated whether this work had influenced others reforms, such as greater rights for women, the abolition of slavery, elimination of debtors' prisons, separation of church and state, and freedom of political expression, although there is no hint of these reforms in The New Atlantis itself. His propositions of legal reform (which were not established in his lifetime), though, are considered to have been one of the influences behind the Napoleonic Code, and therefore could show some resemblance with or influence in the drafting of other liberal constitutions that came in the centuries after Bacon's lifetime, such as the American Constitution."

"New Atlantis is an incomplete utopian novel by Sir Francis Bacon, published in 1627. In this work, Bacon portrayed a vision of the future of human discovery and knowledge, expressing his aspirations and ideals for humankind. The novel depicts the creation of a utopian land where "generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendour, piety and public spirit" are the commonly held qualities of the inhabitants of the mythical Bensalem. The plan and organisation of his ideal college, Salomon's House (or Solomon's House), envisioned the modern research university in both applied and pure sciences."



Newton Made His Money As The Warden of The Royal Mint (1700–1727)

"Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian, who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and who, unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1700) and Master(1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727)."

"As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717, forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.[77][78] This inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports, while exports were paid for in gold, effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. It is a matter of debate as whether he intended to do this or not.[79] It has been argued that Newton conceived of his work at the Mint as a continuation of his alchemical work.[80]

Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica, which Newton had used in his studies."

"In April 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College, Cambridge. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705, rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint.[85] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted, after Sir Francis Bacon "

"Newton was one of many people who lost heavily when the South Sea Company collapsed. Their most significant trade was slaves, and according to his niece, he lost around £20,000."

Isaac Newton - Wikipedia


Newton's Dark Secrets

Full Docmentary - Secret Life of Isaac Newton - Full Documentaries Films  source: Full Documentaries


"Benefits to the Nation from Astronomy"

"Astronomical discoveries of the past decade—images of the hot universe at an epoch before the first galaxies and stars emerged, of other solar systems beginning to take form, of planetary systems beyond our own—have captured the imagination of scientists and citizens alike."

article source: https://www.nap.edu/read/9839/chapter/6

$ocial $tudies

"These startling advances are the result not only of the collective creative efforts of scientists and engineers throughout the United States and around the world, but also of the generous investments in astronomy over much of the past 50 years by federal and state governments, foundations, and individuals."

"In the decades ahead, the pace of discovery—remarkable as it has been over the past—will accelerate. Astronomers stand poised to examine the epoch when galaxies similar to our Milky Way first took form, to image Earth-like planets beyond our solar system, and to learn whether some show evidence of life. To take these next steps will require significant investments of both imagination and public resources."

"Because the magnitude of these investments will be large, it is fair to ask why astronomical research should merit such support. Perhaps the most persuasive, but least quantifiable, justifications lie in the importance American society has always attached to exploring new frontiers, and in the deep human desire to understand how we came to be, the kind of universe we live in, whether we are alone, and what our ultimate fate will be. Exploring frontiers of unimaginable mystery and beauty, astronomy speaks compellingly to these fundamental questions."

"As researchers, astronomers experience the excitement of discovery most vividly and are the first to glimpse new answers to ancient questions."

"As a community of citizens fortunate to live in a society that supports them generously, astronomers believe strongly that “from those to whom much is given, much is asked.” It is in that spirit that the committee offers below an accounting of astronomy’s more tangible contributions to broader societal goals."

article source: https://www.nap.edu/read/9839/chapter/6



"Astronomers’ most significant contribution to society lies in the area of science education, broadly conceived to include (1) raising public awareness of science, (2) conveying scientific concepts to students at all levels and to their teachers, and (3) contributing to educating a technically capable and aware citizenry. Astronomy is relevant to each of these goals, and it can act as a pathfinder in stimulating people’s interest in all of science."


"Astronomy excites the imagination. The beauty of the night sky and its rhythms are at once stunning and compelling. The boldness of our collective efforts to comprehend the universe inspires us, while the dimensions of space and time humble us. Astronomy encompasses the full range of natural phenomena—from the physics of invisible elementary particles, to the nature of space and time, to biology—thus providing a powerful framework for illustrating the unity of natural phenomena and the evolution of scientific paradigms to explain them. In combination, these qualities make astronomy a valuable tool for raising pubic awareness of science, and for introducing scientific concepts and the process of scientific thinking to students at all levels. A few reminders serve to illustrate the potential of astronomy to advance public science education goals."

