A Proper Gander At Propaganda

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"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

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H.G. Wells Predicts The London Bombings in this 1936 film

Things to Come, by H.G. Wells has parallels to not only the subsequent London bombings, but also to the mythic Paris Gun story from World War One.

"Go home. Get out of the streets!" The public is instructed early on in this film. Here we see perhaps how an illusion can be created as no one is outside to see what is actaully happening. Much like the events of 9/11 and how anyone in their right mind would want to be as far away from "Ground Zero" as possible.

A Mythic Gun - An Original Paris Hoax

How Fiction and Fantasy Inspires So Called Historical "Fact"

Viaje a la Luna (Le Voyage dans la Lune) es una película francesa que se estrenó en 1902 suponiendo una revolución para la época. Su autor, Georges Méliès, fue el primer gran creador del cinematógrafo, el pionero en dotar a las primeras películas de un verdadero argumento.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Gun

The Paris Gun is explained best with these passages from wikipedia, please take special notice of the last one.

"The Paris Gun (German: Paris-Geschütz) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918. When the guns were first employed, Parisians believed they had been bombed by a high-altitude Zeppelin, as neither the sound of an aeroplane nor a gun could be heard. They were the largest pieces of artillery used during the war by barrel length if not caliber, and are considered to be superguns. The Paris Guns hold an important place in the history of astronautics, as their shells were the first man-made objects to reach the stratosphere[citation needed].

Also called the "Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz" ("Emperor William Gun"), they were often confused with Big Bertha, the German howitzer used against the Liège forts in 1914; indeed, the French called them by this name, as well.[Note 1] They were also confused with the smaller "Langer Max" (Long Max) cannon, from which they were derived; although the famous Krupp-family artillery makers produced all these guns, the resemblance ended there.

As military weapons, the Paris Guns were not a great success: the payload was minuscule, the barrel required frequent replacement and its accuracy was only good enough for city-sized targets. The German objective was to build a psychological weapon to attack the morale of the Parisians, not to destroy the city itself."

The Parisian citizens had no idea a gun was being fired at them. They were told this was so by the French authorities. The weapon is more legend than anything else.

"The Paris Gun was a weapon like no other, but its capabilities are not known with full certainty. This is due to the weapon's apparent total destruction by the Germans in the face of the Allied offensive. Figures stated for the weapon's size, range, and performance varied widely depending on the source — not even the number of shells fired is certain. "

Then there's this, how the Germans did not comply with the treaty:

"Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the Germans were required to turn over a complete Paris Gun to the Allies, but they never complied with this.[9]

"In the 1930s, the German Army became interested in rockets for long range artillery as a replacement for the Paris Gun—which was specifically banned under the Versailles Treaty. This work would eventually lead to the V-2 rocket that was used in World War II."

"The Ghost Army was a United States Army tactical deception unit during World War IIofficially known as the 23rd Headquarters Special Troops.[1] The 1,100-man unit was given a unique mission within the U.S Army: to impersonate other U.S. Army units to deceive the enemy. From a few weeks after D-Day, when they landed in France, until the end of the war, they put on a "traveling road show" utilizing inflatable tankssound trucks, fake radio transmissions and pretence. They staged more than 20 battlefield deceptions, often operating very close to the front lines. Their story was kept secret for more than 40 years after the war, and elements of it remain classified.[2] The unit was the subject of a PBS documentary The Ghost Army in 2013."

"Ghost soldiers were encouraged to use their brains and talent to mislead, deceive and befuddle the German Army. Many were recruited from art schoolsadvertising agencies and other venues that encourage creative thinking. In civilian life, ghost soldiers had been artists,[4] architectsactors, set designers and engineers.[5]

Although the 23rd Headquarters Special Troops consisted of only 1,100 soldiers, the contingent used equipment pioneered by British forces such as dummy tanks and artillery, fake aircraft and giant speakers broadcasting the sounds of men and artillery to make the Germans think it was upwards of a two-division 30,000 man force. The unit's elaborate ruses helped deflect German units from the locations of larger allied combat units.

The unit consisted of the 406th Combat Engineers (which handled security), the 603rd Camouflage Engineers, the 3132 Signal Service Company Special and the Signal Company Special."

