A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

"The rise of modern print culture The printing press and the relatively wide availability of printed materials further undermine the importance of the 'local community' in ... Feudal societies based on face-to-face loyalties and oral oaths begin to give way to nation-states and to nationalism based on a shared printed language." Marshall McLuhan: Theoretical elaborations

"The printing press gave rise to nationalism and nation states while the Internet is helping to create a world community."  Understanding New Media: Extending Marshall McLuhan

Article index

The Parabolic Flight Hoax Prologue: Cats In Fake Space

 
Parabolic Hoax 1.gif

A Revealing Edit: Cats On A Wire

Please notice the obvious straight cut.

We go from looking at what appears to be cats free of restraint to the same cats hooked up to invisible stage magician-style rigged wires.

(article last updated: 11:19 PM Monday, November 10, 2017 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)


effect 3.jpg

Red line approximates where wire would be.


You Will Believe Cats Can Fly

"Ever since the dawn of cinema, people have been flying by wire. In Fritz Lang’s 1927 classic Metropolis, for example, shots of flying machines soaring over the film’s iconic cityscapes were achieved by mounting miniature planes on taut wires."

"A similar technique was used in the original King Kong in 1933, for which a tiny squadron of biplanes was inched along its guide wires one painstaking frame at a time.

Here’s an extract from Ash’s article Substandard Miniature Shots, published in the May 1936 edition of American Cinematographer:

“I think that by far the most satisfactory way to handle miniature plane shots is to hang the plane from wires, as the professionals do. To begin with, stretch three parallel wires well above the path you want the plane to take: these are strictly for support. From these, hang a little T-shaped wooden framework, on pulleys or eyelets; this supports and guides the plane. From the framework, three wires descend to the plane – one to each wing, and one to the tail.”

Ash is at pains to point out to his enthusiastic amateur readers that the wires mustn’t show up on camera. If only a little camouflage is required, he recommends a light application of blue vitriol. A more extreme solution involves painting the wires with alternating black and white stripes, each around half an inch in length – Ash likens this bold approach to the dazzle camouflage used on WWII battleships."

source: Flying by Wire - Cinefex Blog    •    David Copperfield's flying illusion - Wikipedia   •    Mr. Bernds Goes to Hollywood: My Early Life and Career in Sound ...   •     A celebration of rotating movie sets | Den of Geek


Even pre-computer, Hollywood artists were always capable of impressive feats of illusion.

Between wire work, rotating film sets, old school visual effects darkroom wizardry, model building and the rest, we can see how a governmentally budgeted Hollywood style production can indeed easily fool many of us into believing things we really should not; all without resorting to digitally enhanced computer magic. Anyone who claims that NASA couldn't fake going to the Moon or other feats, in the 20th century, are either lying or simply do not know what they are talking about. Today, with obvious computing prowess, we have even less reason to buy into the so-called reality of anything we see on screens or in print.

effect 2s.jpg

"From a technical standpoint, one of his finest pieces of work appeared in 1951 - Royal Wedding, and its show-stopping song-and-dance sequence in which Fred Astaire appears to defy the laws of physics."

effects.jpg

NASA Fakery Sets The Stage For The 21st Century International Space Hoaxing Age

The NASA video below is an example of Hollywood film making technique. Please notice the straight cut. This is not one piece of unedited film at all. The edit reveals the fact that this imagery is contrived and not what it seems to be. Before the edit and cut between the different takes, we have the cats falling as expected. After the cut we have what appears to be traditional style wire-work of some kind. It seems pretty obvious from looking at the manner in which the felines appear to float, that they do not look like they are free from some kind of Hollywood special effect harness as one would expect were this a real example of a parabolic flight as claimed. We also see that there is clearly an edited cut in the footage. We can tell we are watching another piece of film that was shot at a different time. 

Special effects like this date back to at least the days of the film "The Black Pirate", if not earlier.

There's an impressive swimming scene in this film that is a flight like special effect.

The Black Pirate - Wikipedia  see: The History of Hollywood Magic Effects: The Black Pirate 1926 — A ...

Images Are Not Necessarily Evidence Of Events

Film and video footage, no matter how realistic and believable can not be logically used as evidence of anything. Yet we can examine the footage itself for signs of Hollywood style manipulation and special effects fakery which can be used as evidence that the footage does not represent a real event. As the next article will show, there is no real science, nor any real world experiment that can be done that demonstrates that a parabolic arc could produce this seeming antigravity effect in the first place. The same Paperclip Nazi scientists that dreamt up the rest of NASA & Disney sold early space race Cold War era cartoons and miniature work as reality to an unsuspecting public that was being fear conditioned with the early television duck and covering noise machine, dreamt up the illogically premised idea of a parabolic flight as well. This idea is just about as equally absurd as the nonsensical and undemonstrable concept of Newtonian orbital mechanics. Here we have yet again another example of fallaciously applied mathematical model as illogical proof that a concept is a valid representation of Natural principle. This is the basic modus operandi of government and religion, as cults of all kinds have long made use of mad schemes to entice unsuspecting minds into believing things they really should not.

Weightless Cats - I Can Has Gravity?  source: AIRBOYD

 


Fake Parabolic Flights Pave The Way For Hoaxed Zero Gravity Years Long Space Station Stays

Parabolic flights exist to sell the idea that the astronauts would experience a mythical and hand waved "free fall" that magically makes use of centrifugal effect to do the impossible. The same illogic that applies to the apparent zero gravity of fake international orbiting space stations applies here.


NASA studied emulating Moon like gravity with wires and trickery back in the 1960's.

Project Paperclip Nazi Scientist Bad Guys Magically Morph Into Washington Disney Children Friendly Outer Space NASA Good Guys

NASA apologetic aside, why engineer and build all this if NASA really had a parabolic arcing passenger jet, Vomit Comet ride as advertised?

"Parabolic flights as a way of simulating weightlessness was first proposed by the German aerospace engineer Fritz Haber and the German physicist Heinz Haber in 1950. Both had been brought to the US after World War II as part of Operation Paperclip.  Parabolic flights are also used to examine the effects of weightlessness on a living organism. While humans are by far the most common passengers, non-human animals have occasionally been involved in experiments, including a notable experiment on how weightlessness affected a domestic cat's righting reflex and a pigeon's attempts to navigate in a weightless state."

quote source: Reduced-gravity aircraft - Wikipedia

Reduced Gravity Simulator for Study of Man's Self Locomotion circa 1965 NASA Langley  source: Jeff Quitney

The Magic of Hand Crafted Mid 20th Century Illusions

Clever costume design hides wire rigged sin. Visual artifacts like wires and harness rigging can be hand painted out of sight. We've been seeing people fly around on screens or stages for years. We know that Christopher Reeve and David Copperfield can't really fly like they seem to.