"Astronomy is all around us. Just look up! Who has not looked at the night sky and wondered at the panoply of stars there? We are all aware of the motion of the Sun through the sky during the day and the changing phases of the Moon at night. The motions of astronomical objects determine the day-night cycle, the seasons of the year, the tides, the timing of eclipses, and the visibility of comets and meteor showers. Easily observed astronomical events have formed the basis for time keeping, navigation, and myths or sagas in cultures around the world.

Much of astronomy is visual and can be appreciated for its aesthetic appeal as well as its illustrative power. Images of deep-sky objects convey the beauty of the universe, even to those who are too young to understand their context or implications.

Astronomy is a participatory science. Many nonscientists have astronomy as a lifelong avocation. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs by the tens of thousands have formed active organizations (e.g., the Planetary Society, with membership exceeding 130,000), and many amateurs make significant scientific contributions to such fields as the monitoring of variable stars and measuring positions of moving objects. Telescope and magazine sales suggest that nearly 300,000 citizens take some active interest in amateur astronomy. The American Astronomical Society has formed a working group to foster partnering between professional and amateur astronomers. Many amateurs freely share their excitement about science with local teachers and students through such programs as Project ASTRO, which links astronomers with 4th through 9th grade teachers and classes in 10 sites around the country.

Astronomy offers the possibility of discovery. The chance to find a never-before-seen supernova, nova, comet, or asteroid is very exciting, especially to nonprofessionals. Both the distribution of astronomical data and software via the Internet and the ready availability of sophisticated imaging devices on moderate-cost small telescopes enable amateur astronomers to play an active and growing role in discovering new objects, searching for transient and variable objects, and monitoring them."

"Astronomy inspires work in the arts. From poetry and music to science fiction books and films, the ideas and discoveries of modern astronomy serve as inspiration for artists, for youngsters, and for the public at large. In the process, the works inspired by astronomy can serve as goodwill ambassadors for the value and excitement of physical science to many in society who do not otherwise come into contact with the sciences."

article source: https://www.nap.edu/read/9839/chapter/6



"Statistics confirm the widespread interest in astronomy."

"Planetariums and observatories are popular visitor destinations. There are approximately 1,100 planetariums in North America. About 30 percent of these serve school groups only, while about 70 percent do both school and public shows. Approximately 28 million visits are made to the planetariums in the United States each year. For many school children from urban areas, such a visit may be their only introduction to a dark night sky and to the wonders of the universe.

Observatory visitor centers are similarly popular. They provide a place where families learn about science together. For example, the seven observatories that belong to the Southwestern Consortium of Observatories for Public Education (McDonald, the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak, Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Very Large Array (VLA), Lowell Observatory, Whipple Observatory, and Apache Point), collectively host more than 500,000 visitors annually and reach more than 4,000 teachers through workshops. The new Visitor Center at Arecibo in Puerto Rico hosts an average of 120,000 visitors each year. Most science museums have sections on astronomy and hold weekend, evening, and summer programs on astronomical sciences.

Astronomy serves as an introduction to science for nearly 10 percent of all college students—more than 200,000 each year, nationwide. For many, astronomy will be the only science course they will ever take. To examine and improve the effectiveness of teaching science via introductory astronomy courses—many of which are offered at community colleges and small colleges without extensive research programs—the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the American Astronomical Society are jointly sponsoring a series of symposia and discussions at their meetings. The first such symposium was held in Albuquerque in 1998, and another one entitled “The Cosmos in the Classroom” was held in Pasadena in July 2000.

Discoveries in astronomy are well covered by the media. For example, staff of the New York Times and the Dallas Morning News, two of the leading papers in terms of science coverage, each develop on average more than one astronomy story per week. News conferences of the American Astronomical Society are heavily attended, covered by many news media and often held up as a model by other sciences and scientific organizations. Dozens of astronomy columns now run in newspapers and magazines. Many focus on sky phenomena, while others report on recent developments. Perhaps the best known of these is the regular series of science articles published in Parade, the national Sunday supplement—a series begun by the late Carl Sagan and now continued by David Levy.

