"North America" was Originally Known as Parias and "South America" was Called America
Origins of the New World Feudal Military Protections Wage Slave Trade and Racket Revealed
"The Waldseemüller map, Universalis Cosmographia, is a printed wall map of the world by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, originally published in April 1507. It is known as the first map to use the name "America". Its main map, and his globe gores of the same date, depict the American continents in two pieces. These depictions differ from the small inset map in the top border, which shows the two American continents joined by an isthmus. The name America is placed on what is now called South America on the main map, this being the first map known to use this name. As explained in Cosmographiae Introductio, the name was bestowed in honor of the Italian Amerigo Vespucci. The map is drafted on a modification of Ptolemy's second projection, expanded to accommodate the Americas and the high latitudes. A single copy of the map survives, presently housed at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Waldseemüller also created globe gores, printed maps designed to be cut out and pasted onto spheres to form globes of the Earth."
"At the time this wall map was drawn, Waldseemüller was working as part of the group of scholars of the Vosgean Gymnasium at Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in Lorraine, which in that time belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. The maps were accompanied by the book Cosmographiae Introductio produced by the Vosgean Gymnasium."
"The name for the northern land mass, Parias, is derived from a passage in the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, in which, after several stops, the expedition arrives at a region that was “situated in the torrid zone directly under the parallel which describes the Tropic of Cancer. And this province is called by them [the inhabitants] Parias”. Parias was described by Waldseemüller’s follower, Johannes Schöner as: “The island of Parias, which is not a part or portion of the foregoing [America] but a large, special part of the fourth part of the world”, indicating uncertainty as to its situation.
PARIAS and AMERICA, corresponding to North and South America, are separated by a strait in the region of the present Panama on the main map but on the miniature map inset into the upper-mid part of the main map the isthmus joining the two is unbroken, apparently demonstrating Waldseemüller's willingness to represent alternative solutions to a question yet unanswered.
The map shows the cities of Catigara (Kattigara) and Mallaqua (Malacca) on the western coast of the great peninsula that projects from the southeastern part of Asia, or INDIA MERIDIONALIS(Southern India) as Waldseemüller called it. This peninsula forms the eastern side of the SINUS MAGNUS ("Great Gulf"), the Gulf of Thailand. Amerigo Vespucci, writing of his 1499 voyage, said he had hoped to sail westward from Spain across the Western Ocean (the Atlantic) around the Cape of Cattigara mentioned by Ptolemy into the Sinus Magnus. Ptolemy understood Cattigara, or Kattigara, to be the most eastern port reached by shipping trading from the Graeco-Roman world to the lands of the Far East. Vespucci failed to find the Cape of Cattigara on his 1499 voyage: he sailed along the coast of Venezuela but not far enough to resolve the question of whether there was a sea passage beyond leading to Ptolemy’s Sinus Magnus. The object of his voyage of 1503–1504 was to reach the fabulous spice emporium of “Melaccha in India” (that is, Malacca, or Melaka, on the Malay Peninsula). He had learned of Malacca from one Guaspare (or Gaspard), a pilot with Pedro Álvares Cabral’s fleet on its voyage to India in 1500–1501, whom Vespucci had encountered in the Atlantic on his return from India in May 1501.Christopher Columbus, in his fourth and last voyage of 1502–1503, planned to follow the coast of Champa southward around the Cape of Cattigara and sail through the strait separating Cattigara from the New World, into the Sinus Magnus to Malacca. This was the route he understood Marco Polo to have gone from China to India in 1292 (although Malacca had not yet been founded in Polo’s time). Columbus anticipated that he would meet up with the expedition sent at the same time from Portugal to Malacca around the Cape of Good Hope under Vasco da Gama, and carried letters of credence from the Spanish monarchs to present to da Gama. The map therefore shows the two cities that were the initial destinations of Amerigo Vespucci and Christopher Columbus in their voyages that led to the unexpected discovery of a New World.