David Copperfield's flying illusion - Wikipedia   •   Effects of days past: making Superman fly | fxphd


Why bother with cartoon physics and thought experiment based parabolic arcing flights of fancy when cartoon special effects and real world Hollywood engineering and production and editing techniques, can do the job just fine?

Even were we to play make believe and pretend parabolic flights make sense, and that we can do an experiment to scale that shows this concept working, making believe that we can model it in a classroom., we would still have to wonder why we would choose to risk any real harm and danger when it is not necessary? Why complicate the filming process?  Why limit our production to twenty second time intervals when we do not really have to? Filmmaking is best done in an extremely controlled environment. There is no reason to leave the relative safety of a Hollywood film set and studio to go to "outer space". In fact this is the only way one can go. Even if we were to unwisely assume the underlying science anything but the nonsense it actually is, there would still be no reason to emulate outset space with parabolic flights which only lasted around twenty seconds a shot. This would be an extremely time consuming and annoying process as opposed to the controlled environment of the wire rigged and rotatable film set with only union rules and labor law and National Security concerns defining how much time the crew had to get the desired series of film shots.


Techniques like hand painted matting and other fine art film fakery done manually with traditional tools like paint brushes can erase things like harnesses and wires from sight. A film or video is just a series of still pictures. Skilled craftspeople have been painting things like wires out of Hollywood filmed scenes for decades.

Skilled airbrush artists, for example, used to blow up the photographs they were employed to retouch and enhance up to a large size to work painted magic. A moving film is not different from still photography and both have always been somewhat easily manipulated provided one has the time and skill to do so. The Military has budgets that would make Hollywood salivate. Skilled artists have been retouching Hollywood film product for decades, painting out things like wires and even painting in things like parts of faces and bits of clothing and so on.

Visual Culture: Experiences in visual culture   •   Rotoscoping - Wikipedia   •   The Art of Wire Removal | fxguide

The Old Way Of Photo Retouching From The 1940's | Fstoppers  •   Motion Picture Photography: A History, 1891–1960


A Film or Video Is Merely A Series of Photographs

Cartoons can be hand drawn or photographic. Skilled artists have been retouching photographs for years, painting in lost facial features and otherwise fixing photo blemishes. Photorealistic illustration is nothing new. These skills have been used for years to produce commercial imagery for all sorts of advertising and entertainment and yes, (of course,) propaganda, applications.

"Photo manipulation involves transforming or altering a photograph using various methods and techniques to achieve desired results. Some photo manipulations are considered skillful artwork while others are frowned upon as unethical practices, especially when used to deceive the public, such as that used for political propaganda, or to make a product or person look better."

source: Photo manipulation - Wikipedia


PaintIng Electrical Magic

Hollywood sfx.jpg

Wire Removal

"Wire removal is a visual effects technique used to remove wires in films, where the wires are originally included as a safety precaution or to simulate flying in actors or miniatures. Wire removal can be partly automated through various forms of keying, or each frame can be edited manually. First, the live action plates of actors or models suspended on wires are filmed in front of a green screen. Editors can then erase the wires frame by frame, without worrying about erasing the backdrop, which will be added later. This can be accomplished automatically with a computer. If the sequence is not filmed in front of a green-screen, or with a green wire a digital editor must hand-paint the lines out. This can be an arduous task. The modern technique of wire removal was pioneered by Industrial Light and Magic, when they used it in films such as Howard the Duck (1986), Back to the Future Part II (1989), and Hook (1991)."

source: Wire removal - Wikipedia


239ed11216d2 copy.jpg

Tricks Aren't Just For Kids & Never Have Been

If a stage magician can fool an audience in person, governmentally commissioned video and film footage obviously can fool the viewing audience.

With all the obvious and numerous Hollywood darkroom special effects techniques, and tax based governmental budgeting, we can easily see how and why parabolic flights are not necessary at all and in fact make no sense in terms of film production of any kind. Having just 20 seconds to get a shot is really a limitation that studio fakery easily overcomes. Between rotating sets and basic wire harness work, (and all the post production magic) we can easily see how parabolic flight footage is faked. The sets can be turned and the camera too, so we think up and down are in different directions than they really were when the footage was shot.

TRICKS are for NASA.jpg

NASA Loves Tricks

"During the trick, Copperfield flies acrobatically on the stage, performs a backflip in midair, and then has spinning hoops passed around him, supposedly to prove that he is not suspended by wires. He then floats down into an acrylic glass box which has previously been examined by two audience members, and continues to float inside after the box is covered. An assistant walks over the top of the box, and Copperfield walks upside down moving his feet under the assistant's feet. He then selects a female volunteer from his audience and flies with her in a fashion similar to Superman carrying Lois Lane. The illusion sometimes ends with a falcon named Icarus grasping Copperfield by the wrist and flying off stage with him.

A blue backcloth is used in the background, and the television version uses fake clouds hanging from the ceiling, taking advantage of a larger stage than is used in theatrical appearances. The performance is accompanied by an orchestration called "East of Eden Suite" by film composer Lee Holdridge, originally written as the theme music for a 1981 miniseries based on the novel East of Eden.

Before performing, Copperfield often declares that it took him seven years to develop the performance, and shows a video describing for how long men had dreamed of flying, and how many people before him had tried unsuccessfully. Copperfield performed a much-shortened version of the illusion as the entrance in his sixteenth television special, The Magic of David Copperfield XV: Fires Of Passion, in 1993. The performance used a different background and music, in addition to burning spinning hoops."

quote & image source: David Copperfield's flying illusion - Wikiwand  •   David Copperfield's flying illusion - Wikipedia


F For Fake: Levitation Trickery Is An Oldie

"A levitation illusion is one in which a magician appears to defy gravity by making an object or person float in the air. The subject may appear to levitate unassisted, or it may be performed with the aid of another object (such as a silver ball floating around a cloth) in which case it is termed a "suspension". Various methods are used to create such illusions. The levitation of a magician or assistant can be achieved by a concealed platform or hidden wires, or in smaller-scale illusions by standing on tiptoe in a way that conceals the foot which is touching the ground."

source: Levitation (illusion) - Wikipedia

c-68 copy.jpg
trilby.jpg

Stage Magic Engineers Would Go On To Help Hollywood Create The Modern Special Effects Industry

"Martinka & Company is America's longest running magic company . Throughout the years the company has acquired and combined with over 30 other magic firms including Flosso-Hornmann, and Milton Chase, and its roots date back to the early 19th century."