Magazines devoted exclusively to astronomy enjoy wide circulation—nearly 300,000 combined for Sky and Telescope and Astronomy. Many other national magazines, such as Popular Science, National Geographic, Discover,and Scientific American, cover astronomy regularly and report that their astronomical stories or issues are among the most popular. It is no coincidence that when Scientific American began a new quarterly magazine devoted to single-topic issues, the first was entitled “The Magnificent Cosmos.”

Astronomy reaches an extraordinary audience of radio listeners. The program “Earth and Sky” is carried by about 900 radio stations in the United States, and the program is heard about 280 million times each year. “StarDate/Universo” reaches an audience of about 8.7 million listeners weekly. Surveys in Michigan and Florida showed that 51 percent and 36 percent, respectively, of the listeners discussed what they had heard on the “Earth and Sky” program with other adults or children. Eighty percent of the listeners felt the program “expanded their knowledge of science.” Gender, ethnicity, and occupational status did not correlate with whether or not a person listened to the series. These statistics show that well-presented astronomy stories have an extremely large and diverse audience.

Astronomical sites are among the most popular science destinations on the Web. The American Astronomical Society has found that news stories carried on Web sites often stimulate stories on affiliated television networks. Web sites offer the additional advantage of coverage in depth since they are not limited in terms of space in the same way as newspapers and television broadcasts. Web sites of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) are enormously popular and provide the public with a sense of shared participation in the startling discoveries of planetary probes and the Hubble Space Telescope. For example, the Web provided real-time access for millions to view spectacular events such as the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter and the adventures of Pathfinder and Sojourner on Mars. The JPL and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a planetary photojournal Web site that is accessed by 100,000 users who download 700,000 files every month. These Web sites, as well as those run by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the American Astronomical Society, provide resources used by thousands of teachers throughout the nation—and bring the excitement of science from the frontiers of research directly into the classroom.

Public interest in astronomy has fueled a number of successful small businesses. Several hundred million dollars are spent each year by hobbyists, small telescopes users, and travelers journeying to witness astronomical events. The catalog of educational materials in astronomy from the nonprofit Astronomical Society of the Pacific reaches about 300,000 people each year."

article source: https://www.nap.edu/read/9839/chapter/6



"The national science education standards developed by the National Research Council (NRC, 1996) specify age-appropriate content goals for the teaching of science in grades K-12. However, content goals alone are not enough. Although students may be able to give the correct answers to traditional problems and questions, these correct answers often mask fundamental misconceptions. Largely to address this problem, the national science education standards suggest an emphasis on the teaching of science as inquiry. Engaging students in the active process of inquiry can help them to develop a deeper understanding of both scientific concepts and the nature of science. Through inquiry, students can gain an appreciation of how we know what we know about science.

Astronomy lends itself extraordinarily well to inquiry-based teaching and allows teachers to take advantage of the natural fascination students have with the field. Many astronomical phenomena can be observed by students directly with no special equipment, and astronomy-based investigations (focusing on topics like light and color, for example; see Figure 4.1) can naturally lead students to explore concepts that inform other scientific fields.

Consequently, astronomers and astronomy educators have invested significantly in developing hands-on activities to support science curricula at all levels. The best of these are collected in The Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook (edited by A. Fraknoi et al., Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 1995), a resource and activity notebook that is now in use in almost 15,000 schools around the country.

Over the past decade, astronomers also began to work closely with educators to bring data from spacecraft and observatories directly into the classroom and museums (an example is shown in Chapter 5 in Figure 5.2). Programs such as Hands-on Universe (sponsored by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Hands-on Astrophysics (sponsored by the American Association of Variable Star Observers), Telescopes in Education (sponsored by NASA), and Research-Based Science Education (sponsored by NSF/NOAO) allow students to explore and use newly acquired astronomical data. Simple image analysis tools are now widely available and, when used in connection with images from planetary exploration and telescopic observations, can be powerful tools in engaging the imaginations of students. Programs like these have already led to well-publicized examples of students discovering a supernova and a new Kuiper Belt object. An increasing number of schools are able to connect to the Internet, thereby making access to astronomical data and images widely available."

