A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

Article index

The Zapruder Film Is Just A Photographic Cartoon Part Two: The Effect

 

This is part of a series of articles that breaks down older and longer posts into smaller (and easier to load) blog posts for the reader's convenience.


Part Two, The Power of 20th Century Electronic Media:

The Effect of The Zapruder Cartoon is Felt Nationwide & Even Internationally

(Part One of this series is the prior blog article, just scroll to the bottom of the page for that link.)

JFK HOAX FUNERAL.gif

The Television Terror Template

“The Kennedy assassination became the template for coverage,” said Bob Schieffer, who 50 years ago covered the event for the Fort Worth Star Telegram and is now a veteran broadcaster with CBS."

source: The Power of TV: From The Kennedy Assassination to 9/11 - The Atlantic  •  How the JFK assassination transformed media coverage - Reuters


British Pathé Notices Jackie Kennedy's Brave & Tearless Funeral Performance

"...the young widow, dry eyed..."

This is set to play from the relevant part of this Newsreel. I recommend watching the entire thing as it does contain some interesting examples of propaganda.

Review Of 1963 (1963)  source:  British Pathé


A Fine 20th Century Televised Presidential Propaganda National Identity Building Performance:

Eisenhower Speaks About Murder of JFK (1963)  source: KKD1247


Jackie Kennedy's Role In Producing The Power of Myth Exposed:

State Funerals Are Mass Audience National & Even International Identity Building Rituals

"Campbell talked about the funeral of John F. Kennedy as a national ritual given to a dead president. This includes the religious rituals as well. Kennedy’s funeral mass at St. Matthew’s Cathedral in Washington is an example of religious ritual, even though the majority of citizens participating were not members of his church. Campbell’s thesis is that as the world becomes more globalised and people travel and work in countries other than their own, we are in need of new myths and even rituals to fill the ever developing void left when people move on from their local mythology and rituals. It is these myths and rituals that give our societies some meaning and contribute to stability."

source: 'The Power of Myth', by Joseph Campbell - IESE Blog Network 


"In the editor's note to The Power of Myth, Flowers credits Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, as "the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the ideas of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book."

source: 'The Power of Myth', by Joseph Campbell - IESE Blog Network   •   The Power of Myth - Wikipedia


Crafting the Mythology of the Post World War Two World Wide Web of Globally Connected Communication, Commerce & Travel: The Incredible Power of Myth

"A colleague recently mentioned that he was interested in Joseph Campbell, especially his research on the development of myths, legends and rituals throughout the ages. This triggered my interest in rereading Campbell’s classic, The Power of Myth, which he first published in 1988. The book is a record of a conversation Campbell had with Bill Moyers, the former US TV personality and journalist.

The essence of the conversation is about the universality and evolution of myth in the history of our societies up to the present moment. In studying myths and rituals across various societies, Campbell pointed out some of their similarities, and concluded that it was from here we became aware of some eternal truths of life.  But what are these myths and rituals that Campbell and Moyers were talking about, and what relevance do they have for us today? Myths are the body of legends and stories that belong to our different societies.  Occasions such as wedding ceremonies, funerals, baptisms, Bar Mitzvah, church services, college graduations, Super Bowl, and Heineken Cup (Rugby) are all examples of the various types of rituals that take place during our normal lives. Campbell talked about the funeral of John F. Kennedy as a national ritual given to a dead president. This includes the religious rituals as well. Kennedy’s funeral mass at St. Matthew’s Cathedral in Washington is an example of religious ritual, even though the majority of citizens participating were not members of his church.

Campbell’s thesis is that as the world becomes more globalised and people travel and work in countries other than their own, we are in need of new myths and even rituals to fill the ever developing void left when people move on from their local mythology and rituals. It is these myths and rituals that give our societies some meaning and contribute to stability. Indeed, one could say that stability requires its myths and rituals. Campbell mentions how the gradual disappearance of classical Roman and Greek mythology from our schools’ syllabuses is exacerbating this decline even further.

But we can ask how useful are these myths and rituals to us today? Campbell tells us they provide us with a cultural framework by which we can define ourselves, to know who we are. This cultural framework is helpful for our young people, in so far as it provides them with a blueprint for life. What our modern society needs are some new myths, legends, stories and rituals that we can all identify with in our more cosmopolitan world. Without such identification we could end up like a rudderless ship in the ocean, not knowing who we are, or where we are going. Isn’t that something that our leaders, whether in business or politics, should be concerned with?"

"The companion book for the series, The Power of Myth (Joseph Campbell, Bill Moyers, and editor Betty Sue Flowers), was released in 1988 at the same time the series aired on PBS. In the editor's note to The Power of Myth, Flowers credits Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, as "the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the ideas of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book."

source: 'The Power of Myth', by Joseph Campbell - IESE Blog Network   •   The Power of Myth - Wikipedia   •   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Moyers


Bill Moyers: Member of A Small Small World

"White House Press Secretary in the Johnson administration from 1965 to 1967."

