A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Then a mighty strange thing happened.  Guess you could call it fate. You see, a gust of wind blew the picture frame down and it landed on the muckety-muck's head And the mice they all went crazy. For the first time they saw the lie.

It was all a hoax on just simple folks. And the muckety-muck must die. And die he did. The members of his staff they just fled. They were scared. Hah. Just not prepared." - Song: The Proper Gander. Songwriter: Bobby Darin

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich
Article index

Artificial Satellites Do Not Exist Part Two: The Great Balloon Hoax

Edgar Allen Poe Presents: The Adventures of Monkey Mason on the Moon

Image matters more than substance. Parroting is rewarded over critical thought and judgment. Heroic and tragic narrative are sold to the mass public as icons to be idolized. Empty celebrity worship is encouraged and the truly independently minded, self actualized human being is in short supply. Today’s electronically enchanted and enhanced, socially connected global environment is an invisible, and very real mental prison for many of us. The individual human imagination is bound to and confined by a very inhuman system of blind commercial enterprise.

Virtual Reality Is Culture

A bunch of small steps on a Hollywood sound stage. Nearly half a century later we still can't wait on a line for a trip to the low Earth orbit Hilton Hotel. We also can't fly to the Moon. Most of us will never get to visit those elite film sets. Only the elite few get to appear on camera in "outer space".

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONING: THE POWER OF THE PRINTED WORD BECOMES THE POWER OF THE MOVING IMAGE

Marshal McLuhan puts our electronic age into context.

Marshall McLuhan 1965 - The Future of Man in the Electric Age

"Fake News" is Nothing New

People used to rely on the unverifiable claims propagated by world travelers of one kind or another. Royal Naval tall tales were spread by word of mouth. This gave way to the written and then printed word, telegraph, film, radio, television and now this newer electronic medium of the digital age. Heroic sea battles and the deaths of so-called "great men", are the stuff of history. Yet such history is very questionable.

Civilizations rely on mythology to tie together a united human work force into a culture. History is a mixture of fact and fiction. History is a global mythology. Wars, and other historical events are more contrived and scripted than most understand.

Wars, assassinations, tragic and inspiring events are sold to the public in a very tabloid manner that emphasizes image over substance. Photography has always been a visually manipulative process that descended from the prior arts of narrative oil painting, drawing and etchings. The News journal is the mass produced product of the age of the industrial printing press.

Inspiring and horrific events are used as the carrots and sticks to get us the human resource to continue to turn the wheels of industry. Images of great warriors and explorers have long been used to define the bounds of reason for the mass public.

 

Mass produced News has always been a source of very questionable and at times, obvious fallacious, ideas.

 

Some of these ideas are literally sewn into the fabric of our collective history. Fake News stories of the past become the history the student learns about today. The 9/11 event from 2001 is a great example of how impossible events are sold to the public as demonstrable fact. Two passenger jets could not possibly cause the level of seemingly carefully conducted demolition that occurred that day. Logic and reason tell us that the event on 9/11 was indeed a inside job, complete with high level News Media involvement, and what would have to be carefully rigged demotions of huge structures. The Apollo 11 Moon landings were obviously shot on a Hollywood set. And there are more problems with NASA videos and photographs than I can get into in one article. NASA and the space programs of the world are obvious long standing con jobs. The world is not run as we are told it is. A caste of elite level university trained minds manage the governments of the world for the old royal interests who still run the show. Ours is a global world order that has existed for centuries. Nation states are useful fictions, designed to keep the mass public believing in the need for government in the first place. "We the people" is a marketing slogan with no legal weight. National pride and all sorts of divisions are encouraged with the purpose of keeping us the mass human workforce toiling away for all time.

The News & The Arts Define Culture

Authors, actors, artists and other sorts of performers, have long been employed by various media outlets to produce content that would define the limits of taste, fashion and common sense. Our collective history is filled with examples of fiction authors being involved with the supposed recounting of real events that would become History. As it turns out many of these events are little more than publicity stunts and other forms of public psychological style "pranks".

Yellow journalistic tabloid practices are taken for granted by today's consumer conditioned mass audience. Hand held electronic smart phones put the television screen into everyone's hand nearly all the time. The electronic technology of today means we can always be a member of an eternal national or even international audience. 

Pathé Films:Segundo de Chomón - Métamorphoses (1912)

Métamorphoses (1912) Director: Segundo de Chomón Production: Pathé

Pathé Films: The Red Spectre

"In 1908, Pathé invented the newsreel that was shown in cinemas prior to a feature film."

"Today, Pathé is a major film production and distribution company, owns a great number of cinema chains, across Europe but mainly in France, including 66% of the Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé a joint venture between Pathé and the Gaumont Film Company, and several television networks across Europe. It is the second oldest still-operating film company in the world, predating Universal Studios and Paramount Pictures, second only to the French Gaumont Film Company studio."

Pathé

The Red Spectre (1907) Segundo de Chomón "This film was released in France in 1907 and was directed by Segundo de Chomón. In this film a magical red spectre makes all manner of evil come to life."

The News Media was always part of Hollywood.