The visual deception arm of the Ghost Army was the 603rd Camouflage Engineers. It was equipped with inflatable tanks,[6] cannons, jeeps, trucks, and airplanes that the men would inflate with air compressors, and then camouflage imperfectly so that enemy air reconnaissance could see them. They could create dummy airfields, troop bivouacs (complete with fake laundry hanging out on clotheslines), motor pools, artillery batteries, and tank formations in a few hours. Many of the men in this unit were artists, recruited from New York and Philadelphia art schools. Their unit became an incubator for young artists who sketched and painted their way through Europe. Several of these soldier-artists went on to have a major impact on art in the post-war US. Bill Blass,[7] Ellsworth Kelly, wildlife artist Arthur Singer, and Art Kane were among the many artists who served in the 603rd.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_Army
To complement existing techniques, the unit often employed theatrical effects to supplement the other deceptions. Collectively called “atmosphere”,[8] these included simulating actual units deployed elsewhere by the application of their divisional insignia, painting appropriate unit insignia on vehicles and having the individual companies deployed as if they were regimental headquarters units. Trucks/Lorries would be driven in looping convoys with just two troops in the seats near the rear, to simulate a truck full of infantry under the canvas cover. “MP’s” (Military Police) would be deployed at cross roads wearing appropriate divisional insignia and some officers would simulate divisional generals and staff officers visiting towns where enemy agents were likely to see them. A few actual tanks and artillery pieces were occasionally assigned to the unit to make the “dummies” in the distance appear more realistic.

Looping Convoys Compared to Looping People

Here's the original footage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX2ITHV6k-U If you pay attention to what is really going on around the Sandy Hook Firehouse- People are walking in circles, out one door, in the other, over and over again. They also walk all the way around the firehouse, only to enter through another door.
The 3132 Signal Service Company Special handled sonic deception. The unit coalesced under the direction of Colonel Hilton Railey, a colorful figure who, before the war, had “discovered” Amelia Earhart and sent her on her road to fame.
Aided by engineers from Bell Labs, a team from the 3132 went to Fort Knox to record sounds of armored and infantry units onto a series of sound effects records that they brought to Europe. For each deception, sounds could be “mixed” to match the scenario they wanted the enemy to believe. This program was recorded on state-of-the-art wire recorders (the predecessor to the tape recorder), and then played back with powerful amplifiers and speakers mounted on halftracks. The sounds they played could be heard 15 miles (24 km) away.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_Army

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Things_to_Come

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Gun

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2_rocket

“The idea of atomic energy is illusionary but it has taken so powerful a hold on the minds, that although I have preached against it for twenty-five years, there are still some who believe it to be realizable.”
― Nikola Tesla

The World Set Free

"Wells's knowledge of atomic physics came from reading William Ramsay, Ernest Rutherford, and Frederick Soddy; the last discovered the disintegration of uranium. Soddy's book Wealth, Virtual Wealth and Debt praises The World Set Free. Wells's novel may even have influenced the development of nuclear weapons, as the physicist Leó Szilárd read the book in 1932, the same year the neutron was discovered. In 1933 Szilárd conceived the idea of neutron chain reaction, and filed for patents on it in 1934."

"The World Set Free is a novel written in 1913 and published in 1914 by H. G. Wells.[1] The book is based on a prediction of nuclear weapons of a more destructive and uncontrollable sort than the world has yet seen.[2][3][4] It had appeared first in serialised form with a different ending as A Prophetic Trilogy, consisting of three books: A Trap to Catch the SunThe Last War in the Worldand The World Set Free."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_Set_Free

"Pierre Curie had measured the energy which is spontaneously and continuously produced by radium. To explain this phenomenon he suggested either that radium captured and re-emitted energy from outer space, or that it was due to a continuous and profound modification of the radium atom. He concluded that if the latter hypothesis was valid, 'the energy involved in the transformation of the atom is considerable'.  