"The business was founded as Martinka & Company in 1877, by two brothers: Francis and Antonio Martinka. It is claimed to be the oldest continuously operating magic shop in the United States. The back of their New York City store housed a workshop where the company was soon building magic illusions and props for virtually all the famous magicians of the day. In 1902, the Society of American Magicians was founded in Martinka's backroom. And, early on the Martinka magic shop became a hang-out and gathering spot where both famous and unknown, professional and amateur magicians alike could socialize, swap stories and share insights. Over the decades of its almost 150-year-old existence, generations of magic enthusiasts have congregated there. Customers of the past included Alexander Herrmann, Harry Kellar, Howard Thurston and Houdini. And in more recent times, Woody Allen, Penn & Teller, David Copperfieldand David Blaine, among others, have visited the shop.

The New York Times once described the shop while owned by the Flossos as, "a messy Aladdin's cave of magical marvels from trick cards and ropes to a live lion that one owner, the magician Carter the Great, kept in the back room. It was [like] a fraternity house where a visiting European magician . . . and a curious teenager from Queens might rub elbows, ideas, and magic wands.

Special Projects:  The Martinka brothers also built the special effects for number of shows, including the classic 1939 film production of "The Wizard of Oz". 

The Back Room:  Martinka's "Back Room" contained magical treasures dating back to the 1800s along with other secret items that were reserved for a select few. Being invited into the back room by Flosso was said by some to be a rite of passage in the world of magic. 

Owners:  The business has had a string of famous previous owners including Charles Joseph Carter The Great (1917), Harry Houdini (1919), Al Flosso the "Coney Island Fakir" (1939), and his son, Jackie Flosso. Today, the firm is run by Ted Bogusta and operates a brick and mortar shop with a mini museum, as well as an online magic auction. The company continues to purchase magic collections and libraries, which are used to supply magicians and collectors throughout the world with vintage and modern magic and memorabilia.

In 2004, the Martinka shop and museum relocated from NYC to Midland Park, New Jersey. The company has also now resumed the manufacture of magic tricks, illusions and props."

"Carter began his career as a journalist and lawyer. As time passed, he grew an interest in magic. Due to stiff competition from the number of magic acts on the American stages at the time, Carter opted to pursue his career abroad, where he achieved his greatest fame. Among the highlights of Carter's stage performances during his career were the classic "sawing a woman in half" illusion (an elaborate surgical-themed version with "nurses" in attendance), making a live elephant disappear and "cheating the gallows", where a shrouded Carter would vanish, just as he dropped at the end of a hangman's noose. Carter's first theatrical experience occurred at the Herzog's museum and Pat Harris' Masonic Temple in Baltimore at the age of 10, where he appeared as "Master Charles Carter the Original Boy Magician". Carter purchased the famous Martinka Magic Palace in 1917, a time when he was unable to continue his world touring magic show. The story goes that he kept his lion, Monty in the back room of the shop and when it would roar, the startled customers would run for the door."

sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Joseph_Carter   •   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martinka   •   Society of American Magicians   •    David Copperfield (illusionist) - Wikipedia


"Carter's first theatrical experience occurred at the Herzog's museum and Pat Harris' Masonic Temple in Baltimore at the age of 10, where he appeared as "Master Charles Carter the Original Boy Magician."

sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Joseph_Carter 


Twin Tales of Unfinished Quixotic Hollywood Quests: What Are The Odds?

Orson Welles Claims: "I once had a finished version where the Don and Sancho go to the Moon..."

"Welles himself explained, "I keep changing my approach, the subject takes hold of me and I grow dissatisfied with the old footage. I once had a finished version where the Don and Sancho go to the Moon, but then [the United States] went to the Moon, which ruined it, so I scrapped ten reels [100 minutes]."

sources: Don Quixote (unfinished film) - Wikiped


Happy Coincidence or Premeditated Contrivance?

Orson Welle's Failed Quest

Welle's Don Quixote Principal Photography duration‎: ‎1957–1972

"Don Quixote is an unfinished film project produced, written and directed by Orson Welles. Principal photography took place between 1957 and 1969. Test footage was filmed as early as 1955, second-unit photography was done as late as 1972, and Welles was working on the film intermittently until his death in 1985. The film was eventually edited by Jesús Franco and was released in 1992. It did not include all the footage shot for the film and received mixed reviews."

NASA 1958-1972

Project Mercury: 1958 - 1963   •   Apollo Program duration‎: ‎1961–1972

Orson Welles is known for a famous pre World War Two War of The Worlds Radio Hoax, which seems to be itself more of a myth than reality, in any case, is it not possible that he was perhaps involved in helping out NASA? We are supposed to believe that an expert film director like Orson Welles is too much the artist to understand how to make a film. If you read the description for Welle's Don Quixote you might notice how logically absurd the story is. The actors were aging as he was filming. The story of Welle's failure just does not make much sense to me. I think there's a good chance the story is cover for Welles being employed doing other more "top secret" things. Something to consider in light of this coincidence:

Terry Gilliam's Failed Quest Starts Just 3 Years Before 9/11/2001, Just Saying...

"The Man Who Killed Don Quixote is an upcoming fantasy-adventure-comedy film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by Gilliam and Tony Grisoni, loosely based on the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes. It is widely recognized as one of the most infamous examples of development hell in film history, with Gilliam unsuccessfully attempting to make the film a total of eight times over the span of nineteen years. Pre-production of the film first started in 1998,..."

Quixotic means: exceedingly idealistic; unrealistic and impractical. "a vast and perhaps quixotic project"

Moon landings, artificial orbits and even parabolic arcing flights are examples of quixotic quests.

Either we are to believe the Don Quixote story subject to magical curse or perhaps we might want to consider the story a coded cover of sorts.