The predecessor to today's ubiquitous newscast was the newsreel. Newsreels were created by the same people who pioneered film production and the recording industry. The crafting of mass culture was always a big money making enterprise. The newsreel of the early 20th century is the template and foundation for the modern News most take as Gospel. The trusted news journalists are the modern priest and rabbi who are meant to define the bounds of reason and the imagination for us. Hollywood produced product reinforces the News narratives in one way or another.

At the highest levels the same banking caste runs Hollywood, the News and the Governments of the World. These institutions do not exist to serve us, we exist to serve them. Pop culture has always been the real WMD that governments use to keep us, the vast human resource in our place.

AP News, Reuters, Getty Images and the rest,  show us how the news is crafted and manipulated. We are shown highly edited content and told what to think and how to feel about it. We have been conditioned to accept the authority of the narrator, backed by highly edited content, over common sense. 

"Well I’ll be a monkey's uncle! I would never have thought that tourists would go into space!‎"

I'll be a monkey's uncle - Wiktionary

Monck Mason's Trip

Many authors known for fanciful fictional creations are also known for being journalists. Edgar Alan Poe is one example of many. Fact and fantasy are liberally mixed together to create the mass produced print material sold as current events. Dramatic character driven soap operative narratives are the stuff of Pulitzer Prize winning pieces. Journalism was never meant to inform as much as it was designed to allow for the mass manipulation of the cultural environment.

Edgar Alan Poe Moons The Sun With A Thought Balloon Cartoon

"The Balloon-Hoax" is the title used in collections and anthologies of a newspaper article written by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in 1844. Originally presented as a true story, it detailed European Monck Mason's trip across the Atlantic Ocean in only three days in a gas balloon. It was later revealed as a hoax and the story was retracted two days later."

"The story now known as "The Balloon-Hoax" was first printed in The Sun newspaper in New York. The article provided a detailed and highly plausible account of a lighter-than-air balloon trip by famous European balloonist Monck Mason across the Atlantic Ocean taking 75 hours, along with a diagram and specifications of the craft.

Poe may have been inspired, at least in part, by a prior journalistic hoax known as the "Great Moon Hoax", published in the same newspaper in 1835. One of the suspected writers of that hoax, Richard Adams Locke, was Poe's editor at the time "The Balloon-Hoax" was published.  Poe had complained for a decade that the paper's Great Moon Hoax had plagiarized (by way of Locke) the basic idea from "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall", one of Poe's less successful stories which also involved similar inhabitants on the moon. Poe felt The Sun had made tremendous profits from his story without giving him a cent. (Poe's anger at The Sun is chronicled in the 2008 book The Sun and the Moon by Matthew Goodman.)"

"The story was first published on April 13, 1844 in the New York Sun.  It ran with the headline:

A retraction concerning the article was printed in The Sun on April 15, 1844:

BALLOON - The mails from the South last Saturday night not having brought a confirmation of the arrival of the Balloon from England, the particulars of which from our correspondent we detailed in our Extra, we are inclined to believe that the intelligence is erroneous. The description of the Balloon and the voyage was written with a minuteness and scientific ability calculated to obtain credit everywhere, and was read with great pleasure and satisfaction. We by no means think such a project impossible."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Balloon-Hoax

Great Moon Hoax

The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall

"The story opens with the delivery to a crowd gathered in Rotterdam of a manuscript detailing the journey of a man named Hans Pfaall. The manuscript, which comprises the majority of the story, sets out in detail how Pfaall contrived to reach the moon by benefit of a revolutionary new balloon and a device which compresses the vacuum of space into breathable air. The journey takes him nineteen days, and the narrative includes descriptions of the Earth from space as well as the descent to its fiery, volcanic satellite. Pfaall withholds most of the information regarding the surface of the moon and its inhabitants in order to negotiate a pardon from the Burgomaster for several murders he committed as he left earth (creditors of his who were becoming irksome). After reading the manuscript, the city authorities agree that Pfaall should be pardoned, but the messenger who brought them the text (apparently a resident of the moon) has vanished and they are unable to restore communication with him."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unparalleled_Adventure_of_One_Hans_Pfaall

Yellow Journalism Takes Many Forms Over The Course of History

"Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion."

"use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudoscience, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts"

Yellow journalism - Wikipedia

1966 NASA: "From Gondola to Manned Spacecraft" From Balloons To The Moon

Cultural Changing & Manufactured Newsreel Mythology of The Twentieth Century Becomes The History of Today

Piccard Balloon Flights: "From Gondola to Manned Spacecraft" ~ 1966 NASA

Hydrogen

"Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. The enthalpy of combustion is −286 kJ/mol: ... The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F)."

Hydrogen - Wikipedia

"High altitude ballooning was a dangerous undertaking, partly because human lungs cannot function unaided over 40,000–50,000 feet (12,000–15,000 m), and partly because the lifting gas used, hydrogen, is flammable."

Jeannette Piccard - Wikipedia

Can Limp Balloons Really Fly?

Please compare the limp hydrogen balloon from the old Newsreels and from the NASA documentary to the footage of modern hot air balloons below: 

Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta 2013

The Fantastic Adventures of Captain Piccard

  

Auguste Piccard: "The story of their adventure surpasses fiction."