"Rutherford and Soddy later confirmed this conclusion, and Soddy became the first to popularizevisions of the good or evil which could result from harnessing the forces present in the heart of matter. He contrasted rose-coloured visions of the creation of paradise on earth and the eradication of deserts and ice-caps, thanks to unlimited resources of cheap energy, with dark nightmares of the destruction of cities and civilization under a hail of radioactive bombs. Sometimes the one followed the other and a happy and united world emerged from the ruins of war, a scenario which inspired the science fiction writer HG Wells in his novel The World Set Free, written in 1913."

"In this novel, full of astonishing predictions, Wells is the first to speak of 'atomic bombs', which are used in a European conflict set in 1956 called 'The Last War', followed by a peace conference, set at Lake Maggiore in Italy, where a new world is organized in which humanity enjoys in everlasting peace the many benefits of atomic energy. 

 

"At the start of the book, a university professor gives the following explanation to his pupils. 

'This little box contains about a pint of uranium oxide; that is to say about fourteen ounces of the element uranium. It is worth a pound. And in this bottle, ladies and gentlemen, in the atoms in this bottle there slumbers at least as much energy as we could get by burning a hundred and sixty tons of coal. If at a word, in one instant, I could suddenly release that energy here and now it would blow us and everything about us to fragments; if I could turn it into the machinery that lights this city, it could keep Edinburgh brightly lit for a week. But at present no man has an inkling of how this little lump of stuff can be made to hasten the release of its store.' "

From the paper Uranium's Scientific History 1789 - 1939 presented by Dr. Bertrand Goldschmidt at the Uranium Institute in London, September 1989.

Led ZEPPED!!!

"Zepped is a 1916 propaganda comedy[1] short film about a German Zeppelin attack on London during the First World WarCharlie Chaplin appears in the film, although it is unlikely he himself was involved in the production;[3] Zepped uses previously unknown outtakes of three[3] or four[1] earlier Chaplin films: His New Profession (1914), A Jitney Elopement (1915) and The Tramp (1915), and according to Bonhams, also By the Sea (1915). Another notable feature is the very early use of stop-motion animation.[1]

The only known copy was unknowingly purchased by Morace Park, who bought an old film reel tin on eBay for £3.20 (about $5) in September 2009 and found the nitrate film inside.[1][2][3] He put it up for auction in June 2011 with Bonhams, but the sole bid did not reach the reserve price of £100,000 ($160,000).[2][3]

Although the owner discovered a 1917 advertisement in the Manchester Film Renter announcing a trade viewing, it may only have been shown in Egypt.[1]An October 1917 entry in the British Board of Film Censorship's Ledgers says it was "For Export Only", and a Ministry of Interior film censorship certificate displayed at the beginning of the film states it was "Passed for Exhibition in Egypt"."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zepped

"The footage, recorded in 1916, features a Zeppelin raid over London and is thought to feature some of the earliest-known animation."

http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-13973098

The earliest examples of electronically guided model aircraft were hydrogen-filled model airships of the late 19th century. They were flown as a music hall act around theater auditoriums using a basic form of spark-emitted radio signal.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-controlled_aircraft#History
Movie Clip from Hell's Angels, 1930 by Howard Hughes.

“Crashing a Zeppelin for Fun

by DICK COLE

who gives you a look behind the scenes of the most spectacular air thriller ever made.

Jealously guarded secrets of the amazing Zeppelin crash in “Hell’s Angels” now revealed to Dick Cole by Howard Hughes, the producer of this spectacular movie.

“Wasn’t it marvelous! How in the world did they ever take it?”

Such exclamations and questions are heard on every side as a teeming crowd pours forth from a theater after seeing “Hell’s Angels” -—the outstanding aerial war picture of the day. And it is little wonder! For several hours the spectators have been soaring 10,000 feet above the earth in a huge, wartime Zeppelin, or they have been sky-riding in a giant bombing plane.

As on a magic carpet, the spectators are carried from the Zeppelin just before a heroic, Allied pilot—his machine-gun jammed—dives his plane into the gas bags of the airship. The aerial juggernaut comes hurtling out of the skies, a huge, flaming hulk; crashes to the earth with a deafening roar—-a twisted mass of glowing wreckage.

This is but one of the breath-taking scenes from “Hell’s Angels.” Again the puzzling question: “How in the world did they take it?”