"By the early 1980s, he was looking to complete the picture as an "essay film" in the style of his F for Fake and Filming Othello, using the footage of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza to compare the values of Cervantes' Spain, Franco's Spain (when the film was set), and modern-day Spain post-Franco. Welles himself explained, "I keep changing my approach, the subject takes hold of me and I grow dissatisfied with the old footage. I once had a finished version where the Don and Sancho go to the Moon, but then [the United States] went to the Moon, which ruined it, so I scrapped ten reels [100 minutes]. Now I am going to make it a film essay about the pollution of old Spain. But it's personal to me." However, he never filmed any of the footage necessary for this later variation."

sources: Don Quixote (unfinished film) - Wikipedia   •   Apollo program - Wikipedia   •   Project Mercury - Wikipedia    •    Orson Welles - Wikipedia    •    The Man Who Killed Don Quixote - Wikipedia   •   Quixotic | Definition of Quixotic by Merriam-Webster

FforFake2.jpg

Stock Footage - 1959 Project Mercury Astronauts in Zero Gravity Weightless Training   source: MyFootage.com

The propeller plane that was supposedly used to achieve the above feat:

"In 1959, a C-131 was the first aircraft to be used as a reduced-gravity aircraft or 'vomit comet', for astronaut training as part of Project Mercury."

source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convair_C-131_Samaritan


Never Trust Stage Illusionists

Stage Magician & Admitted Hoaxer, James Randi Lectures NASA

James Randi is a Hollywood kind of guy and I would bet he has done a little more than just lecture at NASA. I would guess someone like him would be useful for consulting on other more top secret style projects. Obviously NASA is little more than a Hollywood special effects studio, and they would certainly be interested in getting advice from experts in the art of staging believable illusions. Whether Randi himself actually consulted on such projects is speculative, what is not speculation is the fact that the international space programs of the world are clearly fake and yes even parabolic flights are simply flights of Hollywood fancy and do not represent reality either. One of the next articles will explore the underlying "science" that reveals the long standing hoax for what it is. Parabolic flights are fake too.

"I bet that most of you already know James Randi, but as a continue to my previous post, i felt like sharing this video for those who doesn't. Jame Randi is the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation, and the man that will pay the million dollar if someone wins the million dollar challenge. Take a look at this video first, from a lecture that he gave at NASA, really worth to watch:... James Randi has an international reputation as a magician and escape artist, but today he is best known as the world's most tireless investigator and demystifier of paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. Most of all, he is a very good speaker high high sense of humor."

source: Get to know the Amazing Randi [Video] - Time for Science - PCB Heaven   •   Industrial Light & Magic - Wikipedia


220px-Le_Voyage_dans_la_lune.jpg

"Shoot" Me To The Moon

Georges Méliès Film Pioneer, Special Effects Wizard & Amazing Stage Magician

"While working at the family factory, Méliès continued to cultivate his interest in stage magic, attending performances at the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, which had been founded by the magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin. He also began taking magic lessons from Emile Voisin, who gave him the opportunity to perform his first public shows, at the Cabinet Fantastique of the Grévin Wax Museum and, later, at the Galerie Vivienne.

In 1888, Méliès' father retired, and Georges Méliès sold his share of the family shoe business to his two brothers. With the money from the sale and from his wife's dowry, he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin. Although the theatre was "superb" and equipped with lights, levers, trap doors, and several automata, many of the available illusions and tricks were out of date, and attendance to the theatre was low even after Méliès' initial renovations. Over the next nine years, Méliès personally created over 30 new illusions that brought more comedy and melodramatic pageantry to performances, much like those Méliès had seen in London, and attendance greatly improved. One of his best-known illusions was the Recalcitrant Decapitated Man, in which a professor's head is cut off in the middle of a speech and continues talking until it is returned to his body. When he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès also inherited its chief mechanic Eugène Calmels and such performers as Jehanne D'Alcy, who would become his mistress and, later, his second wife. While running the theatre, Méliès also worked as a political cartoonist for the liberal newspaper La Griffe, which was edited by his cousin Adolphe Méliès. As owner of the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès began working more behind the scenes than on stage. He acted as director, producer, writer, set and costume designer, as well as inventing many of the magical tricks. With the theatre's growing popularity, he brought in magicians including Buatier De Kolta, Duperrey, and Raynaly to the theatre. Along with magic tricks, performances included fairy pantomimes, an automaton performance during intermissions, magic lantern shows, and special effects such as snowfall and lightning. In 1895, Méliès was elected president of the Chambre Syndicale des Artistes Illusionistes."

"On the evening of 28 December 1895, Méliès attended a special private demonstration of the Lumière brothers' cinematograph, given for owners of Parisian houses of spectacle.[5][a] Méliès immediately offered the Lumières 10,000₣ for one of their machines; the Lumières refused, anxious to keep a close control on their invention and to emphasize the scientific nature of the device. (For the same reasons, they refused the Musée Grévin's 20,000₣ bid and the Folies Bergère's 50,000₣ bid the same night.)[5] Méliès, intent on finding a film projector for the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, turned elsewhere; numerous other inventors in Europe and America were experimenting with machines similar to the Lumières' invention, albeit at a less technically sophisticated level. Possibly acting on a tip from Jehanne d'Alcy, who may have seen Robert W. Paul's Animatograph film projector while on tour in England, Méliès traveled to London. He bought an Animatograph from Paul, as well as several short films sold by Paul and by the Edison Manufacturing Company. By April 1896, the Théâtre Robert-Houdin was showing films as part of its daily performances. Méliès, after studying the design of the Animatograph, modified the machine so that it would serve as a film camera.[7] As raw film stock and film processing labs were not yet available in Paris, Méliès purchased unperforated film in London, and personally developed and printed his films through trial and error. In September 1896, Méliès, Lucien Korsten, and Lucien Reulos patented the Kinètographe Robert-Houdin, a cast iron camera-projector, which Méliès referred to as his "coffee grinder" and "machine gun" because of the noise that it made. By 1897 technology had caught up and better cameras were put on sale in Paris, leading Méliès to discard his own camera and purchase several better cameras made by Gaumont, the Lumières, and Pathé."

