Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign

The Rosetta Stone

"The stone was discovered in July 1799, one year after the French had arrived in Egypt. Captain François-Xavier Bouchard, an engineer and officer in Napoleon’s Egyptian army, was in charge of the demolition of an ancient wall in the city of Rosetta on a branch of the Nile, a few miles from the sea. The Rosetta Stone was built into the wall, but Bouchard recognized that the stone might make it possible to decipher hieroglyphics. So he saved it, and the stone was taken to the scientists in Cairo in mid-August 1799."

"The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Ottoman Egypt and Ottoman Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region. It was the primary purpose of the Mediterranean campaign of 1798, a series of naval engagements that included the capture of Malta.

On the scientific front, the expedition eventually led to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, creating the field of Egyptology. Despite many decisive victories and an initially successful expedition into Syria, Napoleon and his Armée d'Orient were eventually forced to withdraw, after sowing political disharmony in France, experiencing conflict in Europe, and suffering the defeat of the supporting French fleet at the Battle of the Nile."

"Jean-François Champollion (Champollion le jeune; 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology. A child prodigy in philology, he gave his first public paper on the decipherment of Demotic in 1806, and already as a young man held many posts of honor in scientific circles, and spoke Coptic and Arabicfluently. During the early 19th-century French culture experienced a period of 'Egyptomania', brought on by Napoleon's discoveries in Egypt during his campaign there (1797–1801) which also brought to light the trilingual Rosetta Stone. Scholars debated the age of Egyptian civilization and the function and nature of hieroglyphic script, which language if any it recorded, and the degree to which the signs were phonetic (representing speech sounds) or ideographic (recording semantic concepts directly). Many thought that the script was only used for sacred and ritual functions, and that as such it was unlikely to be decipherable since it was tied to esoteric and philosophical ideas, and did not record historical information. The significance of Champollion's decipherment was that he showed these assumptions to be wrong, and made it possible to begin to retrieve many kinds of information recorded by the ancient Egyptians."

source: The Rosetta Stone - Napoleon and the Scientific Expedition to Egypt ...  •  French campaign in Egypt and Syria - Wikipedia  •  Jean-François Champollion - Wikipedia

Could Ancient Egypt Be Just An Earlier Form of Disneyland?

Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign  source: Cpl. Gadway USMC

Napoleon The Freemason Takes An Entourage of Artists & Architects To Egypt

"Freemasonry first appeared in Egypt in around 1798, introduced by French Masons in Napoleon’s conquering armies. We do not know if Napoleon was a Freemason but he certainly used the Craft to befriend the people by first showing every respect for their religion and then mixing with them socially in an international brotherhood. He wasted no time in flooding the country with circulars about respecting the Moslem religion and in founding the Isis Lodge, into which several eminent people were initiated.

The name “Isis” was adopted after the mysterious rites of the Priests of Isis, sister and wife of Osiris, a prominent figure in Egyptian mythology. It practised the so-called “Memphis Rite”, named after the place where the fraternity of priests met and which was the great school of wisdom and mysteries of the Egyptians. There appears to be no historical warrant for this rite which claimed to continue the hermetic and spiritual teachings of the ancient Egyptians. The rite is known to have practised some 90 degrees, each with their respective secrets and ceremonies.

Isis Lodge appears to have prospered under its first Master, General Kleber, until he was murdered in 1800. At this time, following the withdrawal of the French, Freemasonry seems to have lost its popularity or gone underground. In 1830, some Italians formed the Carbonari Lodge in Alexandria. This Lodge was altogether political and, as its activities were closely watched by the Government, its meetings were held in complete secrecy. It proved popular, however, and a further Lodge, “Menes”, working the Memphis Rite, was founded which also prospered. One of the most active members, a Samuel Honnis (sometimes spelled Hanas), a Memphis Rite Freemason, founded a number of French Lodges in Alexandria, Ismailia, Port Said, Suez and Cairo, including the Al Ahram in Alexandria in 1845. 