article source: https://www.nap.edu/read/9839/chapter/6


Wonder Woman’s Kinky Feminist Roots Are Showing


Wonder Women In Bondage:

Origins of The Overly Sexualized "Feminist" Icon

University trained minds have long mined the mass produced pulp magazine market. The newsstand was once the equivalent of this very digitally enhanced, social media infused screen you are reading these words on. Cartoon comic book fare used to be primarily marketed to children, unlike today. Young impressionable minds were moulded by colorful pulp fantasy/fairytales, like those of men in leotards leaping tall buildings, guys dressing up as animals and of course the scantly clad, bondage fan: Wonder Woman.

Today pop stars like Beyonce make very liberal use of burlesque and overly sexualized imagery and the media labels this as "feminist empowerment". Down is defined as up as most do not seem to notice or care as they drink deeply of the well of the multimedia, saccharine saturated propaganda cool-aid. Nothing like using feminism to get everyone to have to work longer and longer hours for less and less in return. It's one thing to advocate respect for women and the equality of the sexes in terms of social roles. It's quite another to use those ideas to promote a long term social agenda that leads to the world of today where both working class parents have to work at thankless jobs just to make ends meet. 


DC Comic's Wonder Woman

"The odd life and psyche of the man who invented her."

Comic Tropes 54: Wonder Woman and Bondage  source: skunkape

"Published on May 28, 2017

Wonder Woman's creator was really into bondage and her early stories are all about that. This episode takes a look at Wonder Woman #3 where Wonder Woman spends most of the story making her friends dress up as deer and then running around tying them up."


"They (pulp magazines) were famous for their half-dressed damsels in distress, usually awaiting a rescuing hero."



William Moulton Marston: The Creator of Wonder Woman:

"His academic career, pursued alongside these and other ventures, went swiftly downhill; he plummeted from chairman of the psychology department at American University to roving adjunct. His brash egotism—and his affair with Olive Byrne, his student at Tufts and Columbia—may have been part of the reason for his academic failure, but so was the fact that the only psychological theories that interested him were his own. And the only people who took his mishmash of matriarchy and masochism seriously were Holloway and Byrne. His 1928 tome, Emotions of Normal People, defended “abnormal” sexuality—homosexuality, fetishism, sadomasochism, and so on—as not only normal but fixed in the nervous system."


"(He may have been a bit of a charlatan, but he was also way ahead of his time.) "

"In her hugely entertaining new book, Jill Lepore sets out to uncover the true story behind both Wonder Woman and her creator. Make that creators: not the least of Lepore’s revelations is that Marston had a lot of help from his wife, Elizabeth Holloway (we have her to thank for “Suffering Sappho,” “Great Hera,” and other Amazonian expostulations), as well as from his former student Olive Byrne, with whom he and Holloway lived in a permanent ménage à trois that produced four children—two from each woman. And Lepore adds another catalyst to the mix. Olive Byrne was the niece of Margaret Sanger, whose youthful brand of romantic, socialist-pacifist feminism was formative for Marston. Sanger’s influence is perhaps the most important of the connections that Lepore teases out between Wonder Woman, the early-20th-century women’s movement, and Marston’s fascinating life and odd psyche, in which the liberation of women somehow got all mixed up with bondage and spanking."

"The only scion of a once-grand Boston family, Marston was equal parts genius, charlatan, and kinkster."

"As an undergraduate at Harvard just before World War I, he was thrilled by militant suffragists like the ones who chained themselves to the fence outside 10 Downing Street. Maybe that’s where his fusion of feminism and bondage started—imagery of slavery and shackles abounded in the movement’s demonstrations and propaganda." 

"His experiences in the psychology department left their mark, too. Marston was a lab assistant to the prominent Harvard psychologist Hugo Münsterberg, a rigid German who opposed votes for women and thought educating them was a waste of time. Münsterberg would surface in the comics as Wonder Woman’s archenemy, Dr. Psycho. (“Women shall suffer while I laugh—Ha! Ho! Ha!”) Busy strapping Radcliffe students to blood-pressure machines in Münsterberg’s lab, Marston invented the lie detector—a forerunner of Wonder Woman’s golden lasso, which compels those it binds to speak the truth."

