A Proper Gander At Propaganda


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The Sir Ian Fleming & His Family's Scottish Banking Bond American Rail Road Scam

Ian Fleming is an author who is supposed to have been some kind of Naval Intelligence Cold Warrior kind of guy. This man is responsible for crafting a slew of super spy cold war fiction that some truly believe was inspired by hard core super - cold war historical fact. This article shows that we have no reason to believe any of this mythic legend. In fact Dame Ian Fleming fits the same patterns of British Banking, Naval Sea Services and a Whole Lot of Papal Bull $hat, that tells us we have been had. Someone has to script fake history and this is one of the guys who did so.

Dame Ian Phony

This man's background is not one that would have qualified him for a position in the Navy, if the Navy was interested in actual combat. He was an elite rich writer dude. He like so many other so-called "warriors" are nothing but imaginative armchair literary authors. These authors craft their own auras of authority that we are all supposed to bond our own imaginations to. The Flemings are an example of the University indoctrinated elite managers of the world. These families work for the even more elite Royals. Their's is a world of taking credit for the work of others more so than not. These people have learned to do as little real work as possible, while maximizing profit and credit. They are the shepherds who deserve the wealth they have. We must not realize the wealth is pirated from the labor of the rest of us. Instead we should go out and spend money watching this man's creation on screens. His family has long profited from our labor. Communication, mass transportation, science and technology in general, have always been controlled by the few and families like the Flemings are the managers of the control system.

Of course please excuse any typos you may come across. Autocorrect is not only illiterate, it is an evil little gremlin sent by the Lord of Hell hers/hisself...

Bond, Railroad Bonds

"In 1873, Robert Fleming cofounded the Scottish American Investment Company for the purpose of investing in high risk, high return American railroad bonds."

"Overall, Flemings claimed to have made a 40% return on investments in US railroads."

Scottish American Investment Company

"The Scottish American Investment Company (LSESCAM) is a publicly traded investment trust listed on the London Stock Exchange. It invests in a broad range of UK and international assets. The Scottish American Investment Company is managed by Baillie Gifford & Co Limited, the Edinburgh-based investment management partnership.

"Robert Fleming & Co. was an asset manager and merchant bank founded in Dundee, Scotland, in 1873. In 1909 the firm moved its headquarters to London. It was sold to Chase Manhattan Bank for over $7 billion in 2000.

Flemings was a 50% partner in the highly successful Asian investment bank Jardine Fleming. At its height in 1997, Robert Fleming Holdings reported over 8,000 employees and operations in 44 countries."

"The firm of Robert Fleming & Co., known as Flemings, was founded in Dundee, Scotland in 1873 by Robert Fleming, a successful manufacturer of jute fabrics used for sandbags in the American Civil War. The firm was originally formed as a series of investment trusts, pooling money from Scottish investors into overseas ventures, and later moved into merchant banking. In 1909 the firm moved its headquarters to London.

In 1873, Robert Fleming cofounded the Scottish American Investment Company for the purpose of investing in high risk, high return American railroad bonds.[1] The Scottish Widows was a significant early investor.  In 1876, Flemings represented the bondholders' committee of the Erie Railway, then under the control of Jay Gould, and saw its plan for the financial reorganisation of the railroad largely adopted.  Due to the successful Erie experience, and in its role as a significant railroad investor, Flemings was involved in the successful restructuring of numerous other North American railroads in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s.  Each restructuring produced significant gains for the Fleming investment trusts and drew more investors. 

Flemings assumed a central role in the 1886 battle with Jay Gould for control of the Texas & Pacific Railway, in which the Flemings bondholder group ultimately triumphed. Overall, Flemings claimed to have made a 40% return on investments in US railroads.[2]"

"The Scottish American Investment Company P.L.C., also known as SAINTS, has been in existence since 1873 which makes it one of the oldest investment trust companies still in existence.

SAINTS was initially formed as The Scottish American Investment Company Limited by William Menzies in March 1873. Menzies was an Edinburgh lawyer who had visited the United States on several occasions during the 1860s and was struck during those visits by the wealth of investment opportunities in that young and rapidly growing nation. Among the other co founders was Dundee and later London financier Robert Fleming."

"Initially, SAINTS invested solely in bonds issued by North American railroad companies. However, the investment portfolio broadened out over time to include shares as well as bonds and industrial, commercial and public utility companies."