"On 27 May 1931, Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer took off from Augsburg, Germany, and reached a record altitude of 15,781 m (51,775 ft). (FAI Record File Number 10634) During this flight, Piccard was able to gather substantial data on the upper atmosphere, as well as measure cosmic rays."

Auguste Piccard - Wikipedia

 Piccard in Space: The Opera

"Swiss physicist Auguste Piccard Concept Illustration"

These men would be unable to see anything of the world from their obviously cramped vantage point.

Piccard is described as being a tall man who was six feet six inches tall.

"Seeing pictures of the 6ft 6in scientist-inventor-explorer..."

"It wasn't all plain sailing. For Will Gregory, who has written an opera about Piccard's big adventure, Piccard in Space, which has its premiere this week, "the thing that stood out was that everything seemed to go wrong, right from the get-go. Kipfer looked out of the window while they were doing a final check and he could see chimneys going past – they had already taken off. And then there was the leak, the spilled mercury and the bit when they nearly asphyxiated because they didn't have enough air. It was a catalogue of terrifying lurches from one catastrophe to another – just brilliant for music."

Piccard and Kipfer planned on touching down in the Adriatic. Instead, they crash-landed on a glacier in the Austrian Alps. But that didn't deter the physicist from making a second ascent the following year, in which he broke the 10-mile mark. and The physicist made 25 further balloon flights. In the mid-1930s, having climbed to an incredible 23,000m (14 miles), he decided to plumb the depths instead and designed a flotation tank to explore the oceans. He died in 1962.

Seeing pictures of the 6ft 6in scientist-inventor-explorer, with his bulging forehead, round spectacles and receding mane of hair, it's not surprising to learn that he was the inspiration for Professor Calculus in the Tintin books. (Hergé had to make him shorter so that he would fit into the frame.) Piccard's name, slightly truncated, also crops up in Star Trek. "He was a gentleman scientist, a polymath," says Gregory, "but he was also prepared to get into this tiny thing and shoot up into the stratosphere. Scientists don't do those sort of things these days. They don't theorise, design, build and then execute the whole operation themselves. It's a bit like Einstein getting in Apollo 13 or something – quite unheard of – and I suspect those days are over." "

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2011/mar/27/auguste-piccard-will-gregory

Pathé Films: 10 miles above the Earth

"Full title reads: "Switzerland. 10 miles above the Earth. Professor Piccard and Dr Kipfer, safe and sound after World's most daring and romantic scientific adventure." Switzerland. Austrian alpine troops march out of mountain base. Troops on Alpine glacier folding up the envelope of Dr Auguste Piccard's balloon."

Fake News

"The story of their adventure surpasses fiction." This is aptly put. This story is highly suspect and more than likely extremely embellished if not an outright lie. The heights these adventurers are claimed to have reached are quite fantastic considering how obviously problematic the engineering of this particular feat would actually be in real life, In the world of mythological based virtual reality, such a feat is not only possible, it would be easy and common place. Yet we cannot wait on lines to experience this particular adventure can we? Only the elite "Red Bull" publicity stuntmen can visit these film studio sets. What instruments could possibly fit in such a small space? How could this be sealed and still allow these two men to survive for ten hours as climbed? How could they possibly have enough oxygen and how could they avoid asphyxiation? Would they not need a way to exchange the air, to get rid of the carbon dioxide they would inevitably breathe out? How can they do that in a hermetically sealed environment? The same kind of fantastic reasoning allows many of us to believe in things like the Apollo missions to the Moon and International Space Stations in the first place, Should we not ask critical questions in order to learn how things work? If such things were possible, we would logically expect that more of us would be in position to verify such claims. Fifty years after the first airplane flight we could fly to Rome. Can any of us go up in a balloon to these legendary heights? Can any of us go into "outer space"?

Inert gas asphyxiation - Wikipedia

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - IVHHN

Rebreather - Wikipedia

Professor Piccard Sails Up To Heaven

Professor Piccard Sails Up To Heaven

Where does the oxygenated cabin air of commercial airliner come from?

"The breathable cabin air in all commercial airliners comes from air drawn in from the engine compressors. This compressed air is then regulated by valves in the plane and they are also responsible for the pressurization in the cabin."

"Many believe that the oxygen available reduces as a plane climbs. That is only partly true. The percentage of oxygen in the air hardly changes. For instance, at the ground level, oxygen comprises 23 % of the air by weight and at 40,000 feet; it is still 23 % of the air. What changes is that the higher you go the pressure of the atmosphere decreases and so in effect there is less air for the passengers to breathe. Less air means less oxygen. Don’t forget, the proportion of oxygen remains the same but for every breathe that you take you get a lesser proportion of oxygen delivered to your blood stream. What pressurization does is to squeeze the rarefied high altitude air back together recreating the dense oxygen-rich condition at sea level so as to enable you to breathe normally again."

Where does the oxygenated cabin air of commercial airliner come from?

Up, Up & Away

The Fifth Dimension, Up Up and Away, 

"Red Bull Gives You Wings"

"Sep 2, 2013 - Ask just about anyone in marketing to name a brand they admire, and you'll ... Its high-profile stunts, sports-team ownerships and Red Bull ..."