This was “recognized” by the Government and many senior officials were initiated into it, including the famous Emir Abd el Gazairi, who fought the French in Algeria and, whilst exiled in Syria, gave refuge to and saved hundreds of Christian families during the Damascus massacres. Another famous Initiate was Salvatore Zola who became Grand Master of the Grand Orient and Grand Lodge of Egypt. He also founded the first Italian Lodge to work the Scottish Rite in Alexandria in 1849.."

source: Masonic High Council of Egypt

"Napoleon On The Nile: Soldiers, Artists, And The Rediscovery Of Egypt"

"General Napoleon Bonaparte’s Egyptian campaign (1798-1801) was not a military triumph. It was profoundly successful, however, as a cultural expedition, resulting in the publication of the encyclopedic Description de l’Egypte (1809-28). Containing more than eight hundred engravings, this unprecedented scholarly achievement, the work of one hundred and fifty scholars Napoleon brought to Egypt, is considered the foundational work of modern Egyptology, exhaustively portraying virtually every aspect of the country, ancient and modern. Napoleon on the Nile: Soldiers, Artists, and the Rediscovery of Egypt brings together more than eighty engravings from the Description de l’Egypte, vivid Orientalist paintings and decorative objects influenced by them, and a selection of campaign letters and documents to explore the profound legacy of the French occupation of Egypt and how the interaction between military power and scientific knowledge shaped the West’s enduring image of that country."

source: Napoleon On The Nile: Soldiers, Artists, And The Rediscovery Of Egypt

Freemasonic Origins of Egyptology

"Was Napoleon Bonaparte a member of the Masonic Brotherhood? Multiple hypotheses have been advanced on the subject, and although the probability is high, it has never been definitely established that he was made a Freemason, either in Valence (French Department Drome), Marseille, Nancy ("St. John of Jerusalem" Lodge, December 3, 1797?), Malta, Egypt or elsewhere.

What is certain is that members of the expedition he commanded during the Egyptian campaign brought the Freemasonry to the banks of the Nile. General Kleber founded the "Isis" Lodge in Cairo (was Bonaparte a co-founder?), while Brothers Gaspard Monge (member, among others, of the "Perfect Union" Military Lodge, Mezieres) and Dominique Vivant Denon (a member of Sophisians, "The Perfect Meeting" Lodge, Paris) were among the scholars who would make this strategic and military setback a success that the young General Bonaparte would exploit upon his return to France."


Dominique Vivant:

First Director of the Louvre museum, founded modern Egyptology

"Dominique Vivant, Baron Denon (4 January 1747 – 27 April 1825) was a French artist, writer, diplomat, author, and archaeologist. He was appointed as the first Director of the Louvre museum by Napoleon after the Egyptian campaign of 1798–1801, and is commemorated in the Denon Wing of the modern museum."

"His two-volume Voyage dans la basse et la haute Egypte ("Journey in Lower and Upper Egypt"), 1802, was the foundation of modern Egyptology."

source: Vivant Denon - Wikipedia

"Napoleonic Wars accounted for the dissemination of the 'Society' "

"Adapting the Big Bang theory to Freemasonry, we discover how the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic Wars accounted for the dissemination of the 'Society' outside its known borders. Which is why, by the late 19th century, Masonic lodges were scattered across the Ottoman Empire, from Constantinople where Young Turks were beguiled by the secretive brotherhood, to Greater Syria and Egypt where emerging nationalists aped their European assailant in their inherent opposition to autocratic authority.

In Egypt, Freemasonry imploded into feuding camps: Anglo-Saxon and French, ostensibly reflecting the dual imperialistic control--military and cultural-- which had entrenched itself along the Nile Valley."


"It is not an easy task to unite the efforts of the human race toward the accomplishment of any common good."

Manly P. Hall

source: The Secret Destiny Of America (1944, by Manly P. Hall) : Free ...


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