Scottish American Investment Company

What Are The Odds?

"In the wake of The Alaskans, (Roger) Moore was cast as Beau Maverick, an English-accented cousin of frontier gamblers Bret Maverick (James Garner), Bart Maverick (Jack Kelly) and Brent Maverick (Robert Colbert) in the much more successful ABC/WB western series MaverickSean Connery was flown over from England to test for the part but turned it down.[10] Moore appeared as the character in 14 episodes after Garner had left the series at the end of the previous season, actually wearing some of Garner's costumes; while filming The Alaskans, he had already recited much of Garner's dialogue since the Klondike series frequently recycled Maverick scripts, changing only the names and locales.[11] He had also filmed a Maverick episode with Garner two seasons earlier in which Moore played a different character in a retooling of Richard Brinsley Sheridan's 1775 comedy of manners play entitled "The Rivals." "

"Worldwide fame arrived after Lew Grade cast Moore as Simon Templar in a new adaptation of The Saint, based on the novels by Leslie Charteris. (Roger) Moore said in an interview in 1963, that he wanted to buy the rights to Leslie Charteris's character and the trademarks. He also joked that the role was supposed to have been meant for Sean Connery who was unavailable. The television series was made in the UK with an eye to the American market, and its success there (and in other countries) made Moore a household name. By spring 1967 he had achieved international stardom. The series also established his suave, quipping style which he carried forward to James Bond. Moore went on to direct several episodes of the later series, which moved into colour in 1967"

"The Saint is an ITC mystery spy thriller television series that aired in the UK on ITV between 1962 and 1969. It was based on the literary character Simon Templar created by Leslie Charteris in the 1920s[2] and featured in many novels over the years.[2] He was played by Roger Moore. Simon Templar was essentially a Robin Hood who stole from criminals, but kept the money. His nemesis was Chief Inspector Claude Teal who considered Templar a common criminal no matter whom he stole from (shades of Les Miserables)."


Leslie Charteris

"By 1900, opportunities in railroads had subsided and Flemings largely left North America  

In the 1990s, it entered into a US asset management venture with T. Rowe Price, a large US mutual fund company."

Robert Fleming & Co.

"In the twentieth century, Flemings focusing its overseas energies on Asia and Africa.[citation needed] In 1971, Flemings opened a Tokyo office and in 1988 opened an office in Bangkok.[citation needed] After 1970, most of its Asian activities were conducted through Jardine Fleming.[citation needed] In addition, Flemings was a major player in Africa, particularly in the mining industry.[citation needed] As apartheid drew to a close, Flemings opened offices in southern Africa (Fleming Martin in South Africa, Edwards & Co. in Zimbabwe, and Stockbrokers Botswana in that country).[citation needed] It advised Glencore in its move from Johannesburg to London, where it was listed in 1997, as well as a similar move by Billiton (later BHP Billiton), which became a constituent of the FTSE 100 in 1997."

"In 1997, Robert Fleming Holdings had operations in 44 countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas and Africa. Its net assets as for the 1997 fiscal year were £841 million and its profit before tax for the year was £136.1 million. Its global asset management business managed £63 billion on behalf of institutional and private investors around the world. These results included Jardine Fleming, which in its own right had operations in fifteen countries in the Asia-Pacific region, seats on twenty stock exchanges and some US$19.7 billion in funds under management. Jardine Fleming’s profit before tax for the year was US$41.4 million.[3]The firm’s significant transactions included the privatization of state-owned Pakistan Telecommunication Co. Ltd. in 1994.

Through its history, the firm wore its Scottishness on its sleeve. In addition to being controlled by the Scottish Fleming family, there were other signs of its Scots heritage. A bagpipe player regularly greeted visitors at its London headquarters until 2000. In the 1990s, its main non-Fleming family backers were Scottish institutions such as Baillie Gifford and Stewart Ivory. The firm also owned the most extensive private collection of Scottish art in existence, removed to an art foundation, The Fleming-Wyfold Art Foundation, created to protect the art works and prevent any buyers of the failing bank from selling off the collection.