Just to the south of Mallaqua (Malacca) is the inscription: hic occisus est S. thomas (Here St. Thomas was killed), referring to the legend that Saint Thomas the Apostle went to India in 52 AD and was killed there in 72 AD. Waldseemüller had confused Malacca (Melaka) with Mylapore in India. The contemporary understanding of the nature of Columbus’ discoveries is demonstrated in the letter written to him by the Aragonese cosmographer and Royal counsellor, Jaume Ferrer, dated 5 August 1495, saying: “Divine and infallible Providence sent the great Thomas from the Occident into the Orient in order to declare in India our Holy and Catholic Law; and you, Sir, it has sent to this opposite part of the Orient by way of the Ponient [West] so that by the Divine Will you might arrive in the Orient, and in the farthest parts of India Superior in order that the descendants might hear that which their ancestors neglected concerning the teaching of Thomas...and very soon you will be by the Divine Grace in the Sinus Magnus, near which the glorious Thomas left his sacred body”
THE GLOBAL MAP
"The wall map consists of twelve sections printed from woodcuts measuring 18 by 24.5 inches (46 cm × 62 cm). Each section is one of four horizontally and three vertically, when assembled. The map uses a modified Ptolemaic map projection with curved meridians to depict the entire surface of the Earth. In the upper-mid part of the main map there is inset another, miniature world map representing to some extent an alternative view of the world.
The full title of the map is Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii aliorumque lustrationes(The Universal Cosmography according to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Discoveries of Amerigo Vespucci and others). One of the "others" was Christopher Columbus. The title signalled his intention to combine or harmonize in a unified cosmographic depiction the traditional Ptolemaic geography of Europe, Asia and Africa with the new geographical information provided by Amerigo Vespucci and his fellow discoverers of lands in the western hemisphere. He explained:"In designing the sheets of our world-map we have not followed Ptolemy in every respect, particularly as regards the new lands… We have therefore followed, on the flat map, Ptolemy, except for the new lands and some other things, but on the solid globe, which accompanies the flat map, the description of Amerigo that is appended hereto".
Several earlier maps are believed to be sources, chiefly those based on the Geography (Ptolemy) and the Caveri planisphere and others similar to those of Henricus Martellus or Martin Behaim. The Caribbean and what appears to be Florida were depicted on two earlier charts, the Cantino map, smuggled from Portugal to Italy in 1502 showing details known in 1500, and the Caverio map, drawn circa 1503–1504 and showing the Gulf of Mexico.
While some maps after 1500 show, with ambiguity, an eastern coastline for Asia distinct from the Americas, the Waldseemüller map apparently indicates the existence of a new ocean between the trans-Atlantic regions of the Spanish discoveries and the Asia of Ptolemy and Marco Polo as exhibited on the 1492 Behaim globe. The first historical records of Europeans to set eyes on this ocean, the Pacific, are recorded as Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 or, Ponce de León in 1512 or 1513. Those dates are five to six years after Waldseemüller made his map. In addition, the map apparently predicts the width of South America at certain latitudes to within 70 miles. However, as pointed out by E.G. Ravenstein, this is an illusory effect of the cordiform projection used by Waldseemüller, for when the map is laid out on a more familiar equirectangular projection and compared with others of the period also set out on that same projection there is little difference between them: this is particularly evident when the comparison is made with Johannes Schöner's 1515 globe."
"In medieval Spain, parias (from medieval Latin pariāre, "to make equal [an account]", i.e. pay) were a form of tribute paid by the taifas of al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north. Parias dominated relations between the Islamic and the Christian states in the years following the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba (1031) until the reunification of Islamic Spain under the Almoravid dynasty(beginning in 1086). The parias were a form of protection money established by treaty. The payee owed the tributary military protection against foes both Islamic and Christian. Usually the original exaction was forced, either by a large razzia or the threat of one, or as the cost of supporting one Islamic party against another. (The word "taifa" means "party [kingdom]" and refers to the prevalence of factionalism in Islamic Spain during the taifas era.)"