"Méliès made only 27 films in 1898, but his work was becoming more ambitious and elaborate. His films included the historical reconstruction of the sinking of the USS Maine Divers at Work on the Wreck of the "Maine", the magic trick film The Famous Box Trick, and the féerie The Astronomer's Dream. In this film, Méliès plays an astronomer who has the Moon cause his laboratory to transform and demons and angels to visit him. He also made one of his first of many religious satires with The Temptation of Saint Anthony, in which a statue of Jesus Christ on the cross is transformed into a seductive woman, played by Jeanne d'Alcy. He continued to experiment with his in-camera special effects, such as a reverse shot in A Dinner Under Difficulties, where he hand cranked a strip of film backwards through his camera to achieve the effect. He also experimented with superimposition, where he would film actors in a black background, then rewind the film through the camera and expose the footage again to create a double exposure. These films included The Cave of the Demons, in which transparent ghosts haunt a cave, and The Four Troublesome Heads, in which Méliès removes his own head three times and creates a musical chorus. Achieving these effects was extremely difficult and required skill. In a 1907 article, Méliès noted: "Every second the actor playing different scenes ten times has to remember, while the film is rolling, exactly what he did at the same point in the preceding scenes and the exact place where he was on the stage." Méliès made 48 films in 1899 as he continued to experiment with special effects, for example in the early horror film Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb. The film is not a historical reconstruction of the Egyptian Queen, and instead depicts her mummy being resurrected in modern times. Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb was believed to be a lost film until a copy was discovered in 2005 in Paris.[12] That year, Méliès also made two of his most ambitious and well-known films. In the summer he made the historical reconstruction The Dreyfus Affair, a film based on the then-ongoing and controversial political scandal, in which the Jewish French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus was falsely accused and framed for treason by his commanders. Méliès was pro-Dreyfus and the film depicts Dreyfus sympathetically as falsely accused and unjustly incarcerated on Devil's Island prison. At screenings of the film, fights broke out between people on different sides of the debate and the police eventually banned the final part of the film where Dreyfus returns to prison. Later that year, Méliès made the féerie Cinderella, based on Charles Perrault's fairy tale. The film was six minutes long and had a cast of over 35 people, including Bleuette Bernon in the title role. It was also Méliès' first film with multiple scenes, known as tableaux. The film was very successful across Europe and in the United States, playing mostly in fairgrounds and music halls. American film distributors such as Siegmund Lubin were especially in need of new material both to attract their audience with new films and to counter Edison's growing monopoly. Méliès' films were particularly popular, and Cinderella was often screened as a featured attraction even years after its U.S. release in December 1899.[14] Such U.S. filmmakers as Thomas Edison were resentful of the competition from foreign companies and after the success of Cinderella, attempted to block Méliès from screening most films in the U.S.; but they soon discovered the process of creating film dupes (duplicate negatives). Méliès and others then established the trade union Chambre Syndicale des Editeurs Cinématographiques as a way to defend themselves in foreign markets. Méliès was made the first president of the union, serving until 1912, and the Théâtre Robert-Houdin was the group's headquarters."

"In May 1902, Méliès made the film A Trip to the Moon which was loosely based on Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon and H. G. Wells' The First Men in the Moon. In the film, Méliès stars as Professor Barbenfouillis, a character similar to the astronomer he played in The Astronomer's Dream in 1898. Professor Barbenfouillis is the President of the Astronomer's Club and proposes an expedition to the Moon. A space vehicle in the form of a large artillery shell is built in his laboratory, and he uses it to launch six men (including himself) on a voyage to the Moon. The vehicle is shot out of a large cannon into space and hits the Man in the Moon in the eye. The group explores the Moon's surface before going to sleep. As they dream, they are observed by the Moon goddess Phoebe, played by Bleuette Bernon, who causes it to snow. Later, while underground, they are attacked and captured by a group of Moon aliens, played by acrobats from the Folies Bergère. Taken before the alien king, they manage to escape and are chased back to their spaceship. Then, with the aid of a rope attached to the spaceship, the men, along with an alien, fall from the Moon back to Earth, landing in the ocean (where a superimposed fish tank creates the illusion of the deep ocean). Eventually the spaceship is towed ashore and the returning adventurers are celebrated by the townspeople. At 14 minutes, it was Méliès' longest film up to that date and cost 10,000 francs to produce."

"Georges Méliès, the pioneer filmmaker, shot faked footage of the war of 1897—including the earliest shots of what was claimed to be naval warfare, and some horrific scenes of atrocities in Crete. All were created in his studio or his back yard in Paris."

sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Méliès#Stage_career   •   The Early History of Faking War on Film | History | Smithsonian


War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination

"Back in Hollywood, First Lieutenant Ronald Reagan was taking part in what he refers to in his autobiography as one of the major "secrets of war, ranking up with the atom bomb project": creating a complete miniature of Tokyo, so authentic in detail that even top Air Corps generals could not distinguish it from reality. Footage of fake bomb runs on the toy city were then used to brief bombing crews, who were taken by Reagan’s voice over narrative all the way to his dramatic “Bombs away.” As areas of Tokyo were burned out, Reagan tells how the Hollywood team would “burn out” their counterparts in “our target scene,” obliterating along with the city, the boundaries between illusion and reality.”

source: War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination

"One of the war's best-kept secrets was a film called "Target Tokyo," which Reagan narrated. It simulated an actual air raid on Japan. Special-effects men were flown to Washington for briefings on every known landmark--cemeteries, rice paddies, factories, geisha joints." "The first fire-bomb target simulated was Ota, where Nakajima was mass-producing the deadly new fighter plane, Ki-84. From match sticks, piano wire, plaster and cheesecloth, the FMPU's model makers replicated the entire route to Ota."

"Above the 90-by-90-foot scale model swung a camera crane with a clever synchronous interlock drive designed by Sgt. Don Klopfel. Cotton clouds were added for further realism."

http://articles.latimes.com/1985-05-22/news/vw-16948_1_culver-city

From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of DeForest Kelley, Star ...

The Essential Ronald Reagan: A Profile in Courage, Justice, and Wisdom



Screens & Photographs May Or May Not Represent Reality

With modern technology it is that much easier to craft believable imagery. Most of what is sold to us as real by military industrial complex, can be easily explained with old school film fakery updated for modern digital times. The same old darkroom techniques morph into the magical age of digital wizardry of today. Computers make creating believable illusions of space and floating blobs of liquid as easy as crafting a common TV commercial or even television show effect sequence. High budgeted Hollywood product and governmentally funded propaganda are that much more believable. A problem arises when we go back and look at the 1950's and 1960's and even later footage. It is obvious that the highly edited sequences do not represent reality at all. The effect shots stand out like proverbial soar digits and obvious miniature rocketry with magical flying cameras are on display for all to see. Even worse the old World War footage also shows similar signs of pure fakery fun. Atom bombs and huge rockets are not real. What also lacks reality are a whole lot of claimed military prowess which turns out to be nothing but cartoon imagery of moving photographic pedigree.