Scandal, crisis and restructuring[edit]

The Fleming name was tarnished by a scandal in 1996, when Jardine Fleming was ordered to pay $19 million to fund investors for alleged abusive and unsupervised securities allocation practices by asset management head Colin Armstrong.[citation needed] The 1997 Asian crisis severely hit both Robert Fleming and Jardine Fleming.[citation needed] Robert Fleming was forced to approve massive lay offs in late 1998.[citation needed] The firm restructured in 1999, buying the remaining fifty percent stake in Jardine Flemings in return for giving Jardine Matheson an eighteen percent stake in Robert Flemings Holdings.[citation needed]However, despite these efforts, Flemings continued to see its investment banking and asset management market share decline as global investment banks like Morgan Stanley and Lazard moved into their markets.[4]

Sale to Chase[edit]

In April, 2000, Robert Flemings Holdings was sold to Chase Manhattan Bank for $7.7 billion. Although the sale came about as partially as a result of Flemings’ weakened position, it was part of two larger trends: consolidation in the financial services industry as large US commercial banks acquired investment banks upon the repeal of the Glass–Steagall Act, and the sale of UK merchant banks to foreign banks. Flemings, with almost no US assets, was considered a particularly good fit for increasingly globally minded Chase, whose assets lay largely in the United States. In the sale about 130 Fleming family members pocketed approximately $2.3 billion for their thirty percent stake. When Chase merged with J.P. Morgan & Co. in 2001, the Flemings asset management business was rebranded J.P. Morgan Fleming, and Fleming Premier Banking was sold to Abbey National's Cater Allen subsidiary.[5][6]

After 2000[edit]

Members of the Fleming family have since set up an asset management company, Fleming Family & Partners, chaired by former Morgan Grenfell head John Craven.[citation needed] In 2005, they sold twenty percent of the business to Standard Chartered Bank, a venerable Hong Kong institution like Jardine Matheson, for £45 million.[citation needed] The bank business of Jardine Fleming was bought by Standard Bank, a large South African bank, in 2001."

Robert Fleming & Co.

Jardine Fleming

"Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co., and his father was the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 until his death on the Western Front in 1917. Educated at EtonSandhurst and, briefly, the universities of Munich and Geneva, Fleming moved through several jobs before he started writing.

While working for Britain's Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, Fleming was involved in planning Operation Goldeneye and in the planning and oversight of two intelligence units, 30 Assault Unit and T-Force. His wartime service and his career as a journalist provided much of the background, detail and depth of the James Bond novels.

Fleming wrote his first Bond novel, Casino Royale, in 1952. It was a success, with three print runs being commissioned to cope with the demand. Eleven Bond novels and two short-story collections followed between 1953 and 1966. The novels revolved around James Bond, an officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Bond was also known by his code number, 007, and was a commander in the Royal Naval Reserve. The Bond stories rank among the best-selling series of fictional books of all time, having sold over 100 million copies worldwide. Fleming also wrote the children's story Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang and two works of non-fiction. In 2008, The Times ranked Fleming 14th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".

Fleming was married to Ann Charteris, who was divorced from the second Viscount Rothermere owing to her affair with the author. Fleming and Charteris had a son, Caspar. Fleming was a heavy smoker and drinker for most of his life and succumbed to heart disease in 1964 at the age of 56. Two of his James Bond books were published posthumously; other writers have since produced Bond novels. Fleming's creation has appeared in film twenty-six times, portrayed by seven actors.""

"Ian Fleming was born on 28 May 1908, at 27 Green Street in the wealthy London district of Mayfair.[1][2] His mother was Evelyn St Croix Rose, and his father was Valentine Fleming, the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910.[3] Fleming was the grandson of the Scottish financier Robert Fleming, who founded the Scottish American Investment Trust and the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co.[1][a] In 1914, with the start of the First World War, Valentine joined "C" SquadronQueen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars, and rose to the rank of major.[3] He was killed by German shelling on the Western Front on 20 May 1917; Winston Churchillwrote an obituary that appeared in The Times.[5] Because the family owned an estate at Arnisdale, Valentine's death was commemorated on the Glenelg War Memorial.[6]

Fleming's elder brother Peter (1907–1971) became a travel writer and married actress Celia Johnson.[7] Peter served with the Grenadier Guards during the Second World War, was later commissioned under Colin Gubbins to help establish the Auxiliary Units, and became involved in behind-the-lines operations in Norway and Greece during the war.[7]

