Podcast Episode Space

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"The two inferior planets, Mercury and Venus, which have orbits that are smaller than the Earth's, exhibit the full range of phases as does the Moon, when seen through a telescope. Their phases are "full" when they are at superior conjunction, on the far side of the Sun as seen from the Earth."

COMPARE:

"The superior planets, orbiting outside the Earth's orbit, do not exhibit the full range of phases as they appear almost always as gibbous or full. However, Mars often appears significantly gibbous, when it is illuminated by the Sun at a very different angle than it is seen by an observer on Earth, so an observer on Mars would see the Sun and the Earth widely separated in the sky. This effect is not easily noticeable for the giant planets, from Jupiter outward, since they are so far away that the Sun and the Earth, as seen from these outer planets, would appear to be in almost the same direction."

source: Planetary phase - Wikipedia

Focusing on the model and not on the natural phenomena is the key to heliocentric deception.

"Their phases are "full" when they are at superior conjunction, on the far side of the Sun as seen from the Earth. (It is possible to see them at these times, since their orbits are not exactly in the plane of Earth's orbit, so they usually appear to pass slightly above or below the Sun in the sky. Seeing them from the Earth's surface is difficult, because of sunlight scattered in Earth's atmosphere, but observers in space can see them easily if direct sunlight is blocked from reaching the observer's eyes.)"

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_phase#Inferior_planets

"Venus will pass very close to the Sun in the sky as its orbit carries it around the far side of the solar system from the Earth. This occurs once in every synodic cycle of the planet (584 days), and marks the end of Venus's apparition in the morning sky and its transition to become an evening object over the next few weeks. At closest approach, Venus will appear at a separation of only 0°46' from the Sun, making it totally unobservable for several weeks while it is lost in the Sun's glare."

source: Venus at superior solar conjunction - In-The-Sky.org

Galileo fibbed, he could not have seen a fully illuminated planet Venus as adverted, it is impossible.

"The two inferior planetsMercury and Venus, which have orbits that are smaller than the Earth's, exhibit the full range of phases as does the Moon, when seen through a telescope. Their phases are "full" when they are at superior conjunction, on the far side of the Sun as seen from the Earth. (It is possible to see them at these times, since their orbits are not exactly in the plane of Earth's orbit, so they usually appear to pass slightly above or below the Sun in the sky. Seeing them from the Earth's surface is difficult, because of sunlight scattered in Earth's atmosphere, but observers in space can see them easily if direct sunlight is blocked from reaching the observer's eyes.) The planets' phases are "new" when they are at inferior conjunction, passing more or less between the Sun and the Earth. (Sometimes they appear to cross the solar disk, which is called a transit of the planet.) At intermediate points on their orbits, these planets exhibit the full range of crescent and gibbous phases."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_phase#Inferior_planets


COMPARE THE PHASES OF VENUS TO THE PHASES OF THE MOON AND CONSIDER THE PHENOMENA TERMED "EARTH SHINE":

"Earthlight is the dim illumination of the otherwise dark side of the Moon by sunlight reflected from Earth's surface and clouds. It is also known as earthshine ( see also planetshine) or the Moon's ashen glow. Earthlight on a waxing crescent is called "the old Moon in the new Moon's arms", while that on a waning crescent is ..."

"This phenomenon is most visible from Earth at night (or astronomical twilight) a few days before or after the day of new moon, when the lunar phase is a thin crescent. On these nights, the entire lunar disk is both directly and indirectly sunlit, and is thus unevenly bright enough to see. Earthlight on a waxing crescent Moon is most clearly seen in the western sky after dusk, while that on a waning crescent Moon in the eastern sky before dawn."

source: Earthlight (astronomy) - Wikipedia

The Phases of The Moon Compared To The Phases of Venus

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Earth shine source: Google image search

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"Diagram of the orbit of Venus in relationship to the Earth, observed by Galileo Galilei in 1610."

image and quote source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phases_of_Venus#/media/File:Phases-of-Venus.svg

Venus is "...bright enough to cast shadows at night and, rarely, visible to the naked eye in broad daylight."

"Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east). It does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. It is the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6 – bright enough to cast shadows at night and, rarely, visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Orbiting within Earth's orbit, Venus is an inferior planet and never appears to venture far from the Sun; its maximum angular distance from the Sun (elongation) is 47.8°."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus

Please note how Venus is compared to the Moon which is thought to be between the Earth and the Sun in both Ptolemaic geocentric based modeling and in the heliocentric based modeling of the cosmos. Please note too, the obvious misdirection in this regard as well as the assumption that these are physical bodies literally illuminated by the Sun, not a safe assumption at all.