The earliest evidence of parias pertains to eastern Spain, to the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona, which exacted a very early one—called the vetus paria or "old paria"—from the taifa of Zaragoza. While parias may have been paid by the local Muslim leaders just west of the Llobregat after Raymond Borrel's razzia on Córdoba in 1010, the earliest paria that can be dated was collected by Raymond Berengar I of Barcelona from Lleida and Zaragoza after his attack on those territories in 1045. In the 1060s he was still demanding parias from Lleida and Zaragoza, as well as the taifa of Tortosa. The Aragonese king Sancho Ramírez also took parias from the king of Zaragoza's underlings at Huesca and Tudela.
In western Spain the first ruler to exact such tribute was Ferdinand I of León and Castile. From at least 1060, perhaps as early as 1055, Ferdinand had been exacting parias from the taifas of Seville, Toledo, and Zaragoza, and possibly also Badajoz and Valencia. In accordance with his testament, Ferdinand's parias were divided amongst his heirs along with his kingdom in December 1065: the eldest son, Sancho II, received Castile with the vetus paria; the second son, Alfonso VI, received León with the parias of Toledo; and the third son, García II, received Galicia with the parias of Badajoz and Seville. Eventually all the tribute found its way into the hands of Alfonso VI, who also exacted parias from Granada. Valencia fell into the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1094), and upon recovery by the Muslims it was forced to briefly pay parias to Barcelona, payments which were later re-established by Raymond Berengar IV. These parias were still being collected in the reign of James I the Conqueror (1213–76), who put an end to them by conquering Valencia.
Much of the wealth acquired through parias was distributed to cathedrals and monasteries, while some found its way back to the aristocracy. Sometime between 1053 and 1065 Ferdinand of León pledged an annual census of 1,000 aurei for the Abbey of Cluny, a donation re-established by Alfonso VI in 1077 and then increased to 2,000 aurei in 1090 by this same monarch. This, known as the "Alfonsine census", was "the biggest donation that Cluny ever received from king or layman, and it was never to be surpassed." The large payments to Cluny, which financed Hugh the Great's construction of the massive third abbey church, undoubtedly helped publish the wealth of Spain throughout Europe. Unfortunately for Cluny, changing conditions in Spain caused the payments to cease in 1111, and this brought on a financial crisis during the abbacies of Pons of Melgueil (1109–22) and Peter the Venerable(1122–56). By 1100 the parias had decreased to a mere "trickle". Only in 1246, when the Kingdom of Granada, the last remaining Islamic state in Spain, agreed to pay half its annual revenue in parias to Castile, did tribute again constitute a major portion of Christian Spain's wealth. Though the burden of these last parias was sometimes reduced to a quarter or a fifth of state revenue, the Grenadine kings were forced to tax their subjects far beyond what was permissible under Islamic law."
A Holy Roaming Enterprise: People Treated & Traded Like Cattle For Centuries & It Is Still True Today
Is that Adolph Hitler?
Nope. Just Orwell "Rocking" A Chaplin/Hitler 'stache!
The truth is 1984 is more true than most know. The New World was always meant to grow into the control grid that these University trained minds dreamt about for so long. The New World was and still is an Old World Enterprise. It is an unfinished "Great Work" with no end in sight. Whatever is or is not planned for the future, be rest assured of one thing, the powers that be will slowly roll out their plans so that each generation of the young is slowly indoctrinated into new behaviors that will lead the human race along some lemming like Pied Piper Path to one kind of form of continued slavery or another.
What these controllers really seem to want is mindless self regulating machine controlled parroting zombies and guess what...?
That's exactly the state of affair today, and one that has been largely maintained and managed, mostly uninterrupted for centuries. As things keep going and technology keeps advancing, we can safely assume that there won't be any spot left untouched by this inhuman system. There's a really good a chance that very soon there won't be any Nature anyone can run to to escape the artificially enforced superficial existence too many of us are addicted to.
Artificially enforced boundaries like Nations and states are illusions designed to keep us all separated into easily managed communities afraid of the "Big Brother" labelled enemy state and the somewhat faceless so-called terrorist group. The controllers with the power of institutionalized illusions sold to the mass public as reality, and the ability to amplify these illusions with mass communication technology, are able to manipulate the majority of the mass public in ways that the progenitors of this scheme could only dream of.