Fleming also had two younger brothers, Michael (1913–1940) and Richard (1911–1977), and a younger maternal half-sister born out of wedlock, cellist Amaryllis Fleming (1925–1999), whose father was the artist Augustus John.[8] Amaryllis was conceived during a long-term affair between John and Evelyn that started in 1923, some six years after the death of Valentine.[9]"

"In 1921 Fleming enrolled at Eton College. Although not a high achiever academically, he excelled at athletics and held the title of Victor Ludorum ("Winner of the Games") for two years between 1925 and 1927.[12] He also edited a school magazine, The Wyvern.[1] His lifestyle at Eton brought him into conflict with his housemaster, E. V. Slater, who disapproved of Fleming's attitude, his hair oil, his ownership of a car and his relations with women.[10] Slater persuaded Fleming's mother to remove him from Eton a term early for a crammer course to gain entry to the Royal Military College at Sandhurst.[10] He spent less than a year there, leaving in 1927 without gaining a commission, after contracting gonorrhea.[12]

In 1927, to prepare Fleming for possible entry into the Foreign Office,[13] his mother sent him to the Tennerhof in Kitzbühel, Austria, a small private school run by the Adlerian disciple and former British spy Ernan Forbes Dennis and his novelist wife, Phyllis Bottome.[14] After improving his language skills there, he studied briefly at Munich University and the University of Geneva.[1] While in Geneva, Fleming began a romance with Monique Panchaud de Bottomes and the couple were briefly engaged in 1931.[15] His mother disapproved and made him break off the relationship.[16] He applied for entry to the Foreign Office, but failed the examinations. His mother again intervened in his affairs, lobbying Sir Roderick Jones, head of Reuters News Agency, and in October 1931 he was given a position as a sub-editor and journalist for the company.[1] In 1933 Fleming spent time in Moscow, where he covered the Stalinist show trial of six engineers from the British company Metropolitan-Vickers.[17] While there he applied for an interview with Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, and was amazed to receive a personally signed note apologising for not being able to attend.[18]

Fleming bowed to family pressure in October 1933, and went into banking with a position at the financiers Cull & Co.[17] In 1935 he moved to Rowe and Pitman on Bishopsgate as a stockbroker.[18]Fleming was unsuccessful in both roles.[19][17] Early in 1939 Fleming began an affair with Ann O'Neill (née Charteris), who was married to the 3rd Baron O'Neill;[20] she was also having an affair with Esmond Harmsworth, the heir to Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail.[21]"

"In May 1939 Fleming was recruited by Rear Admiral John GodfreyDirector of Naval Intelligence of the Royal Navy, to become his personal assistant. He joined the organisation full-time in August 1939,[22] with the codename "17F",[23] and worked out of Room 39 at The Admiralty.[24] Fleming's biographer, Andrew Lycett, notes that Fleming had "no obvious qualifications" for the role.[1] As part of his appointment, Fleming was commissioned into the Royal Naval Volunteer Reservein July 1939,[22] initially as lieutenant,[24] but promoted to commander a few months later.[25]

Fleming proved invaluable as Godfrey's personal assistant and excelled in administration.[1] Godfrey was known as an abrasive character who made enemies within government circles. He frequently used Fleming as a liaison with other sections of the government's wartime administration, such as the Secret Intelligence Service, the Political Warfare Executive, the Special Operations Executive (SOE), the Joint Intelligence Committee and the Prime Minister's staff."

A Sucker is Born: Hook Line & Sinker

"On 29 September 1939, soon after the start of the war, Godfrey circulated a memorandum that, "bore all the hallmarks of ... Lieutenant Commander Ian Fleming", according to historian Ben Macintyre.[27] It was called the Trout Memo and compared the deception of an enemy in wartime to fly fishing.[27] The memo contained a number of schemes to be considered for use against the Axis powers to lure U-boats and German surface ships towards minefields.[28] Number 28 on the list was an idea to plant misleading papers on a corpse that would be found by the enemy; the suggestion is similar to Operation Mincemeat, the successful 1943 plan to conceal the intended invasion of Italy from North Africa, although that idea was developed by Charles Cholmondoley in October 1942.[29] The recommendation in the Trout Memo was titled: "A Suggestion (not a very nice one)",[29] and continued: "The following suggestion is used in a book by Basil Thomson: a corpse dressed as an airman, with despatches in his pockets, could be dropped on the coast, supposedly from a parachute that has failed. I understand there is no difficulty in obtaining corpses at the Naval Hospital, but, of course, it would have to be a fresh one."[29]