"The phases of the planet Venus are the different variations of lighting seen on the planet's surface, similar to lunar phases. The first recorded observations of them were telescopic observations by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Although the extreme crescent phase of Venus has been observed with the naked eyes, there are no indisputable historical pre-telescopic records of it being observed."

"The first known observations of the full planetary phases of Venus were by Galileo at the end of 1610 (though not published until 1613 in the Letters on Sunspots). Using a telescope, Galileo was able to observe Venus going through a full set of phases, something prohibited by the Ptolemaic system. (The Ptolemaic system would never allow Venus to be fully lit from the perspective of the Earth, as this would require it to be on the far side of the sun, which is impossible if Venus's orbit in its entirety is between the Earth and the sun, as the Ptolemaic system requires[3]). This observation essentially ruled out the Ptolemaic system, and was compatible only with the Copernican system and the Tychonic system and other geoheliocentric models such as the Capellan and Riccioli's extended Capellan model."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phases_of_Venus

EXCEPT WE CANNOT SEE A FULL VENUS LIKE WE CAN WITH THE FULL MOON.

WE ARE ONLY SUPPOSED TO CONSIDER ONE NARROW INTERPRETATION OF OBSERVATION REALITY BASED ON WHAT CAN PERHAPS BEST BE DESCRIBED AS HELIOCENTRIC DERIVED DOGMA.

Galileo's Many Mistakes...

"In the Letters on Sunspots Galileo responded to claims by Scheiner about the phases of Venus, which were an important question in the astronomy of the time. There were different schools of thought about whether Venus had phases at all - to the naked eye, none were visible.[43] In 1610, using his telescope, Galileo had discovered in that Venus, like the moon, had a full set of phases,[44] but only in Letters on Sunspots did he commit this finding to publication. The fact that there was a full phase of Venus, (similar to a full moon) when Venus was in the same direction in the sky as the Sun meant that at a certain point in its orbit, Venus was on the other side of the Sun to the Earth. This indicated that Venus went around the Sun, and not around the earth. This provided important evidence in support of the Copernican model of the universe."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letters_on_Sunspots#Phases_of_Venus

VENUS WAS SUPPOSED TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MORNING AND EVENING STARS

This being the case, why does the criticism of the model of Ptolemy ignore this idea?

THE CRITICISM OF THE MODEL OF PTOLEMY IS INVALID FOR MANY REASONS

"As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth. In the planetarium projector, motors and gears provide uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. One motor moves the planet projector around in a big circle, which in this case is the deferent, and another gear or motor takes the place of the epicycle."

source: http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/EveningStar/Unit2/unit2_sub1.htm

Only a model: It is not logical to confuse the mathematical model with natural reality.

"As a geometrician of the first order, Ptolemy performed important work in mathematics. He devised new geometrical proofs and theorems; and, in a book entitled Analemma (Greek Peri analemmatos; Latin De analemmate), he discussed the details of the projection of points on the celestial sphere (an imaginary sphere extending outward from the Earth for an infinite distance and on whose surface the objects in space appear to be located) onto three planes at right angles (90) to each other--the horizon, the meridian, and the prime vertical. In another book, the Planisphaerium, Ptolemy is concerned with stereographic projection--the delineation of the forms of solid bodies on a plane--and here he used the south celestial pole as his center of projection."

source: http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/ptolemy.html

The primary reason being it is a model of the natural phenomena of the rising and setting lights in the sky.

The second fallacy is the idea that the model of Ptolemy did not get Venus right - as if that matters - the original heliocentric model is so flawed that we end up with the ad hoc pathcwork of today's cosmology - we would never have heard of Einstein if Newton had it right, Newton would not be known if Kepler was correct and we'd have no need for Kepler if the ideas of Copernicus were clear minded.

SOLUTION: Move Venus and retain Ptolemaic system- the misdirection of heliocentric apologetics involves getting us to focus on the model and not the observable phenomena. Venus rises and sets in time relative to the Sun and this can be modeled with a motionless Earth based model - even taking into account Galileo's supposed observations. Considering too that the Moon is supposed to be between Sun and Earth in both modern and original heliocentric and even in the Ptolemaic model - which was never confused with reality - the Ptolemaic model was meant to mathematically describe natural light phenomena best described as alchemical or electrochemical in nature IE primary Natural light.


Galileo would not be able to see a full Venus. No matter which model were correct.