"Devising the lie detector was the high point of Marston’s rather erratic pre-comics career. He seems to have lost every job he held. His venture into business ended in an indictment for fraud; his brief stint as a lawyer saw the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals reject lie-detector tests as evidence. In 1929 Universal Studios hired him to give its films psychological realism and let him go a year later. His academic career, pursued alongside these and other ventures, went swiftly downhill; he plummeted from chairman of the psychology department at American University to roving adjunct. His brash egotism—and his affair with Olive Byrne, his student at Tufts and Columbia—may have been part of the reason for his academic failure, but so was the fact that the only psychological theories that interested him were his own. And the only people who took his mishmash of matriarchy and masochism seriously were Holloway and Byrne. His 1928 tome, Emotions of Normal People, defended “abnormal” sexuality—homosexuality, fetishism, sadomasochism, and so on—as not only normal but fixed in the nervous system. (He may have been a bit of a charlatan, but he was also way ahead of his time.) The book received little notice, except for a rave by Byrne, writing under a pseudonym. As with his other academic work, Byrne and Holloway were mostly uncredited collaborators."

source: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/11/wonder-womans-kinky-feminist-roots/380788/


Bondage In Almost Every Issue! POW! WHAM! SPANK ME!

"And in almost every issue, she is chained or tied up. This plot staple provoked debate from the start: opponents of comic books thought it smacked of sexual fetishism (and fetishists agreed). But whatever it represented in Marston’s personal psychology, bondage was an obvious metaphor for the many ways in which women were collectively and individually constrained by law and “tied down” by marriage, domesticity, children, and all the rest of it. What marvels would women achieve if only they could set themselves free? The myth of the Amazons shows how close to the surface of even the most misogynistic societies—and ancient Greece definitely qualifies—is the idea that women are at least men’s equals, and possibly even their superiors. Only relentless repression keeps them down. The myth shows, too, how threatening to men is the notion of a being who combines the strength, valor, and independence of the ideal man with the sexual allure and intuitive powers of the ideal woman."

"If Wonder Woman is a glorious fantasy of what women could do and be if only they could get men’s boots off their collective neck, the Ms. Kali cover—a goddess juggling multiple subordinate roles—is closer to the reality of the Marston ménage. When Marston told his wife that he would leave her if she didn’t accept his affair with the young Byrne, Holloway figured out how to accommodate. She threw herself into her work—she became a senior editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica—and Byrne ran the house and raised the children. (In some years during the Depression, Holloway supported a middle-class household of seven, a feat worthy of Wonder Woman herself.) How the underemployed, emotionally demanding Marston got to remain the overbearing patriarch is a bit of a puzzle.

It can’t have been an easy life, but their big house in Rye, New York, seems to have been a jolly place, with lots of pets, tipsy parties, and, Holloway said much later, “love making for all.” Still, it is sad to read of the way both women’s ambitions were slowly squelched. Holloway, as smart and energetic as Marston, got a law degree but couldn’t find work in the field. She and Byrne each started on the path to a doctorate in psychology, but saw the handwriting on the wall: It was nearly impossible for a woman to get a good academic job, so why continue? Of the two, Byrne seems to have paid the bigger price for their unconventional arrangement. For decades she pretended to be the widow of a fictitious Mr. Richard, a kind of housekeeper or distant relative; ultimately she even allowed Marston and Holloway to adopt her children. The heavy bracelets she wore, so like Wonder Woman’s “bracelets of submission,” were all very well, but socially, a wedding ring was what really counted."

source: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/11/wonder-womans-kinky-feminist-roots/380788/

William Moulton Marston - Wikipedia


Want To Participate In A Novel Revolution?

The Gutenberg Revolutions source:  Corbett Report Extras


A Pulpy Past

"Pulp covers were printed in color on higher-quality (slick) paper."

"They were famous for their half-dressed damsels in distress, usually awaiting a rescuing hero."