"He also worked as a network TV news commentator for ten years."

"Billy Don "Bill" Moyers (born June 5, 1934) is an American journalist and political commentator. He served as White House Press Secretary in the Johnson administration from 1965 to 1967. He also worked as a network TV news commentator for ten years. Moyers has been extensively involved with public broadcasting, producing documentaries and news journal programs. He has won numerous awards and honorary degrees for his investigative journalism and civic activities. He has become well known as a trenchant critic of the corporately structured U.S. news media."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Moyers


Witness The Culturally Transformative Power of The Real 20th Century Conceived Weapon of Mass Destruction

November 22, 1963: A Psychological Warfare Operation Template


"DALLAS (Reuters) - Six seconds in Dallas 50 years ago changed the way media worked for decades to come."

"The assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, was a transformative live, global TV news event. It swept an industry without a playbook for covering a breaking story of such magnitude and utterly changed how people receive their news. For four days, starting with gunfire in Dallas and ending with Kennedy’s funeral procession in Washington, major U.S. TV networks went live with wall-to-wall coverage, suspending commercials. .. .Other live TV news events followed, and the next time networks devoted as much time to commercial-free news broadcasts came with the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States."

“The Kennedy assassination became the template for coverage,” said Bob Schieffer, who 50 years ago covered the event for the Fort Worth Star Telegram and is now a veteran broadcaster with CBS."

source: The Power of TV: From The Kennedy Assassination to 9/11 - The Atlantic  •  How the JFK assassination transformed media coverage - Reuters


The Queenly Art of Crafting Camelot

"How Jackie Kennedy Orchestrated The Perfect Funeral"

"The horse brought a note of barely tamed urgency to the proceedings, but he did not upstage the first lady. The funeral, attended by delegates from eighty-two countries (including eight heads of state and ten prime ministers) and watched live by hundreds of millions of people across the globe (it was broadcast even on Soviet state television), was Jackie's show from first to last."

"The funeral, attended by delegates from eighty-two countries (including eight heads of state and ten prime ministers) and watched live by hundreds of millions of people across the globe (it was broadcast even on Soviet state television), was Jackie's show from first to last."

"Commemorating the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's death, this commentary was excerpted from "Shooting Kennedy: JFK And The Culture Of Images" by art historian David M. Lubin of Wake Forest University:

STATE FUNERALS HAVE LONG BEEN USED as an occasion for rousing the sentiment of the people. The measured dirges and muffled drums, the rhythmic clip-clop of the horses, the flag-draped coffin, the solemn march of foreign dignitaries and heads of state, the grieving crowds have all been part of the spectacle of patriotic grandeur by which monarchs and national heroes have been laid to rest. The lying-in-state of Kennedy's body in the Rotunda of the Capitol was modeled on that of Lincoln in 1865. The catafalque that had borne the Great Emancipator's coffin was brought out of storage and used again. No one was allowed to miss the historical significance of this restaging, which accorded to JFK in death a Lincolnesque moral stature in relation to African American advancement that he had not attained during his lifetime. So many ordinary citizens came to pay their respects that the Rotunda was held open all night long. More than a quarter of a million mourners, eight abreast filed past between 1:30 Sunday afternoon and 8:00 the next morning. 

Although the officials in charge followed the rule book for military and state funerals to the letter, Mrs. Kennedy added a number of personal touches and orchestrated the event. When she insisted on walking behind the caisson to the funeral mass rather than ride "in a fat black Cadillac," researchers were dispatched to the Library of Congress, where they were relieved to find in the volumes of yellowed newsprint verification that a precedent existed in the funeral procession of Presidents Washington, Lincoln, and Grant. A more recent touch was the riderless horse carrying a pair of boots reversed in the stirrups. That funeral motif supposedly dates back to the time of Genghis Khan as a way to commemorate a leader lost in battle. It had been used for an American presidential funeral only once, eighteen years earlier, at the wartime death of Roosevelt. A gelding that ironically bore the name Black Jack — the nickname for Jackie's father — was led behind the flag-draped bier of the other Jack, her husband. As historian William Manchester describes it, "His streaming flanks were unnatural, alarming. His steel hooves clattered in jarring tattoo, an unnerving contrast to the crack cadence in front; his eyes rolled whitely. He was nearly impossible to control." The horse brought a note of barely tamed urgency to the proceedings, but he did not upstage the first lady. The funeral, attended by delegates from eighty-two countries (including eight heads of state and ten prime ministers) and watched live by hundreds of millions of people across the globe (it was broadcast even on Soviet state television), was Jackie's show from first to last.