"Venus will pass very close to the Sun in the sky as its orbit carries it around the far side of the solar system from the Earth. This occurs once in every synodic cycle of the planet (584 days), and marks the end of Venus's apparition in the morning sky and its transition to become an evening object over the next few weeks. At closest approach, Venus will appear at a separation of only 0°46' from the Sun, making it totally unobservable for several weeks while it is lost in the Sun's glare."

"Venus will also pass apogee – the time when it is most distant from the Earth – at around the same time, since it will lie exactly opposite to the Earth in the Solar System. It will move to a distance of 1.71 AU from the Earth, making it appear small and very distant. If it could be observed, it would measure 9.8 arcsec in diameter, whilst appearing completely illuminated."

source: Venus at superior solar conjunction - In-The-Sky.org

Venus As The “Morning Star” And “Evening Star”

"Like Mercury, Venus is a so-called inferior planet, which means its orbit lies inside the orbit of Earth. That has implications for us Earthbound stargazers. For one, it means Venus and Mercury never stray far east or west of the Sun. Venus, for example, always lies within 47.8o of the Sun and either rises before the Sun in the east, when it is called the “morning star”, or sets after the Sun in the west, when it is called the “evening star”. As Earth and Venus make their way around the Sun, speedier Venus will sometimes pass between the Earth and Sun, a position known as inferior conjunction, when the planet is lost in the Sun’s glare. It then moves westward into the morning sky, rising higher each week until it reaches greatest western elongation. It then appears to move back towards the Sun and, when it passes behind the Sun, or nearly so, reaches superior conjunction. Once again, it’s lost in the Sun’s glare. Then it appears again in the evening sky, rising and moving eastward each week until it reaches greatest eastern elongation. It then moves back towards the Sun and repeats the whole process. It takes Venus 224.7 days to move around the Sun, but because of the motion of the Earth, it takes about 584 days for Venus to move through one complete cycle from one inferior conjunction to the next."

"The image below shows the relative positions of Venus to Earth and will help you visualize its position and motion in our skies."

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"Following superior conjunction on January 9th 2018 (when it passes directly behind the Sun in central Sagittarius) Venus moves into Capricornus, the Sea-Goat,, on January 17th. The planet emerges into the dusk sky in early February 2018 as an 'Evening Star', low down in the WSW soon after sunset. Observers at Equatorial latitudes are the first to see it, with Tropical and mid-Northern/Southern latitudes viewing the planet about a week or so later. At mid-Southern latitudes, low altitude (angle above the horizon) and twilight delay the first appearance of the planet until around early March. When it first appears in the dusk sky the planet is moving steadily North-eastwards along the ecliptic (the apparent path of the Sun, Moon and planets), pulling away from the Sun at a rate of about 0°.25 per day."

source: The Position of Venus in the Night Sky: 2018 Evening Apparition

The Phases Of Venus

"Despite its nearness, brightness, and large apparent size, Venus reveals little detail to telescopic observers. But because it’s inside the orbit of Earth, the planet does appear to cycle through phases much like the Moon. The image below shows the geometry that leads to the phases. When Venus, for example, lies on the far side of the Sun from Earth, the planet is fully illuminated from our point of view. But its disk is small, just 10″ across, because the planet is nearly 300 million kilometers away.  When Venus is almost closest to Earth, just adjacent to the Sun in our sky, it’s about 50-60 million kilometers away. That’s when it appears as a slender crescent with a disk 40″-50″ across, about as apparently large as the planet Jupiter.  In between these extremes, the planet can appear half-lit, like the first-quarter Moon, and in various gibbous phases as it cycles through its 584 day period.  Venus appears brightest in the crescent phase because, although it is only partly illuminated, it is much closer to Earth so the total visible surface area is larger than when the planet is fully illuminated."

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images and quotes source: A Brief Guide to Observing the Planet Venus – Cosmic Pursuits

 

PHASES OF VENUS OR THE MOON ARE SuGGESTIvE OF THE FOUR QUADRANT ALTERNATING CURRENT THEORY

Coming and going matter. The difference between two "poles" and four.

The ionized atmosphere suggests electrochemical explanations as was once accepted - in terms of Aristotle and pre Royal Society and Jesuit sold educational university catechism.

 

Like with so-called retrograde motion, the phases of Venus concept relies on us ignoring what we would actually observe.

We observe the light in the skies rise and set with varying timing and positions. The Sun, Moon and planets all exhibit the same exact type of motions relative to the background of the aptly named Fixed Stars,

This is another example of how the heliocentric based cosmos relies on misdirection and deception and illogic.

(Please note that virtual proof is no proof at all.)

"Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus virtually proved that the Earth was not the center of the universe."