Red Bull Stratos 'Space Jump' Helped Sell a Lot of Product | Special ...

"An article in Popular Science in August 1931 described their journey: The story of their adventure surpasses fiction. During the ascent, the aluminum ball began to leak. They plugged it desperately with vaseline and cotton waste, stopping the leak. In the first half hour, the balloon shot upward nine miles. Through portholes, the observers saw the earth through copper-colored, then bluish, haze. It seemed a flat disk with upturned edge."

"At the ten mile level the sky appeared a deep, dark blue. With observations complete, the observers tried to descend, but couldn't. While their oxygen tanks emptied, they floated aimlessly over Germany, Austria, and Italy. Cool evening air contracted the balloon's gas and brought them down on a glacier near Ober-Gurgl, Austria, with one hour's supply of oxygen to spare." 

"With observations complete, the observers tried to descend, but couldn't. While their oxygen tanks emptied, they floated aimlessly over Germany, Austria, and Italy. Cool evening air contracted the balloon's gas and brought them down on a glacier near Ober-Gurgl, Austria, with one hour's supply of oxygen to spare."

On 18 August 1932, launched from Dübendorf, Switzerland, Piccard and Max Cosyns made a second record-breaking ascent to 16,201 m (53,153 ft). (FAI Record File Number 6590) He ultimately made a total of twenty-seven balloon flights, setting a final record of 23,000 m (75,459 ft)."

Auguste Piccard - Wikipedia

"Q: What is the highest cruising altitude allowed? A: Most airliners are limited to 45,000 feet or less.Feb 2, 2014"

"The highest certified altitude of an airliner was Concorde's 60,000 feet. Today some of the corporate jets can fly at 51,000 feet."

Ask the Captain: How high can a plane fly? - USA Today

The Original Space Race Fairy Tale Capsule : Things Did Not Quite Work As Intended, Or So The Story Goes...

These guys would seem to have a magical oxygen supply, like the kind the Apollo 11 astronauts would need.

Bursting Daydream Thought Balloons At 10 Miles High!

"The outer surface of the spherical gondola was painted half white and half black. This was intended to control interior heat by turning the lighter side toward or away from the sun by means of a small propeller mounted to a horizontal stanchion. Unfortunately for the two aeronauts, this did not work. The hermetically sealed hatches allowed the gondola to maintain the surface atmospheric pressure as it rose into the stratosphere. The air contained inside the aluminum sphere was recycled through a Draeger system of the type used in submarines. This added oxygen to replace that consumed and extracted the carbon dioxide that was exhaled."

Highest Balloon Ascent Archives - This Day in Aviation

Balloons Tend To Pop at 5 Miles Up!

"Helium balloons are claimed to reach a height of anywhere up to ten kilometers.  At such heights, atmospheric pressure is dramatically reduced, so a helium balloon expands as it rises. With temperatures so low, the balloon material is also expected to freeze. Eventually as the material is stretched too thin, the balloon is likely to pop suddenly. An estimated 90-95% of released balloons rise to an altitude of 5 miles where the temperature and pressure is such that they burst into small fragments."

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balloon_release

(10 km = 6.21371 miles)

Extreme temperature change would seem to be a problem, no?

Cabin pressurization - Wikipedia

  

The Early Balloon Space Race

"The 1930s saw a large number of flights into the stratosphere. Auguste Piccard led the efforts. He had an absolute faith that science could solve anything, and he considered the problem of oxygen deprivation to be no obstacle.

A leading cosmic ray investigator, he needed to rise above the atmosphere to study it. Obviously, he would have to design a sealed, pressurized gondola.

Using an apparatus developed by the Germans for use in submarines during World War I, Piccard built a gondola sphere 82 inches (208 centimetres) in diameter that weighed 300 pounds (136 kilograms). The gondola was designed to keep two people alive for up to 10 hours above 40,000 feet (12,192 meters). The apparatus released pure oxygen into the cabin while scrubbing and re-circulating cabin air by filtering it through alkali.

Piccard also solved the problem of the lifting gas of the balloon leaking away as it expanded during ascent by using a balloon envelope five times larger than necessary to get off the ground. The lifting gas would remain inside the balloon envelope as it expanded, giving him enough lift to return safely to Earth as the gas cooled at night. His 500,000-cubic-foot (1,416-cubic-meter) gas bag, fully inflated, could have lifted a locomotive.

On May 27, 1931, Piccard and Paul Kipfer climbed into the stratosphere in a spherical, airtight, metal cabin suspended from a specially constructed, hydrogen-filled balloon. This balloon, with a capacity of 494,400 cubic feet (14,000 cubic meters), reached an altitude of 51,783 feet (15,787 meters). The following year Piccard ascended to an even higher 53,152 feet (16,200 meters) with Max Cosyns."

"Inspired by Piccard's success, the Soviet Union flew the largest balloon built to date, at 860,000 cubic feet (25,353 cubic meters), with a gondola. The balloon reached a record 60,700 feet (18,501 meters) on Sept. 30, 1933.

