**Pi is not 4. This is a sleight of hand "brain teaser" that simply confuses Geometry with Calculus.**

"The number **π** is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century, though it is also sometimes spelled out as "**pi**" (/paɪ/)."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi

"**Calculus** (from Latin *calculus*, literally "small pebble used for counting")[1] is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves),[2] and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves);[3] these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics[4] and can solve many problems that elementary algebraalone cannot."

"*Torque* is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. *Moment* is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which is called *torque* in physics).[4] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, results in a moment called a *torque*. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a *torque*. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a *torque*."

**WHY TURNING IS HARD**

“Why Turning Fast Is Hard

If Isaac Newton had been a racing fan (which I’m sure Sir Isaac would have been if had cars been invented in the 1600’s), he might have stated one of his laws this way:

A race car going straight down the backstretch at 180 mph will keep straight going down the backstretch at 180 mph — unless a net force makes it turn.

Race tracks are rarely circles, but as a first approximation, we can consider each turn to be part of a circle and model the turning of the racecar using uniform circular motion. Uniform circular motion basically means that the object is moving in a circle at constant speed.

If I tie a string to a tennis ball and swing it at constant speed in a circle of radius r over my head, the only reason the ball goes in a circle is because the string is constantly pulling it toward the center of a the circle. The string forces the ball to turn.

Just like the tennis ball, a turning car needs a force to make it turn. If you want the car to turn left, you have to exert a force to the left. At each point in the turning circle, the force that makes the car turn is perpendicular to the direction the car is moving, which makes the force always toward the center of the circle. This center-pointing force is called the centripetal force, and it depends on the mass of the car, the speed of the car and the turn radius of the track”

http://buildingspeed.org/blog/2013/04/20/why-turning-is-hard/

*Please excuse any typos you may encounter. Spell check is evil. We will correct them as we find them. Thank You. AAMorris Staff.*

Pi is not 4. Please Watch These Videos in Order:

An example of online pseudoscience below, pi is not 4, don't be silly.

This is a simple sleight of hand logical deception that is easily shown for what it is. The secret to the trick is the confusing of geometry with calculus. The former measures space like an area or volume and the latter measures a rate of change, like an acceleration. This video ignores demonstrable phenomena like torque. This is a piece of propaganda and absurdist at that. This is a cartoon mythic artifact and nothing more. The videos below the first clip demonstrate the fallacy here.

This is an old practice of the yellow journalist. The truth is yellow journalism is just a newer name for the long historical con job that is mythology. We recommend the work of Joseph Campbell. Mythology is the study of artifacts that comprise culture. Joseph Campbell probably knew the truth, that the works of artists and architects and musicians and so on, have always been in service to the royalty that really run the show. Here we have some modern mythology being promoted online. Like all good mythology, it is the stuff of the funny pages or cartoons.

**A very misleading video below.**

**Centripetal force, a demonstrable physical principle is ignored in favor of fantasy. **

**More force or energy is required to make a tighter turn. The greater the radius the less force required.**

**The ball in the loop requires more force to maintain the same velocity as the ball 'on the straight path'.**

The looped path means the ball is in a state of acceleration and would need to have some kind of force applied to it to enable it to maintain the speed it would have, had it gone on the straight path. This is no great mystery. This is simple logic and applied science.

**This is confusing geometry with calculus. This is comparing apples to moons, we mean oranges.**

**Trying To Fit The Square Peg Into The Round Hole - ***Apples And Oranges Incorrectly Compared*

**Below the trick is to focus on the perimeter of the imagined square and not the perimeter of the circle itself. This is another sleight of hand style, stage magic trick. This is nothing but an example of brainteaser nonsense passed off as some kind of paradox. Of course we can never 'repeat to infinity'. **** This is all an example of cartoonish reasoning. Pi is not 4. The perimeter of the square is 4. Playing around with the shape of the square in the manner we see below does not make the resulting polygon into a circle. A circle is drawn with a compass and not with an imagined infinite number of straight lines. **

**Welcome To The Royal Con Job We Call History and Cosmology**

**The beast is online and interactive and its minions are either witting or unwitting.**

Please notice how the Thunderbolts website acts as either a witting or unwitting minion of the 666 Pseudoscience Yellow Journal Beast. We can see clear controlled opposition and gatekeeping at work here. **The forums show us the truth as clear as day. The absurd and easily dismissed claim about pi = 4 and other cartoonish nonsense are approved topics of ‘conversation’. ****Such imaginative wanderings off into absurd science fantasy reasoned, with mathematically modeled silliness, are encouraged while questioning the foundational assumptions is not. **

**This is an example of the obtuse University indoctrinated reasoning and mark of the 666 Yellow Journal Minion.**

## Shepherding The Flock in The So-Called Modern Era

**The Thunderbolts website has a small amount of correct information that can be found amid a whole bunch of gatekeeping - neo-religion yellow journal nonsense. **

## Questioning the value of pi - which is absurd, is allowed, but questioning rockets working in a vacuum is not. Of course rockets do not work in vacuums, but whether they do or not, is not the point, the point is that it is interesting which subjects are allowed and which are not.

## The Electric Universe Website's Assumptions Mark It as a Yellow Journal Beast.

## This is another example of cartoonish comic strip 'Flash Gordon' reasoning.

**This is yellow journalism.**

The Rockets in Space thread gets locked. Logic and common sense and demonstrable physics shows us that a rocket cannot work in the infinite vacuum of space. The infinite vacuum means just that. The vacuum sucks the gas away before it can do any work. The vacuum is unimaginably larger than the volume of gas possessed by a rocket. In any case, no matter what one thinks of this subject, there is no reason to disallow this line of questioning while allowing others that are obviously fraudulent, unless one is unwittingly or wittingly playing shepherd.

# imaginative wanderings off into absurd science fantasy supported by mathematically modeled silliness, is encouraged and **even applauded**.

**while questioning the foundational assumptions is not.**

Joseph Campbell defines yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts (with large illustrations and perhaps color), heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation.[3]

**Frank Luther Mott defines yellow journalism in terms of five characteristics:**

**scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news****lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings****use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudoscience, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts****emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips****dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system.**