No actress ever trod a greater stage before a larger audience, yet for this performance she was her own wardrobe mistress, her own makeup assistant, and even the music director, asking that the plangent sounds of the Black Watch bagpipers and the poignant navy hymn "Eternal Father, Strong to Save," both favorites of her late husband, be added to the program. Her ultimate touch was the idea of the eternal flame, which she lit at his grave.

PERHAPS THE MOST ENDURING IMAGE from the funeral, if not from the entire assassination weekend, was one that Jackie played a major role in creating. It was John John's salute at the bottom of the cathedral steps. He was saluting the flag-draped coffin as it was affixed to the caisson, the same caisson that had borne Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt. He was saluting his father and, in the sense explored above, the nation's father. He was saluting the commander in chief. Film footage of the moment reveals an important detail that the still photographs do not. Immediately before John John saluted, Jackie leaned down and whispered to him, instructing him to make his move. The December 3, 1963, issue of Look that was on the stands that day with its featured photo essay, "The President and His Son," shows that already back in October John John had been learning how to salute. In the Look photo, he mistakenly uses his left hand instead of his right, and the salute isn't crisp and smart, but the rudiments of his polished salute on the cathedral steps are clearly in the making.

A salute is a bodily gesture, a precise movement of the arm and hand meant to confer honor. It belongs to the category of what linguistic philosophers call "performative utterances." Such an utterance, for example, "I declare you husband and wife" or "I give you my word," accomplishes the act it describes. To say "I give you my word" not only tells what you are doing but actually does it; the description and the action are inseparable; the dancer cannot be distinguished from the dance, the saluter from the salute. John John's salute is a performative utterance — it says, in effect, I give you my respect, and in so doing, it does just that. It might also be regarded as a piece of performance art, though belonging more to the mother who prompted it than to the son through whom, we might say, it was performed. John John looks so heartbreakingly vulnerable in his double-breasted coat and short pants, with his white ankle socks and his wobbly knees and his left hand at his side, fingers pointed inward, like that of his Uncle Bobby, who stands above and behind him in striped trousers and morning coat. If nothing else, the picture reminds us how fragile children are, how breakable.

WHEN THE PRESIDENT'S WIFE and family gathered around his gravesite at Arlington, a dull roar rose in the east and fifty military jets streamed through the sky in a farewell salute. This too was an act of honor and respect, and a symbol of closure and grace. Yet perhaps, in retrospect, it didn't bode well. On the front page of the November 25, 1963, afternoon edition of the Sacramento Bee are three headlines. The first and largest reads, "KENNEDY IS LAID TO REST: Joins Other Heroic Dead in Arlington." The second, smaller but in bold print, says "Oswald Is Slain in Burst of Revenge." The third and smallest headline announces, "Johnson Renews Pledge of US Viet Nam Victory." Centered amid the three narratives of heroic death, mad vengeance, and pledged military victory is a photograph of the beautiful veiled widow and her two handsome brothers-in-law, Robert and Edward, walking in measured cadence behind the caisson bearing the coffin of the dead warrior-prince.

What might we conclude, then, about the great piece of theater directed, stage-managed, and performed by Jacqueline Kennedy in late November 1963? Did it liberate Americans from a national trauma by making the nation better, teaching its citizens the value of inner nobility and self-sacrifice? Or did the funeral ultimately give rise to a more sustained trauma in which, in the crucible of the Vietnam War, the nation all but cracked, with loyalists to the state, inspired by patriotic idealism, in constant clash with antiwar protestors, whom they accused of rank selfishness but who themselves laid claim to a higher patriotism that cherished peaceful republicanism over war-making imperialism? To put this but another way, was the Kennedy funeral a moment of peace and healing and moral inspiration, or was it simply neoclassical theater on a giant scale, a spectacle that mesmerized the public and diverted its attention from the war on which it was already embarked? Was the funeral in essence a grand opera finale, with Jackie giving a performance that even Maria Callas couldn't rival?

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, wrote the Latin poet Horace. It is a sweet and seemly thing to die for one's country. In a very real sense, that was the underlying message of the Kennedy funeral, a message many of the nation's sons (and daughters too) came bitterly to reject, especially when they took it also to mean that it is a sweet and seemly thing to kill for one's country. In that context Mitford's phrase "the American way of death" took on an ironic new meaning, referring less to how Americans died than to how they dealt death to others, with their technologically sophisticated planes, artillery, and napalm.

The spectacle of John Kennedy's funeral, like the spectacle of his life, inspired many observers across the land to comport themselves with courage, dignity, and patriotic self-sacrifice. But in the national schism that lay ahead, what counted as courage to one American signified cowardice to another, and love of country expressed itself in radically different forms, from excessive zeal to abject shame. If the nation mourned as one during the funeral of the president, it would mourn as many in the years to come."

source: Business Insider How Jackie Kennedy Orchestrated The Perfect Funeral


JFK TV Vintage Crisis Actors

JFK TV Vintage Crisis Actors  source: Blue Moon

 


End part two.