Not to be outdone, the United States flew the Century of Progress, whose team was headed by Auguste Piccard's twin brother Jean Piccard, with a gondola to a record height of 61,000 feet (18,592 meters) on November 20, 1933. The balloon carried two instruments to measure how gas conducted cosmic rays, a cosmic ray telescope, a polariscope to study the polarization of light at high altitudes, fruit flies to study genetic mutations for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and an infrared camera to study the ozone layer."

http://www.century-of-flight.net/new%20site/balloons/stratosphere.htm

To Fly Above 40,000 Feet Was To Invite Death: Mythic Heroic Idols Die To Pave The Way Forward Into Magical Outer Space

"The first men to reach 30,000 feet (9,144 meters) did not know what they were facing. It is now known that at an altitude of only 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), the brain loses 10 percent of the oxygen it needs and judgment begins to falter. At 18,000 feet (5,486 feet), there is a 30 percent decrease in oxygen to the brain, and a person can lose consciousness in 30 minutes. At 30,000 feet (9,144 meters), loss of consciousness occurs in less than a minute without extra oxygen. 

In 1927, aeronaut Captain Hawthorne C. Gray, of the U.S. Army Air Corps, ventured into the stratosphere. He set a U.S. altitude record at 29,000 feet (8,839 meters) on his first flight, and although he attained 42,000 feet (13,222 meters) on his second flight, it was not an official record, because he had to parachute out of his balloon as it descended to save himself. His balloon, Army No. S-30-241, was a 70,000-cubic-foot (1,982-cubic-meter) single-ply rubberized silk envelope coated with aluminium paint. Gray's three flights offered him the opportunity to test high-altitude clothing, oxygen systems, and instruments as well as set a new record. On his third flight in November 1927, he reached 42,000 feet (13,222 meters) again, but ran out of oxygen on the descent. He arrived on the ground with his balloon, but he was dead. It was the last high-altitude flight in an open basket until 1955, when these types of projects were reinstated to develop pressure and spacesuits.

Gray 's death underscored the central problem facing high-altitude balloonists—somewhere between 40,000 and 50,000 feet (12,192 and 15,240 meters), the air pressure becomes so reduced that a person's lungs cannot function and gases begin to bubble out of the blood. To fly above 40,000 feet (12,192 meters) without a pressure garment or the protection of a pressurized vessel was to invite death."

Pseudoscience

"Joseph Campbell describes yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts (with large illustrations and perhaps color), heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation. 

Frank Luther Mott identifies yellow journalism based on five characteristics: 

  1. scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news
  2. lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings
  3. use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudoscience, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts
  4. emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips
  5. dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system."

Yellow journalism - Wikipedia

Cartoonish Logic

Auguste Piccard

"Auguste Piccard, born on 28 January 1884 in Basel (Switzerland), was professor of physics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, and then at the University of Brussels. A friend of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie, he made possible modern aviation and space exploration by inventing the pressurized cabin and the stratospheric balloon. Always testing his own inventions himself, he made the first two ascents into the stratosphere (reaching altitudes of 15,780 meters in 1931 and 16,201 meters in 1932), during which he studied cosmic rays and became the first man to witness the curvature of the earth with his own eyes."

"Auguste Piccard, Commander of the French Légion d’Honneur and the Belgian Ordre de Léopold, is most famous for his spectacular inventions, but he remains a scientific genius of universal reach. His physics thesis was on the magnetization of water. He discovered Uranium 235, which at the time he named Actinuran. An experiment he conducted aboard a balloon confirmed the validity of Einstein’s theory of relativity at a time when this was being called into question. And he built the most accurate set of scales, galvanometer and seismograph of his era. His insistence on precision was legendary, earning him the nickname «extra decimal place."

http://bertrandpiccard.com/family-tradition-auguste-piccard

  

What Equipment Did He Use? How Did he use this equipment in such cramped quarters?

He would seem to need some kind of old school electrical technology in order to be able to conduct his experiments. This would have involved some serious electrical equipment that would not logically fit or be found in a balloon gondola.

Why isn't it easy to find the specific experimental data to support Piccard's claims?

We should be able to easily read all the details of his supposed experiments. We cannot. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrometer

"In 1909 Theodor Wulf developed an electrometer, a device to measure the rate of ion production inside a hermetically sealed container, and used it to show higher levels of radiation at the top of the Eiffel Tower than at its base."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray#Discovery

 

"Scientific Research Using Balloons in the First Part of the Twentieth Century"

Does it really make sense that the two scientists could have all the instruments they claim to have taken with them in such a small space? Could they even begin to use these instruments to take any kind of meaningful reading? None of this reads like real science and it come across as nothing more than earlier space age propaganda.

"A great many balloon flights of the twentieth century focused on science and particularly the sun and cosmic rays. Balloons could provide a stable instrument platform free from the vibration and the electrical interference generated by aircraft engines. They could also climb above most of the Earth's atmosphere and measure atmospheric and cosmic conditions without atmospheric interference.