Tom Crusin' for some hot young stud summer loving, Top Gun fighter jet fun is the stuff of Hollywood fairytale social programming propaganda and naught else.

movies-before-after-visual-effects-31.jpg

More to come.

The next articles will explore the whacked out world of fallacious "science" sold as reality. Between parabolic arced nonsense, Newton's orbital fallacies and Einstein's absurdist notions, there is no reason to believe anything that comes out of any of the international space fakery programs. Even imagined weightless water can be simulated without computer magic, which is how it is easily done today. Back before computer generated aquatic effects, old school silicone style. composited globs of movie magic would seem to be how the trick would have been done. Future articles will get into all of that.


The Project Mercury Theatre Hoax:

Film & Video is Proof of Nothing: This is just a photographic cartoon.

There are many ways this effect could have been achieved back in the 1960's. This could be an example of rear or front screen projection or even just photographic style compositing, with mattes, like a literal photographic cartoon. The real weaponry of governmental prowess would seem to include Hollywood film magic.

giphy.gif

image source: Space Exploration GIF by US National Archives - Find & Share on GIPHY

"The 15-minute flight went into space and came back down. His Mercury capsule was named Freedom 7. Years later, Shepard walked on the moon as ..."

source: What Was Project Mercury? | NASA    •    Mercury Theatre - Wikipedia


Never forget to believe none of what you hear and only half of what you see.


"Orson Welles' Magic Show is an unfinished television special by Orson Welles, filmed between 1976 and 1985."

"In it, Welles performs various magic tricks for the camera, promising that no trick photography is used."

"Welles had a lifelong interest in magic, having been taught his first magic tricks by Harry Houdini in the 1920s, when Welles was still a boy. He had already demonstrated his magic tricks in a number of films and television programmes including Follow the Boys (1944), Magic Trick (1953), Casino Royale (1967), and on his own unsuccessful 1979 pilot for The Orson Welles Show. After Orson Welles' death in 1985, all of his unfinished films were bequeathed to his long-term companion and mistress Oja Kodar, and she in turn donated many of them (including Orson Welles' Magic Show) to the Munich Film Museum for preservation and restoration. In 2000 the Munich Film Museum then edited together the complete footage into a 27-minute cut, which has subsequently been screened at numerous film festivals. The restored footage has never been released on video or DVD."

source: Orson Welles' Magic Show - Wikipedia


Project Mercury Theatre

"The Fountain of Youth is a 1956 television pilot for an anthology series that was never produced. It was broadcast once, on September 16, 1958, on NBC's Colgate Theatre. The short film was written and directed by Orson Welles, based on the short story "Youth from Vienna" by John Collier. Joi Lansing and Rick Jason star as a narcissistic couple faced with an irresistible temptation concocted by a scientist (Dan Tobin). Welles himself is also much in evidence as onscreen narrator."

"It was intended to inaugurate a series of short stories Welles would narrate and direct in the First Person Singular style of his Mercury Theatre on the Air and Campbell Playhouse radio series, but with his innovative radio techniques adapted for the visual intimacy of the newer medium," wrote Welles biographer Joseph McBride. "Welles described it to me as his only 'film conceived for the box'. The vaudeville-show tone and blackout style, suited to the 1920s setting, lend unsettling dark humor to this fable about human vanity … As the faintly sinister host, Welles is so ubiquitous a presence, sometimes even mouthing the characters words, that he becomes their puppet master, darkly amused by their self-destructive foibles."

"After a series of acclaimed Broadway productions, the Mercury Theatre progressed into its most popular incarnation as The Mercury Theatre on the Air. The radio series included one of the most notable and infamous radio broadcasts of all time, "The War of the Worlds", broadcast October 30, 1938."

"The Mercury Theatre on the Air produced live radio dramas in 1938–1940 and again briefly in 1946."

source: The Fountain of Youth   •   Mercury Theatre - Wikipedia


An Elite Island Post Script: Places To Go To Get Away From It All

"Musha Cay and the Islands of Copperfield Bay"

"In 2006, Copperfield bought eleven Bahamian islands called Musha Cay. Renamed "The Islands of Copperfield Bay", the islands are a private resort. Guests have reportedly included Oprah Winfrey and John Travolta. Google co-founder Sergey Brin was married there. Copperfield has stated that the islands may contain the Fountain of Youth, a claim which resulted in him receiving a Dubious Achievement Award from Esquire Magazine in 2006."

"Musha Cay is a 150-acre (¼ of a square mile), privately owned island in the Exuma Chain, in the southern Bahamas. It is located 85 miles (137 km) southeast of Nassau. It is owned by illusionist David Copperfield. Musha Cay is surrounded by three smaller islands that maintain its guests' privacy. There can only be one group of guests, numbering up to twenty-four, at any one time. Google co-founder Sergey Brin was married on Musha Cay in May 2007."

source: Musha Cay  •  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Copperfield_(illusionist)


Stage Magicians Really Love NASA: Penn & Teller Are Obvious Propagandists

Do not believe the accounts of comedians.

The Military Industrial Entertainment Industry Is A Real Governmental Weapon of Mass Destruction

"NASA’S SUCCESSFUL QUANTIFYING OF COMEDY TIMING (By Penn Jillette and Teller)"

"Every morning we’d be up at 3:30 a.m., eat our traditional astronaut breakfast of steak and eggs, and sit in the car in the pouring rain like we were making out listening to the radio. It was raining the whole week of our first shuttle, and my team of space fans would get up every morning at 5 a.m. in the rain and sit in our car, dead tired, listening to the “voice of NASA,” waiting for the mission to be scrubbed. We knew it would be scrubbed when we saw the rain coming down in sheets, but our motto was, “If the astronauts are getting up, we’re getting up.” Finally, after several days of getting up after not going to sleep, eating donuts in the car for three hours, and then driving back to a dive hotel with nothing to do but speculate on the chances of the launch going up in the next window, it was a perfect morning. We were there in our rental car among all the RVs. Our area was all retired people in RVs with “Good Sam” stickers. Some of these people were pros: they had seen a couple Saturn Ills. Having seen an Apollo mission go up is the space brag equivalent of having seen the Velvet Underground live in ‘67. We were neophytes and we didn’t really fit in. We weren’t even “Good Sams.”  When it got close to going, we all got out of our vehicles. The Sams were wary of us. We were relatively young, we had leather jackets and sunglasses, and we were making loud jokes. The Sams had seen launches before, they understood things we didn’t. They knew that it wasn’t a time to be joking. That’s the weird thing about NASA’s Successful Quantifying of Comedy Timing — NASA isn’t really in the comedy business. 