Of course, anyone’s ordinary reasoning power tells one that it was not a full-size, man-carrying Zeppelin that fell from out the skies. But, to believe so, is no more erratic than to believe the know-it-all, wise guy, who tells you in tones of belittlement: “Huh! It was just faked! I know! That was just a toy balloon that they used.”

Both beliefs are wrong. It was done by scale model photography. This is not comparable at all to the crude miniature stuff that is injected from time to time in pictures, and which often changes a tragic situation into a comic farce. Nor are scale models employed solely to keep down production cost. The primary purpose is to put across a scene with greater realism and finer photographic values. The use of scale models should not imply belittlement.

Little Wars is a set of rules for playing with toy soldiers, written by H. G. Wells in 1913. Its full title is Little Wars: a game for boys from twelve years of age to one hundred and fifty and for that more intelligent sort of girl who likes boys’ games and books.

Little Wars included fairly simple rules for infantry, cavalry, and naval artillery in the form of a toy 4.7 inch gun that launched projectiles, usually small wooden dowels to knock down enemy soldiers. In addition to its being a war game, the book hints at several philosophical aspects of war.

The book is written in a whimsical style and illustrated with amusing drawings and photographs of a game being played that Wells describes in the book. Wells also gives a description of the game from the view of one of the generals in the battle bombastically relating his memoirs.

Development

The development of the game is explained and Wells’ thoughts on war, as he was known to be a pacifist, are revealed in his writing. According to Wells, the idea of the game developed from a visit by his friend Jerome K. Jerome. After dinner, Jerome began shooting down toy soldiers with a toy cannon and Wells joined in to compete. The two decided that with an addition of written rules, a good Kriegsspiel type game could be developed. The game revolved around the use of lead hollow cast soldiers made by W. Britain and battlefields made from whatever materials were on hand, usually blocks or other toys. Simple rules of movement, firing, and close combat were developed with a set amount of time for each player to move and fire. Wells also provides a chapter of “Extensions and Amplifications of Little War”. In an appendix, Wells provides “Little Wars and Kriegspiel”; more complex rules to be played in a larger space involving military logistics, military engineers, cavalry charges, and railway transport of troops.

Little Wars was first published in 1913 by Frank Palmer.[2] There have been numerous reprints and it is now available online at Project Gutenberg, along with a previous game book by Wells called Floor Games (1911). A 2004 edition of the book published by Skirmisher Publishing includes an introduction by game designer Michael O. Varhola and a foreword by Gary Gygax.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Wars
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat. This also serves the purpose of ensuring the combat readiness of garrisoned or deployable forces prior to deployment from home base / home station.

Exercises in the 20th and 21st centuries have often been identified by a unique codename in the same manner as military contingency operations and combat operations.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_exercise
A wargame (also war game) is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional. Wargaming is the hobby dedicated to the play of such games, which can also be called conflict simulations, or consims for short. When used professionally by the military to study warfare, “war game” may refer to a simple theoretical study or a full-scale military exercise. Hobby wargamers have traditionally used “wargame”, while the military has generally used “war game”; this is not a hard and fast rule. Although there may be disagreements as to whether a particular game qualifies as a wargame or not, a general consensus exists that all such games must explore and represent some feature or aspect of human behaviour directly bearing on the conduct of war, even if the game subject itself does not concern organized violent conflict or warfare.[1] Business wargames exist as well, but in general, they are only role-playing games based on market situations.

Wargames are generally categorized as historical, hypothetical, fantasy, or science fiction. Historical games by far form the largest group. These games are based upon real events and attempt to represent a reasonable approximation of the actual forces, terrain, and other material factors faced by the actual participants. Hypothetical games are games grounded in historical fact but concern battles or conflicts that did not (or have yet to) actually happen. Fantasy and science fiction wargames either draw their inspiration from works of fiction or provide their own imaginary setting. Highly stylized conflict games such as chess are not generally considered wargames, although they are recognized as being related.[citation needed] Games involving conflict in other arenas than the battlefield, such as business, sports or natural environment are similarly usually excluded.