Much of our knowledge of the universe began with a 1912 balloon flight that physicist and professor Bruno Rossi called "the beginning of one of the most extraordinary adventures in the history of science." On August 7, 1912, Austrian physicist Victor Hess took three electroscopes up to 16,000 feet (4,877 meters) in an open balloon basket. With these instruments, which detected and measured radiation, he made an unexpected discovery—high-energy particles not seen on the surface of the Earth were bombarding the upper atmosphere. He concluded that "a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above" and is absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching the Earth's surface. These particles received the name “cosmic rays” in 1936 by physicist Robert Millikan of the California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech).

In 1914, Charles Greeley Abbot, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, sent specially designed instruments that measure solar radiation into the upper atmosphere to study solar energy and its impact on the Earth. Since the Earth's atmosphere absorbs much of the light and radiation from the sun, balloons helped Abbot study solar energy by taking instruments above most of the atmosphere—15 to 20 miles (24 to 32 kilometers) above the Earth's surface.

Jean PiccardAuguste Piccard's twin brother, led a research team on the 1933 Century of Progress balloon flight that included two U.S. Nobel laureates, Arthur H. Compton of the University of Chicago and Millikan, who would soon coin the term “cosmic rays.” The scientists provided two instruments that measured how well gasses conducted cosmic rays. The balloon also carried a cosmic ray telescope that determined the direction where the rays originated, a polariscope that investigated the polarization of light at high altitudes, equipment to take air samples, single-celled organisms and fruit flies for tests for genetic mutations, and an infrared camera and spectrograph to study the ozone layer.

Jean Piccard was given the Century of Progress balloon after the flight. In 1934, he and his wife and collaborator Jeanette Piccard flew the reconditioned balloon on another research flight. Their 1934 experiments included a burst apparatus to study the simultaneous bursting of lead atoms bombarded by cosmic radiation. Millikan supplied a cosmic radiation experiment--an ionization chamber shielded with 700 pounds (318 kilograms) of lead dust."

http://www.centennialofflight.net/essay/Lighter_than_air/science-I/LTA14.htm

Piccard's Great Flight

"The greatest altitude was reached between 4:30 a.m. (33 minutes after the start) and 7:30 a.m. Wednesday," he said. "At that time the balloon varied in altitude only a few hundred yards and he had a wonderful opportunity to make observations of the ionization of the air and in regard to the cosmic rays.

"Our oxygen apparatus worked perfectly and, despite the low temperature of the stratosphere, it was never below zero within the gondola."

Piccard then added to the story, saying that he had conducted "highly successful experiments at an altitude of about 9 to 9 1/2 miles. "We tested the increase in conductivity of gases in cosmic rays and found the conductivity comparatively high," Piccard said. This observation was made in connection with one of the theories of Prof. Albert Einstein, a theory which has long been under dispute, and which still is in doubt.

"We beat the world's altitude record by about 2 1/2 miles in reaching a height of approximately 52,100 feet. The trip provided. I believe, that the stratosphere is navigable and that man, with modern technical methods, will be able to master this region of high-pressure cold.

"I believe our studies will make travel in the stratosphere possible in the future.

"I am glad to have been able to aid in inaugurating a new era in serial transportation and I hope others will now attempt to make similar flights and will break my record."

"I never doubted the success of the enterprise because everything was minutely organized in advance," Professor Piccard said. "but it was very cold and we suffered some hardships above 30,000 feet. The barograph kept rising and at one time I thought we would never cease ascending. Just for a moment I felt we were a little above 16,000 meters the balloon stopped and then began descending slowly. Finally dropping to 4,000 meters in a little more than an hour."

http://www.upi.com/Archives/1931/06/03/Piccards-balloon-expedition-lands-safely-with-data-intact/2541001812863/

Believe Half of What You See & None of What You Hear

Do not trust what you see on screens. Highly edited film and video with authoritative voice over narration is not a replacement for one's own critical judgement. Highly edited product is propaganda more than it is an educational resource. We can't verify the claims made by the narrators of films sold to us as "documentaries".

10 1/2 Miles Above The Earth! Aka 10 Miles Above Earth - Version 1 (1932)

PATHÉ!

"Pathé or Pathé Frères (French pronunciation: [pate fʁɛʁ], styled as PATHÉ!) is the name of various French businesses that were founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France starting in 1896. In the early 1900s, Pathé became the world's largest film equipment and production company, as well as a major producer of phonograph records." 

"In 1908, Pathé invented the newsreel that was shown in cinemas prior to a feature film."

"Today, Pathé is a major film production and distribution company, owns a great number of cinema chains, across Europe but mainly in France, including 66% of the Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé a joint venture between Pathé and the Gaumont Film Company, and several television networks across Europe. It is the second oldest still-operating film company in the world, predating Universal Studios and Paramount Pictures, second only to the French Gaumont Film Company studio."

Pathé

"Charles Pathé   26 December 1863 – 25 December 1957) was an important pioneer of the French film and recording industries. As the founder of Pathé Frères, its roots lie in 1896 Paris, France, when Pathé and his brothers, pioneered the development of the moving image. Pathé adopted the national emblem of France, the cockerel, as the trademark for his company. After the company, now called Compagnie Générale des Éstablissements Pathé Frère Pt'honographes & Cinématographes, invented the cinema newsreel with Pathé-Journal."