"Nicholas Copernicus, a Polish scientist living about a century before Galileo, had already come up with the unorthodox idea that the Sun was at the center of the solar system. Galileo knew about and had accepted Copernicus's heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory.It was Galileo's observations of Venus that proved the theory. Using his telescope, Galileo found that Venus went through phases, just like our Moon. But, the nature of these phases could only be explained by Venus going around the Sun, not the Earth. Galileo concluded that Venus must travel around the Sun, passing at times behind and beyond it, rather than revolving directly around the Earth."

source: http://solar-center.stanford.edu/gal-challenge/gquiz6c.html

Electric Universe ideas about the tails of comets "points" the way.

Compare the phases of the Moon and the eclipses to the supposed planetary motions. The Moon is thought to orbit the Earth. Orbits are impossible. The rising and setting Moon is not like the falling apple and Newton's concept is weighted nonsense,

COMPARE TRANSIT OF VENUS TO ECLIPSE

Modern "Cosmology" is a secular religion.

"As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth. In the planetarium projector, motors and gears provide uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. One motor moves the planet projector around in a big circle, which in this case is the deferent, and another gear or motor takes the place of the epicycle."

source: http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/EveningStar/Unit2/unit2_sub1.htm

"Originally, the terms "morning star" and "evening star" applied only to the brightest planet of all, Venus. Far more dazzling than any of the actual stars in the sky, Venus does not appear to twinkle, but instead glows with a steady, silvery light. The fact that Venus was a "wandering star" soon became obvious to ancient skywatchers, who noticed its motion relative to the background stars, going from the eastern sky in the morning to the western sky in the early evening. Nicolas Camille Flammarion, a noted French astronomer in the late 19th and early 20th century, referred to Venus as "The Shepherd's Star." I myself like to refer to Venus as the "night light of the sky." So, it's easier to understand the origin of the terms "evening star" and "morning star" if we only considered Venus."

source: https://www.space.com/31851-what-is-morning-star-evening-star.html

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"...could not rule out the possibility that Venus shone by its own light..."

source: Galileo and the discovery of the phases of Venus - SAO/NASA ADS

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source: Galileo and the discovery of the phases of Venus - SAO/NASA ADS

Galileo was supposed to have discovered the phases of Venus that contradicted the Ptolemaic model.

The Ptolemaic model, from before the invention of the telescope would not and could not, logically take such phenomena into account.

"When Venus is at its brightest, it becomes visible just minutes after the Sun goes down. This is when Venus is seen as the Evening Star..."

"One of the nicknames of Venus is “the Morning Star”. It’s also known as the Evening Star. Of course, Venus isn’t a star at all, but a planet. So why does Venus have these nicknames? The orbit of Venus is inside the orbit of Earth. Unlike the outer planets, Venus is always relatively close to the Sun in the sky. When Venus is on one side of the Sun, it’s trailing the Sun in the sky and brightens into view shortly after the Sun sets, when the sky is dark enough for it to be visible. When Venus is at its brightest, it becomes visible just minutes after the Sun goes down. This is when Venus is seen as the Evening Star. When Venus is on the other side of the Sun, it leads the Sun as it travels across the sky. Venus will rise in the morning a few hours before the Sun. Then as the Sun rises, the sky brightens and Venus fades away in the daytime sky. This is Venus the Morning Star. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians thought that Venus was actually two separate objects, a morning star and an evening star. The Greeks called the morning star Phosphoros, “the bringer of light”; and they called the evening star Hesperos, “the star of the evening”. A few hundred years later, the Hellenistic Greeks realized that Venus was actually a single object."

source: https://www.universetoday.com/22570/venus-the-morning-star/

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source: Galileo and the discovery of the phases of Venus - SAO/NASA ADS

Astronomy or astrology - same superstitious idea - Reading the sky was always an interpretative art.

Why do we all have to follow the Dogma derived from what Galileo supposedly saw?

Venus the Evening and Morning star is witnessed rising and setting relative to the Sun in a manner that shows it speeds up and slows down as it rises and sets around the Earth. Like Mercury, Venus can never be seen in full cycle like other planets IE it is never seen at midnight in opposition to the Sun. This can easily be modeled with  the Ptolemaic system as a planetarium demonstrates. We can describe the apparent motions of the natural lights - the celestial phenomena as slowing down and speeding up.

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source: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2001JHA....32..109P

Why no other option?

How about the idea that the light in the sky termed Venus is actually next to the Sun?

Notice how we aren't supposed to consider the idea that the celestial; lights in the sky are not physical bodies and that the idea that the Sun is illuminating them is just that, an idea with no basis in reality.