In 1940 Fleming and Godfrey contacted Kenneth Mason, Professor of Geography at Oxford University, about the preparation of reports on the geography of countries involved in military operations. These reports were the precursors of the Naval Intelligence Division Geographical Handbook Series produced between 1941 and 1946.[30]

Operation Ruthless, a plan aimed at obtaining details of the Enigma codes used by Nazi Germany's navy, was instigated by a memo written by Fleming to Godfrey on 12 September 1940. The idea was to "obtain" a German bomber, man it with a German-speaking crew dressed in Luftwaffe uniforms, and crash it into the English Channel. The crew would then attack their German rescuers and bring their boat and Enigma machine back to England.[31] Much to the annoyance of Alan Turing and Peter Twinn at Bletchley Park, the mission was never carried out. According to Fleming's niece, Lucy, an official of the Royal Air Force pointed out that if they were to drop a downed Heinkel bomber in the English Channel, it would probably sink rather quickly.[32]

Fleming also worked with Colonel "Wild Bill" Donovan, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's special representative on intelligence co-operation between London and Washington.[33] In May 1941 Fleming accompanied Godfrey to the United States, where he assisted in writing a blueprint for the Office of the Coordinator of Information, the department that turned into the Office of Strategic Services and eventually became the CIA.[34]

Admiral Godfrey put Fleming in charge of Operation Goldeneye between 1941 and 1942; Goldeneye was a plan to maintain an intelligence framework in Spain in the event of a German takeover of the territory.[35] Fleming's plan involved maintaining communication with Gibraltar and launching sabotage operations against the Nazis.[36] In 1941 he liaised with Donovan over American involvement in a measure intended to ensure that the Germans did not dominate the seaways.[37]

30 Assault Unit[edit]

In 1942 Fleming formed a unit of commandos, known as No. 30 Commando or 30 Assault Unit (30AU), composed of specialist intelligence troops.[38] 30AU's job was to be near the front line of an advance—sometimes in front of it—to seize enemy documents from previously targeted headquarters.[39] The unit was based on a German group headed by Otto Skorzeny, who had undertaken similar activities in the Battle of Crete in May 1941.[40] The German unit was thought by Fleming to be "one of the most outstanding innovations in German intelligence".[41]

Fleming did not fight in the field with the unit, but selected targets and directed operations from the rear.[40] On its formation the unit was only thirty strong, but it grew to five times that size.[41] The unit was filled with men from other commando units, and trained in unarmed combat, safe-cracking and lock-picking at the SOE facilities.[40] In late 1942 Captain (later Rear-Admiral) Edmund Rushbrooke replaced Godfrey as head of the Naval Intelligence Division, and Fleming's influence in the organisation declined, although he retained control over 30AU.[1] Fleming was unpopular with the unit's members,[41] who disliked his referring to them as his "Red Indians".[42]

Before the 1944 Normandy landings, most of 30AU's operations were in the Mediterranean, although it secretly participated in the Dieppe Raid in a failed pinch raid for an Enigma machine and related materials.[43] Because of its successes in Sicily and Italy, 30AU became greatly trusted by naval intelligence.[44][45]

In March 1944 Fleming oversaw the distribution of intelligence to Royal Navy units in preparation for Operation Overlord.[46] He was replaced as head of 30AU on 6 June 1944,[40] but maintained some involvement.[47] He visited 30AU in the field during and after Overlord, especially following an attack on Cherbourg for which he was concerned that the unit had been incorrectly used as a regular commando force rather than an intelligence-gathering unit. This wasted the men's specialist skills, risked their safety on operations that did not justify the use of such skilled operatives, and threatened the vital gathering of intelligence. Afterwards, the management of these units was revised.[44] He also followed the unit into Germany after it located, in Tambach Castle, the German naval archives from 1870.[48]

In December 1944 Fleming was posted on an intelligence fact-finding trip to the Far East on behalf of the Director of Naval Intelligence.[49] Much of the trip was spent identifying opportunities for 30AU in the Pacific,[50] although the unit ultimately saw little action because of the Japanese surrender.[51]"