Charles Pathé

1901: Film Magic

A la conquista del aire / A la conquête de l'air (Ferdinand Zecca 1901)

À la conquête de l'air

"À la conquête de l'air is a 1901 French silent film directed by Ferdinand Zecca and distributed by Pathé Frères.  Based on contemporary accounts of aviation developments, À la conquête de l'air stars Ferdinand Zecca as the pilot of a fantastic flying machine. Aviation film historian Michael Paris considered the film, the first French aviation film and among the first to feature an aircraft in flight.

Zecca was hired by company founder Charles Pathé to invigorate the pioneering cinema company that had mainly been involved in documentary film.  With an emphasis on new topics, Zecca expanded into short films that explored everything from everyday events to fantastic flight of fancy. His other films included comedies, trick films,  or fairy tales, such as Les Sept châteaux du Diable, both 1901, and La Belle au bois dormant in 1902, as well as social dramas like Les Victimes de l'alcoolisme (1902), Au pays noir (1905) and reconstructions of actual events, the most famous being La Catastrophe de la Martinique (1902). "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/À_la_conquête_de_l%27air

HOW WE MADE THE NEWS - BRITISH PATHÉ Month

History of British Pathé

"British Pathé was once a dominant feature of the British cinema experience. Before the advent of television, millions around the globe came to movie theatres for their weekly dose of filmed news. The birth of this phenomenon took place when renowned French filmmaker Charles Pathé came to London in 1910 to introduce an innovative medium to British audiences – the cinema newsreel.

Over the course of a century, British Pathé reported on everything from armed conflicts and seismic political crises to the curious hobbies and eccentric lives of ordinary British people. In so doing, the organisation set the benchmark for cinematic journalism, blending information and entertainment with unparalleled success and influencing whole generations of Britons."

History of British Pathé

Are "World Records" As Real As Sold?

Propaganda can inspire. Images of humanity's supposed collective achievements are the mythology of the modern age. The age of such marvelous adventure began during the early days of film, imagine that! Film special effects and the aerospace industry "grew" up at the same time, and one overlapped so much with the other that we can't really be quite sure if what we are seeing on screens, in highly edited form, is the result of Hollywood special effect wizardry or not.

Guinness World Records - Wikipedia

Highly Edited Multimedia Product is Proof Of Nothing: This Is What Propaganda Looks LIke

How could anyone verify the claims made on a film screen? How does anyone verify such claims today? We don't. We are supposed to  trust a bodiless voice or the trusted talking head. We are not supposed to question the underlying assumptions nor are we to question the narrative at al. We have been conditioned by the educational systems we have been exposed to, to parrot back content. We are not really encouraged to truly think critically as individuals. We are supposed to color between the predefined lines of officially sanctioned and manufactured culture.

Too many of us spend too much time parroting back claims the media has programmed us to. There is no logical reason to trust any of it. Can any of us take a ballon ride to anywhere near the heights claimed by these so-called historically accurate news documentaries?

Magical Records

Stratosphere Record (1935)

Early "Space" Exploration

75th Anniversary of Flight to Stratosphere - Explorer II - November 11, 1935

Explore The Legends & Lore

"Explorer II was a manned U.S. high-altitude balloon that was launched on November 11, 1935 and reached a record altitude of 22,066 m (72,395 ft). Launched at 8:00 am from the Stratobowl in South Dakota, the helium balloon carried a two-man crew consisting of U. S. Army Air Corps Captains Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson inside a sealed, spherical cabin. The crew landed safely near White Lake, South Dakota at 4:13 pm and both were acclaimed as national heroes. Scientific instruments carried on the gondola returned useful information about the stratosphere. The mission was funded by the membership of the National Geographic Society."

"In January 1934, the National Geographic Society (NGS) and the U. S. Army Air Corps decided to collaborate on a program to build and launch a manned balloon to the then record altitude of 24 km (15 mi). This vehicle would be capable of carrying a crew of three in an airtight capsule, along with a laboratory of instruments. The hydrogen balloon, named Explorer, was completed by July at a cost of around $60,000; equivalent to $1,074,179 in 2016 currency. 

The balloon was launched from a canyon in the Black Hills of South Dakota—dubbed the Stratobowl—on July 28, 1934 and reached a near-record altitude of 18,475 m (60,613 ft) before tears in the fabric led the crew to begin reducing their altitude. A rupture in the balloon resulted in a precipitous descent, followed by a spark that caused the hydrogen to ignite and destroy what was left of the balloon, leaving the capsule to plummet toward the ground at terminal velocity. The crew just managed to escape using their parachutes, with the last man bailing out at 500 feet (150 m) above the ground. Their capsule was almost completely destroyed upon impact. 