"The first "pulp" was Frank Munsey's revamped Argosy Magazine of 1896, with about 135,000 words (192 pages) per issue, on pulp paper with untrimmed edges, and no illustrations, even on the cover. The steam-powered printing press had been in widespread use for some time, enabling the boom in dime novels; prior to Munsey, however, no one had combined cheap printing, cheap paper and cheap authors in a package that provided affordable entertainment to young working-class people. In six years Argosy went from a few thousand copies per month to over half a million.[1]

Street & Smith, a dime novel and boys' weekly publisher, was next on the market. Seeing Argosy's success, they launched The Popular Magazine in 1903, which they billed as the "biggest magazine in the world" by virtue of its being two pages (the interior sides of the front and back cover) longer than Argosy. Due to differences in page layout however, the magazine had substantially less text than Argosy. The Popular Magazine did introduce color covers to pulp publishing, and the magazine began to take off when in 1905 the publishers acquired the rights to serialize Ayesha, by H. Rider Haggard, a sequel to his popular novel She. Haggard's Lost World genre influenced several key pulp writers, including Edgar Rice Burroughs, Robert E. Howard, Talbot Mundy and Abraham Merritt.[2] In 1907, the cover price rose to 15 cents and 30 pages were added to each issue; along with establishing a stable of authors for each magazine, this change proved successful and circulation began to approach that of Argosy. Street and Smith's next innovation was the introduction of specialized genre pulps, with each magazine focusing on a particular genre, such as detective stories, romance, etc."

"At their peak of popularity in the 1920s and 1930s, the most successful pulps could sell up to one million copies per issue. In 1934, Frank Gruber (writer) says there were some 150 pulp titles. The most successful pulp magazines were Argosy, Adventure, Blue Book and Short Stories, collectively described by some pulp historians as "The Big Four".[4] Among the best-known other titles of this period were Amazing Stories, Black Mask, Dime Detective, Flying Aces, Horror Stories, Love Story Magazine, Marvel Tales,[5] Oriental Stories, Planet Stories, Spicy Detective, Startling Stories, Thrilling Wonder Stories, Unknown, Weird Tales and Western Story Magazine."

"Although pulp magazines were primarily an American phenomenon, there were also a number of British pulp magazines published between the Edwardian era and World War II. Notable UK pulps included Pall Mall Magazine, The Novel Magazine, Cassell's Magazine, The Story-Teller, The Sovereign Magazine, Hutchinson's Adventure-Story and Hutchinson's Mystery-Story.[6] The German fantasy magazine Der Orchideengarten had a similar format to American pulp magazines, in that it was printed on rough pulp paper and heavily illustrated."



William Moulton Marston Invents A Wonder Woman

"Marston had a sweet thing going: two remarkably smart, adoring women to cater to his every need, each apparently believing she’d landed in feminist heaven. Indeed, it was Byrne’s hero worship that rescued his career. As a staff writer at Family Circle, she frequently interviewed him as a great expert on child psychology (without, of course, revealing their connection). One article, “Don’t Laugh at the Comics,” caught the eye of Maxwell Charles Gaines, the head of what became DC Comics. Hired in 1940 as a consultant to head off attacks on comic books as harmful to children, Marston saw his chance to advance a cause: the problem with comics was simply their “bloodcurdling masculinity.” As he put it a few years later in an essay in The American Scholar, “Why 100,000,000 Americans Read Comics”:"



Maxwell Charles Gaines' All-American Comics

"In 1933, Gaines devised the first four-color, saddle-stitched newsprint pamphlet, a precursor to the color-comics format that became the standard for the American comic book industry. He was co-publisher of All-American Publications, a seminal comic-book company that introduced such enduring fictional characters as Green LanternWonder Woman and Hawkman. He went on to found Educational Comics, producing the series Picture Stories from the Bible. He authored one of the earliest essays on comic books, a 1942 pamphlet titled Narrative Illustration, The Story of the Comics."

"In 1938, Gaines and Jack Liebowitz began publishing comics with original material under the name "All-American Publications". At the time, Liebowitz was the co-owner with Harry Donenfeld of National Allied Publications, the precursor company to DC Comics, and Donenfeld financed Gaines' creation of All-American. All-American published several superhero/adventure anthologies such as All-American Comics and Flash Comics, as well as other titles. For a time, All-American and National shared marketing and promotional efforts as well as characters. Several of National's characters (Starman, Doctor Fate, The Spectre) appeared alongside All-American's Green Lantern, Wonder Woman and Hawkman in that company's successful All Star Comics."