"The success of 30AU led to the August 1944 decision to establish a "Target Force", which became known as T-Force. The official memorandum, held at The National Archives in London, describes the unit's primary role: "T-Force = Target Force, to guard and secure documents, persons, equipment, with combat and Intelligence personnel, after capture of large towns, ports etc. in liberated and enemy territory."[52]

Fleming sat on the committee that selected the targets for the T-Force unit, and listed them in the "Black Books" that were issued to the unit's officers.[53] The infantry component of T-Force was in part made up of the 5th Battalion, King's Regiment, which supported the Second Army.[54] It was responsible for securing targets of interest for the British military, including nuclear laboratories, gas research centres and individual rocket scientists. The unit's most notable discoveries came during the advance on the German port of Kiel, in the research centre for German engines used in the V-2 rocketMesserschmitt Me 163 fighters and high-speed U-boats.[55] Fleming would later use elements of the activities of T-Force in his writing, particularly in his 1955 Bond novel Moonraker.[56]

In 1942 Fleming attended an Anglo-American intelligence summit in Jamaica and, despite the constant heavy rain during his visit, he decided to live on the island once the war was over.[57] His friend Ivar Bryce helped find a plot of land in Saint Mary Parish where, in 1945, Fleming had a house built, which he named Goldeneye.[58] The name of the house and estate where he wrote his novels has many possible sources. Fleming himself mentioned both his wartime Operation Goldeneye[59] and Carson McCullers' 1941 novel Reflections in a Golden Eye, which described the use of British naval bases in the Caribbean by the American navy.[58]

Fleming was awarded the Danish Frihedsmedalje in October 1947 for his contribution in assisting Danish officers escaping from Denmark to Britain during the occupation of Denmark.[60]


Upon Fleming's demobilisation in May 1945, he became the Foreign Manager in the Kemsley newspaper group, which at the time owned The Sunday Times. In this role he oversaw the paper's worldwide network of correspondents. His contract allowed him to take three months holiday every winter, which he took in Jamaica.[1] Fleming worked full-time for the paper until December 1959,[61] but continued to write articles and attend the Tuesday weekly meetings until at least 1961.[62][63]

After Ann Charteris' first husband died in the war, she expected to marry Fleming, but he decided to remain a bachelor.[1] On 28 June 1945, she married the second Viscount Rothermere.[21]Nevertheless, Charteris continued her affair with Fleming, travelling to Jamaica to see him under the pretext of visiting his friend and neighbour Noël Coward. In 1948 she gave birth to Fleming's daughter, Mary, who was stillborn. Rothermere divorced Charteris in 1951 because of her relationship with Fleming,[21] and the couple married on 24 March 1952 in Jamaica,[64] a few months before their son Caspar was born in August. Both Fleming and Ann had affairs during their marriage, she, most notably, with Hugh Gaitskell, the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition.[65] Fleming had a long-term affair in Jamaica with one of his neighbours, Blanche Blackwell, mother of Chris Blackwell of Island Records.[66]"

"Fleming had first mentioned to friends during the war that he wanted to write a spy novel,[1] an ambition he achieved within two months with Casino Royale.[67] He started writing the book at Goldeneye on 17 February 1952, gaining inspiration from his own experiences and imagination. He claimed afterwards that he wrote the novel to distract himself from his forthcoming wedding to the pregnant Charteris,[68] and called the work his "dreadful oafish opus".[69] His manuscript was typed in London by Joan Howe (mother of travel writer Rory MacLean), and Fleming's red-haired secretary at The Times on whom the character Miss Moneypenny was partially based.[70] Clare Blanchard, a former girlfriend, advised him not to publish the book, or at least to do so under a pseudonym.[71]

During Casino Royale's final draft stages, Fleming allowed his friend William Plomer to see a copy, and remarked "so far as I can see the element of suspense is completely absent".[72] Despite this, Plomer thought the book had sufficient promise and sent a copy to the publishing house Jonathan Cape. At first, they were unenthusiastic about the novel, but Fleming's brother Peter, whose books they managed, persuaded the company to publish it.[72] On 13 April 1953 Casino Royalewas released in the UK in hardcover, priced at 10s 6d,[73] with a cover designed by Fleming.[74] It was a success and three print runs were needed to cope with the demand.[73][74][75]"

Ian Fleming - Wikipedia