The crash resulted in a national embarrassment, leading Captain Albert W. Stevens, the scientific observer on board the Explorer balloon, to lobby for another attempt with an improved balloon to be named Explorer II. But news of the fatal crash of a Russian stratospheric attempt in 1934 left President Gilbert H. Grosvenor of the NGS sobered by the risk.[4] A review of the crash by the National Bureau of Standards(NBS) was held between July and September, revealing that the balloon had not opened symmetrically during the ascent, which caused stresses that led to the fabric tears. A month-long delay prior to launch had allowed the rubberized cotton to stick together, which created the uneven expansion. The hydrogen explosion followed when the gas in the bag mixed with the oxygen in the atmosphere."

Explorer II - Wikipedia

American Idols

"Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", or in more neutral language a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon."

Idolatry - Wikipedia

Pathé News

"Pathé News was a producer of newsreels and documentaries from 1910 until 1970 in the United Kingdom. Its founder, Charles Pathé, was a pioneer of moving pictures in the silent era. The Pathé News archive is known today as British Pathé. Its collection of news film and movies is fully digitised and available online."

"Its roots lie in 1896 Paris, France, when Société Pathé Frères was founded by Charles Pathé and his brothers, who pioneered the development of the moving image. Charles Pathé adopted the national emblem of France, the cockerel, as the trademark for his company. After the company, now called Compagnie Générale des Éstablissements Pathé Frère Pt'honographes & Cinématographes, invented the cinema newsreel with Pathé-Journal. French Pathé began its newsreel in 1908 and opened a newsreel office in Wardour Street, London in 1910.

The newsreels were shown in the cinema and were silent until 1928. At first they ran for about four minutes, and were issued biweekly. Even though during the early days the camera shots were taken from a stationary position, the Pathé newsreels captured events such as Franz Reichelt's fatal parachute jump from the Eiffel Tower, and suffragette Emily Davison's fatal injury by a racehorse at the 1913 Epsom Derby.

During the First World War, the cinema newsreels were called the Pathé Animated Gazettes, and for the first time this provided newspapers with competition. After 1918, British Pathé started producing a series of cinemazines, in which the newsreels were much longer and more comprehensive. By 1930, British Pathé was covering news, entertainment, sport, culture and women’s issues through programmes including the Pathétone Weekly, the Pathé Pictorial, the Gazette and Eve’s Film Review.

In 1927, the company sold British Pathé (both the feature film and the newsreel divisions) to First National. (French Pathé News continued until 1980, and the library is now part of the Gaumont-Pathé collection.) Pathé changed hands again in 1933, when it was acquired by Associated British Picture Corporation. In 1958, it was sold again to Warner Bros. and became Warner-Pathé. Pathé eventually stopped producing the cinema newsreel in February 1970[1] as they could no longer compete with television. During the newsreels' run, the narrators included Bob Danvers-Walker, Dwight Weist, Dan Donaldson, André Baruch, and Clem McCarthy, among others."

American Pathé News (1910–1956)

"The British and American newsreel companies separated in 1921 when the American company was sold. In 1947, the film assets of the successor companies of Pathé News, Inc. were purchased by Warner Bros. from RKO Radio Pictures, which had acquired them in 1931. Warners, as had RKO before them, continued to produce the theatrical newsreel Pathé News, its title changing from RKO-Pathe News to Warner-Pathe News. Warners also produced a series of 38 theatrical short subjects, and 81 issues of the News Magazine of the Screen series, which added to the Pathé film properties and are now part of the company's extensive film library. Producer/editor Robert Youngson was primarily responsible for these series, and won two Academy Awards for them. In 1956, Warner Bros. discontinued the production of the theatrical newsreel and sold the Pathé News film library, the 38 theatrical short subjects, the Pathé News Magazine of the Screen, the crowing rooster trade mark and the copyrights and other properties to Studio Films, Inc.—shortly thereafter named Pathé Pictures, Inc.—which subsequently relinquished the name and film properties of both companies to Pathé News, Inc.

Other U.S. newsreel series included Paramount News (1927–1957), Fox Movietone News (1928–1963), Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day (1914–1967), Universal Newsreel (1929–1967), and The March of Time (1935–1951)."

British Pathé News - Wikipedia

"Yellow journalism" cartoon about Spanish–American War of 1898 (Independence Seaport Museum). The newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are both attired as the Yellow Kid comics character of the time, and are competitively claiming ownership of the war."
 
"The term was coined in the mid-1890s to characterize the sensational journalism that used some yellow ink in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. The battle peaked from 1895 to about 1898, and historical usage often refers specifically to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation...
 
The term was coined by Erwin Wardman, the editor of the New York Press. Wardman was the first to publish the term but there is evidence that expressions such as "yellow journalism" and "school of yellow kid journalism" were already used by newsmen of that time. Wardman had also used the expression "yellow kid journalism"  referring to the then-popular comic strip which was published by both Pulitzer and Hearst during a circulation war. In 1898 the paper simply elaborated: "We called them Yellow because they are Yellow." 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_journalism

The Power of Image

The modern journalist is the modern spiritual guru or guide. The modern trusted news friend and talk show host is the religious propagandist of today. These figures use modern communications media to amplify the power of image. In this manner human imagination is restricted and in this manner true Natural Freedom is reduced to granted governmental rights.

Marshall McLuhan 1975 - Full interview with Anglo-French journalist Nina Sutton

Nothing Changes: The Same Old Yellow Journal Press At Work Today