The countdown gets close. We get down into double digits. It’s dawn and you can see the shuttle artificially lit, glowing brilliantly five miles away. Mankind’s lights are kicking dawn’s ass in the candlepower department, and NASA hasn’t really started yet. The countdown gets to single digits, and you can see the engine start. They’re on their way to space. The old guy in Bermuda shorts next to me was ready; he had his handkerchief out. None of us punks were ready. The emotions caught us by surprise, we had our sun-glasses in our hands and tears pouring all over our faces. Three loves-of-my-life have left me because I wouldn’t cry over them the way I cried over that first space shuttle. Good Sam had his handkerchief all ready, but we had to improvise. All we could do was unzip our leather jackets, untuck our T-shirts, and pull them up to our faces. Then the P.A. system says, “Welcome to space,” and I wished I’d brought another T-shirt because the one I had on was soaked with tears of awe. They were orbiting before we got back to our car. They went from five G’s to weightless in the time it took me to stop sobbing. I know, I know, I know — you’ve seen pictures of shuttle launches in the paper, and you’ve seen them on TV, and you saw Apollo 13 and that was the bigger rocket, the VU live Saturn 5, and Opie did such a great job, you couldn’t tell it was digital. Maybe you even saw the Imax movie, The Dream Is Alive. What a great movie, with Pinky, Ox, and Sally Ride, the sexiest woman that ever lived. In her tight blue shorts, that hair, those brains, that T-shirt, no bra, and no gravity. Goddamn me. Help me. Mr. Lee, you can keep Pamela Anderson, give me Dr. Sally to ride. Even if you’ve seen all that and you think you know majesty, accomplishment, and the wonder that is technology and humanity. Bullfeathers! You think you know that from TV? Huh? Well, don’t make me laugh, I have chapped lips. When you see a shuttle go up and you see it live, make sure you bring a very big hanky. Your eyes are going to be squirting. You’re going to be a big, screaming, little crybaby.

I turned into the shuttle junkie. I’ve been to every launch I was able to make, and that isn’t enough. Thankfully, I wasn’t able to make it down to the Challenger launch and I don’t watch TV. I won’t even try to imagine what it must have felt like to have that level of joy smash head on into that depth of tragedy. I feel sorry for anyone who saw that, and as far as the NASA people and the families — I can’t even think about that much pain. There was nothing good about the Challenger disaster, but it did happen on the day that L. Ron Hubbard died and it blew that useless, evil, rat bastard’s obituary off the
front page and that, at least, wasn’t bad."

source: NASA'S SUCCESSFUL QUANTIFYING OF COMEDY TIMING (By ...

"The countdown gets close. We get down into double digits. It’s dawn and you can see the shuttle artificially lit, glowing brilliantly five miles away."

Never Trust Court Jesters

Five miles away and five miles of atmosphere to interfere with what the witnesses (two comedian, stage magicians) claim to have seen.  Five miles would seem to make for a good magic trick sort of "screen". Please notice that there is no mention of binoculars, telescope nor telescopic lens on camera. I have a feeling that most of the claims about seeing actual NASA rocket launches more hearsay telephone myth than reality. Any reality to telephone game gossip is bound to be not as advertised. Large rocketry would seem to be an impossibility. The very real atmosphere would present a huge obstacle to achieving NASA's and other's claims of rocket balance and velocity, not to mention that magic control they somehow have over the rockets that enables the precise maneuvering needed to achieve imagined orbit. The entire huge rocket program is nothing but a huge long standing governmental stage illusion magic trick, with many different parts. That is what all the evidence points to. If anyone saw anything rise up into the sky, in the sluggish manner of what appears to be just Disney style miniature special effects work, it was more than likely some kind of balloon. Real (and much smaller) rockets shoot up into the sky more like bullets fired from a gun rather than the slow balloon like rise of NASA and other international space agency special effected propaganda contrivance.


Spaced Out Post Script II: The Chicken Little Defense

"Is Earth more likely or less likely to be hit by an asteroid or comet now as compared to, say, 20 million years ago? Several studies have claimed to have found periodic variations, with the probability of giant impacts increasing and decreasing in a regular pattern. Now a new analysis shows those simple periodic patterns to be statistical artifacts. The results indicate either that Earth is as likely to suffer a major impact now as it was in the past, or that there has been a slight increase impact rate events over the past 250 million years."

source: Avoiding Nemesis: Does impact rate for asteroids and comets vary ...   •   Scientists Predict When Earth Will Be Hit By | The Daily Caller   •   Nemesis Star Theory: The Sun's 'Death Star' Companion - Space.com

1943 Chicken Little source: ThEpErsOnLiGHts

It's Foolish To Follow Leaders: The Path of Self Education Is The Better Way To Go

It's unwise to look to thought leaders of one kind or another to provide you with models for things like the Universe, thought and behavior. Learn why and how things work for yourself rather than waiting for some messiah to arrive to save you. God helps those who help themselves, is relevant cliche. If you self educate with critical minded approach, you might notice things most people do not seem to.

Government relies on existential threats we cannot verify to survive and thrive, using fear based social conditioning to spread like cancer.


Post Script III: AA Proper Gander At A Stage Mother-Goose:

"Tsurumi notes. In the first scene, the stage directions show her raising a storm and, for the very first time, flying a gander."