The modern wargaming hobby has its origins at the beginning of the 19th century, with von Reiswitz’s Kriegsspiel rules. Later, H.G. Wells’ book Little Wars ushered in the age of miniatures games in which two or more players simulated a battle as a pastime. During the 1950s the first large-scale, mass-produced board games depicting military conflicts were published. These games were at the height of their popularity during the 1970s, and became quite complex and technical in that time.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wargaming
Drawing inspiration from chess, Hellwig, Master of Pages to the Duke of Brunswick, created a battle emulation game in 1780. According to Max Boot’s book War Made New (2006, pg 122), sometime between 1803 and 1809, the Prussian General Staff developed war games, with staff officers moving metal pieces around on a game table (with blue pieces representing their forces and red pieces those of the enemy), using dice rolls to indicate random chance and with a referee scoring the results. Increasingly realistic variations became part of military training in the 19th century in many nations, and were called Kriegsspiel or “wargame”. Wargames or military exercises remain an important part of military training today.


Modern wargaming originated with the military need to study warfare and to ‘reenact’ old battles for instructional purposes. The stunning Prussian victory over the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 is sometimes partly credited to the training of Prussian officers with the game Kriegsspiel, which was invented around 1811 and gained popularity with many officers in the Prussian army. These first wargames were played with dice which represented “friction”, or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war (including morale, weather, the fog of war, etc.), though this was usually replaced by an umpire who used his own combat experience to determine the results.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wargaming

World War Two Ear War Games

"In 1940 Fletcher Pratt's Naval War Game was first published. The game started in New York, but other clubs formed around the USA. Jack Coggins was invited by Pratt to participate, and recalled that Pratt's game involved dozens of tiny wooden ships—built to a scale of about one inch to 50 feet—spread over the living room floor of his apartment.

Their maneuvers and the results of their battles were calculated via a complex mathematical formula, with scale distances marked off with tape measures. The game's popularity grew and moved to using a ballroom for games with 60 or more players per side. The game was respected by the Naval War College and serving naval officers regularly participated in games. For an evaluation of the Fletcher Pratt Game versus reality see Chapter 10 of The Fletcher Pratt Naval Wargame book."

Are Wars Little More Than War Games?

“The first specific non-military wargame club was started in Oxford, England, in the 19th century.”[3] Naval enthusiast and analyst Fred T. Jane came up with a set of rules for depicting naval actions with the use of model ships, or miniatures around 1898 (Reprinted 2008). The 1905/6 edition of Jane’s Fighting Ships includes a revised edition for “The Naval War Game”.[4]

H.G. Wells’ books Floor Games (1911) and Little Wars (1913) were attempts to codify rules for fighting battles with toy soldiers (miniatures), and make them available to the general public. They were very simple games, and in some ways just provide a context for shooting spring-loaded toy cannons at toy soldiers, but “in his Appendix to Little Wars, Wells speaks of the changes required to convert his admittedly simplistic rules into a more rigorous Kriegspiel.”[5] However, Wells also states in his rules that combat “should be by actual gun and rifle fire and not by computation. Things should happen and not be decided,” in opposition to the general nature of Kriegspiel play.

In 1940 Fletcher Pratt’s Naval War Game was first published. The game started in New York, but other clubs formed around the USA. Jack Coggins was invited by Pratt to participate, and recalled that Pratt’s game involved dozens of tiny wooden ships—built to a scale of about one inch to 50 feet—spread over the living room floor of his apartment. Their maneuvers and the results of their battles were calculated via a complex mathematical formula, with scale distances marked off with tape measures.[6] The game’s popularity grew and moved to using a ballroom for games with 60 or more players per side.[7] The game was respected by the Naval War College and serving naval officers regularly participated in games[8] For an evaluation of the Fletcher Pratt Game versus reality see Chapter 10 of The Fletcher Pratt Naval Wargame book. link

All of these games were meant to be accessible to the general public, but actual play was made difficult owing to the expense of purchasing an army or navy’s worth of miniatures. As leisure time and disposable income generally rose through the 20th Century, miniatures games slowly gained a following. Most gaming groups informally wrote and/or revised their own rules, which were never published.
— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wargaming