"Gaines' relationship with Donenfeld and National waxed and waned over the years. By the early 1940s, the All-American titles were branded separately and no longer featured National-owned characters. In 1944, Donenfeld bought out Gaines and merged National and All-American into a single company."



Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's Washington DC Comics, Publisher of Wonder Woman Comic Books

Modern cartoon characters are the heroes and heroines, the gods and goddesses, of a modern mainstream commercial religion.

"DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., a division of Time Warner. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, and produces material featuring numerous well-known heroic characters including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, Aquaman, Black Canary, Hawkman, Supergirl, Hawkgirl, Green Arrow, Martian Manhunter, Cyborg, Static, Zatanna, and Shazam." 

"Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934. The company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics#1 (Dec. 1935), appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with slightly larger dimensions than today's. That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering.  In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, who is the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe.

Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, eventually premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date. The themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27 (May 1939). By then, however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who also published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, and he was forced out. Shortly afterward, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied, also known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. 

Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1 (June 1938), the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit. The company quickly introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman.

On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 (June 1938) sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year."



Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson: Major Tales That Seem Comically Tall

"Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson (January 4, 1890[1] or January 7, 1890[2] – 1965)[3] was an American pulp magazine writer and entrepreneur who pioneered the American comic book, publishing the first such periodical consisting solely of original material rather than reprints of newspaper comic strips. Long after his departure from the comic book company he founded, Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publications would evolve into DC Comics, one of the U.S.'s two largest comic book publishers along with rival Marvel Comics. He was a 2008 Judges' Choice inductee into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame."

"Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson was born in Greeneville, Tennessee. His father, whose surname was Strain, died in 1894, after the birth of his second son, Malcolm's brother Christopher.[6] Another sibling, a sister, died in 1894, when Malcolm was four. "

"Their mother, Antoinette Wheeler, afterward moved to New York City, became a journalist, and later joined a start-up women's magazine[1] in Portland, Oregon.[6] By this time she had changed her last name to "Straham", a variant of "Strain", and upon marrying teacher T. J. B. Nicholson, who would become the boys' stepfather, reverted to her maiden name and appended her new married name. The brothers were raised in "an iconoclastic, intellectual household" where his family entertained such guests as Theodore Roosevelt and Rudyard Kipling."

"Wheeler-Nicholson spent his boyhood both in Portland and on a horse ranch in Washington State. Raised riding horses, he went on to attend the military academy The Manlius School in DeWitt, New York, and in 1917 joined the U.S. Cavalry[9] as a second-lieutenant. "

"According to differing sources, he rose to become either "the youngest major in the Army" the youngest in the Cavalry, or one of the youngest in the Cavalry."

"By his account, he "chased bandits on the Mexican border, fought fevers and played polo in the Philippines, led a battalion of infantry against the Bolsheviki in Siberia, helped straighten out the affairs of the army in France [and] commanded the headquarters cavalry of the American force in the Rhine".[12] His Cavalry unit was among those under John J. Pershing's command that in 1916 huntedthe Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.[9] The following year, he served under Pershing fighting the Muslim Moros in the Philippines, and served with a Cossack troop in Siberia.[9] Subsequent outposts included Japan; London, England; and Germany.[13] After World War I, Wheeler-Nicholson was sent to study at Saint-Cyr in Paris, France."

"The major's public criticism of Army command in a New York Times open letter to President Warren G. Harding,[8] and his accusations against senior officers, led to countercharges, hearings, and a lawsuit against West Point Superintendent General Fred W. Sladen. As well, a shooting that his family called an Army-sanctioned assassination attempt left Wheeler-Nicholson hospitalized with a bullet wound.[8][14][15] Following this, Wheeler-Nicholson in June 1922 was convicted in a court-martial trial of violating the 96th Article of War in publishing the open letter.[16][17] Although he was not demoted, his career was dead-ended.[18] He resigned his commission in 1923.[16] His $100,000 lawsuit against Sladen was dismissed by the New York State Supreme Court the following year."