"Ryoji Tsurumi has shown that the transition from a shadowy generic figure to one with such concrete actions was effected at a pantomime Harlequin and Mother Goose: or, The Golden Egg in 1806–07.[20] The pantomime was first performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on 29 December, and many times repeated in the new year. Harlequin and Mother Goose: or, The Golden Egg, starred the famous clown Joseph Grimaldi and was written by Thomas Dibdin, who invented the actions suitable for a Mother Goose brought to the stage and recreated her as a witch-figure, Tsurumi notes. In the first scene, the stage directions show her raising a storm and, for the very first time, flying a gander. The magical Mother Goose transformed the old miser into Pantaloon of the commedia dell'arte and the British pantomime tradition, and the young lovers Colin and Colinette into Harlequin and Columbine. She was played en travesti by Samuel Simmons – a pantomime tradition that survives today – and she also raises a ghost in a macabre churchyard scene."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Goose#Pantomime

"Old Mother Goose, When she wanted to wander, Would ride through the air, On a very fine gander.
Jack's mother came in, And caught the goose soon, And mounting its back, Flew up to the moon."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Goose#.22Old_Mother_Goose.22


Post Script IV: The Rise of The Post World War Two Military Industrial Entertainment Complex™

Recommended Reading:  Science of Coercion by Christopher Simpson

"A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era..."

"Since World War II, the U.S. government's national security campaigns have usually overlapped with the commercial ambitions of major advertisers and media companies, and with the aspirations of an enterprising stratum of university administrators and professors. Military, intelligence, and propaganda agencies such as the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency helped bankroll substantially all of the post-World War II generation's research into techniques of persuasion, opinion measurement, interrogation, political and military mobilization, propagation of ideology, and related questions. The persuasion studies, in particular, provided much of the scientific underpinning for modern advertising and motivational techniques. This government-financed communication research went well beyond what would have been possible with private sector money alone and often exploited military recruits, who comprised a unique pool of test subjects." 

source: Science of Coercion - Historical Underbelly


Up Next: How To Simulate Liquids Without Computers

The next article will focus on how floating blobs of water would be crafted back before CGI magic.

"Most reports state that the film was budgeted at $240,00 but Yeaworth confirms it was $120,000; in any case the production costs were certainly rock bottom, even for a B movie. The Blob was filmed mainly at Valley Forge Film Studios in Pennsylvania but there were a few other local locations that can still be visited by fans of the film. (One of the towns used for filming supposedly has a Blob Museum). Shooting took a speedy three weeks. Since there was little money for special effects, the producers were fortunate to have Barton Sloane as their "monster maker." He developed a blob compound that would flow slowly without sticking to everything in its path."

"Some effects were done by placing blob material in miniature sets or even on a still photograph but so skillfully that this is rarely noticeable."

source: http://www.tcm.com/this-month/article/31590%7C0/The-Blob.html

see also: http://video.disney.com/watch/live-action-and-special-effects-4bb39cc5c706aa8833003b15


How to simulate floating liquid with strobe lights:

Film composites of strobe lit water combined with wire harnessed actor-nauts might provide rational and demonstrable explanation for what is obviously Hlolywood, stage magic illusion as shown to the public in the early 1970's, well before the ubiquitous use of CGI.

"But using a strobe light it is possible to create the illusion that the water is levitating, visible to the eye. A proper strobe light like LED can light up the water for a very short period of time every period."

source: The Strobe Light Effect (Levitating Water) | ElectroBoom   •   To Levitate Water, Turn on the Strobe Lights - Discoblog : Discoblog


Digital Painting Is Derived From Traditional Painting

Computers simply make doing traditional film special effects that much simpler. Hand painted photo strips get updated for digital times.

"Until the late 1990s, effects like the water tentacle in The Abyss were drawn into the computer one frame at a time by hand, as with traditional cell animation, or by laying liquid-looking skins over solid, computer-generated frames."

"Before 1998, computer fluid effects were animated manually, rather than simulated. The famous "water tentacle" from The Abyss was created by digitally painting a water "skin" over the computer model of a solid tentacle. The CG supervisor for The Abyss was John Knoll, Adobe Photoshop inventor and Industrial Light and Magic effects guru."

source: And the Oscar Goes To: Fluid Simulation Algorithms! | Popular Science


Los Alamos National Laboratory 1950's - 1960's Liquid Simulation

Could computer generated fluid simulation be older than we know?

"Before the computer graphics industry got involved, fluids simulation was being actively modeled mathematically as early as the 1950's and 60's. One of the research institutes that had a major impact, back in the 60's, was the T3 group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. James Harlow was the head of that group. Harlow and his team invented much of what we as an industry use today, including techniques we have explained below such as the the staggered marker-and-cell (MAC) grid structure, along with the Particle In Cell (PIC) method, which was the precursor to modern day FLIP, MPM and other hybrid methods (see below)."

source: https://www.fxguide.com/featured/the-science-of-fluid-sims/

1940s 1950s 1960s 1990s 1970s 2000s Future 1980s Today

Los Alamos.jpg

source: Computer Simulation of Liquids - Page 1 - Google Books Result

"Weapons Simulation Leads to the Computer Era"

"D u r i n g W o r l d W a r 11, t h e p r i m a r y mission at Los Alamos was to design, build, and proof-test a fission bomb. The problems presented a variety of technical challenges, both experimental and theoretical. They were hard but eventually proved solvable. Some of the theoretical analysis was accomplished by analytical procedures, but most required tedious numerical evaluations cranked out on desk-top calculators or on electro- mechanical business machines using punch cards and sets of plug boards ap- propriately wired for different types of calcu- lations. These last devices, with a separate machine for each functional or calculational step, constituted the Laboratory's first rudi- mentary computer. Stored-program, high- speed, electronic computers were not used until after the war; they simply didn't exist. However, this experience of the war years was enough to excite the involved scientists and engineers to the power of mechanized calculations and acted as a tremendous spur to the postwar development of the modern computer. "

source: http://permalink.lanl.gov/object/tr?what=info:lanl-repo/lareport/LA-UR-83-5073


Physical Simulations With Computer Color Graphics by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, United States Energy Research and Development Administration

Publication date 1975-05

Could computer graphics have been more developed than this back in the early 1970's? Could (convincing) computer graphics technology be older than we realize? Could believable liquid simulations have been rendered back in the early 1970's? Is such speculation really out of line?

The next article in this series will explore simulated fluid dynamics, considering analog and digital possibilities as explanation for what would seem to be an otherwise impossible feat. Parabolic flights would not logically result in magical zero gravity and that will also be covered in this series.


NASA JPL & CGI in The 1970's:

"Within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, state of the art computer graphics animation is done in the Computer Graphics Laboratory. The topics of the animations cover many scientific disciplines. Specific features of the system developed there, both hardware and software, are discussed. The prime mover of the effort is Dr. James F. Blinn of Pasadena; his role and experiences are elaborated. Their current largest project is The Mechanical Universe; the system is used for its production."

For more: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01900326