A Roleplaying Identity Crisis
"RAND's Long History of Gaming
The RAND Corporation has been at the forefront of gaming for nearly seven decades. In the 1950s it pioneered the use of political-military crisis games to study nuclear deterrence. The idea for the U.S.-Soviet "hot line"—the famous "red telephone" that allowed the American president and his Soviet counterpart to communicate directly and securely in a time of crisis—grew out of a 1961 RAND game. During the 1990s it developed the innovative "Day After" approach to explore the consequences of nuclear proliferation, and the platform has subsequently been used for topics as diverse as global warming and cybercrime. Among other topics, RAND is currently using gaming to examine impending changes in national health-insurance regulations, key issues in U.S. national security strategy around the world, and political transformation in volatile regions"
The Idea of War Keeps Us The Vast Global Human Resource Turning The Wheel of Industrial Time For All Recorded History
"Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science and biology. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella termfor the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty."
Behavioral conditioning and identity politics, marketings branding strategies and all the rest of modern society promoted role playing are the tools of social control.
Welcome to The RAND Crafted MATRIX A Real Life SIM:
"Wargames are analytic games that simulate aspects of warfare at the tactical, operational, or strategic level. They are used to examine warfighting concepts, train and educate commanders and analysts, explore scenarios, and assess how force planning and posture choices affect campaign outcomes. RAND has developed and can execute various types of wargames, including scenario exercises, tabletop map exercises, “Day After…” games, and computer-supported exercises."
Fear Fear Itself: RAND The Military Simulation Specialist Says So:
Stimulating mirror neurons with simulated reality war gams is the historical social control modus operandi of government. It's literally an old scripted game. From chess to the modern multiplayer networked simulation, the roleplaying war game is so ubiquitous that many of us overlook the obvious contrived historical scam at work.
The Power of Authority Revealed - The RAND Corporation's "motto":
"In a truly successful game, what you should see are leading experts in their field immersed in role playing and thinking of things that had not occurred to them before."
"Role-playing refers to the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role."
"I Put a Spell on You" or Hacking The Hex:
"The oldest of the subgenres, and the one that still retains "iconic" status for board wargaming as a whole. It got its start with the first board wargame, Tactics (which, ironically, used a square grid; hexes were a slightly later innovation), and is still used in many wargames today.
In its most typical form, a hex-and-counter wargame has a map with a hexagonal grid imposed over it, units are represented with cardboard counters that commonly have a unit type and designation as well as numerical combat and movement factors. Players take turns moving and conducting attacks. Combat is typically resolved with an odds-based combat results table (CRT) using a six sided die."
"Modern wargaming originated with the military need to study warfare and to 'reenact' old battles for instructional purposes. The stunning Prussian victory over the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 is sometimes partly credited to the training of Prussian officers with the game Kriegsspiel, which was invented around 1811 and gained popularity with many officers in the Prussian army. These first wargames were played with dicewhich represented "friction", or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war (including morale, weather, the fog of war, etc.), though this was usually replaced by an umpire who used his own combat experience to determine the results."
A Hex Mapped World
Thinking the Unthinkable, 2017: War in the Baltics?
RAND Keeps Repeating The Same Old Con Game
"What if Russia invades Estonia, Latvia, and/or Lithuania – members of NATO to which the United States has pledged an unequivocal, and legally binding, commitment of mutual defense?
"And what if we lost that war?"
"Joining the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia are David Shlapak, Senior International Research Analyst; Co-director, Center for Gaming, RAND Corporation, and Michael Johnson, Defense Research Analyst, Sr, RAND Corporation; the authors of both a classified and unclassified version of a war game report on the subject of this possible conflict. The classified version is being used for intense military training activities all the way to the level of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, led by Shlapak and Johsnon."
Circular Reasoned and Scripted World War Games Sold As News & History
"One high-profile RAND genius, John Williams, developed game theory to predict how the cagey Soviet Union might act during conflict.
The theory was a perfect fit for RAND, an organization that continually sought to impose objective reality on an irrational world."
The RAND Center for Gaming
"The RAND Center for Gaming promotes the use of games in research to improve decision-making across a wide range of policy areas. The Center supports the innovative application of gaming, the development of new gaming tools and techniques, and the evolution of existing forms and methods.
A "game" can be thought of as any interactive process with five basic characteristics: (1) multiple independent decision-makers, who (2) compete to achieve goals, (3) in evolving contexts that change according to their interactions; (4) which are governed by a set of rules; and (5) the results of the interactions do not directly impact on the state of the world.
The question "What are games good for?" can most easily be answered by a stroll through the toy department at any local department store. The shelves are full of games of business and conquest, of war and diplomacy, of crime, education, dating and marriage, of life and death. Similarly, "serious games" have been used—at RAND and elsewhere—to explore issues ranging from urban planning, climate change, drug policy, and disaster response, to nuclear proliferation, and of course, military operations and warfare.
Nobel-prize-winning economist and RAND alumnus Thomas Schelling put the value of gaming quite succinctly when he wrote that alternative approaches to strategic analysis can fall short because no-one can “make a list of things you never thought of.” Games create opportunities to think of things you wouldn’t otherwise."
YOUTUBE is a Military Grade Booming Boob Tube:
Mental Stimulating Simulated War Footage - Our Tax Dollars At Work Against Us
Highly Edited Film Footage That Looks Like The Work of Hollywood Magic is Proof of Nothing But a Clear and Longstanding Propaganda Effort Funded By Our Own Wages
Highly edited and obviously contrived moving pictures can never prove unverifiable claims.
"Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. Many professional analysts object to the term wargames as this is generally taken to be referring to the civilian hobby, thus the preference for the term simulation.
Simulations exist in many different forms, with varying degrees of realism. In recent times, the scope of simulations has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors, which are seen as inextricably entwined in a realistic warfare model.
Whilst many governments make use of simulation, both individually and collaboratively, little is known about it outside professional circles. Yet modelling is often the means by which governments test and refine their military and political policies. Military simulations are seen as a useful way to develop tactical, strategical and doctrinal solutions, but critics argue that the conclusions drawn from such models are inherently flawed, due to the approximate nature of the models used."
RAND, The NSA & NASA: Simulating Reality Since The 20th Century
"If you think the Internet came out of Silicon Valley, that NASA planned the first satellite to orbit Earth, or that IBM created the modern computer—think again. Each one of these breakthroughs was conceived at RAND, a shadowy think tank in Santa Monica, California."
"After a few short months, RAND got the attention of academics, politicians, and military strategists alike by issuing a prophetic study called "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship." At the time, rocket science was still in its infancy, so RAND's call for an orbiting space station was revolutionary. Not only did the think tank specify the kind of fuel the spaceship would need and how quickly it could be built, but it also outlined how the station could predict the weather, transform long-distance communication, and, most importantly, intimidate our rivals abroad. If America could put a satellite into space, what else was she capable of?
Although President Truman passed on the space station, the military fell in love with RAND. Through Hap's connections, the Air Force quickly became the think tank's main contractor, and RAND began consulting on everything from propeller turbines to missile defense. Before long, the organization was so flush with contracts that it had to hire hundreds of additional researchers to keep up. In recruitment ads, RAND bragged about its intellectual genealogy, tracing a direct line from its president, Frank Collbohm, to Isaac Newton. Whether or not that claim was true, the institute secured a reputation as the place to dream up new ways to wage wars and keep enemies at bay."
RAND's Powerful Predictive Programming: We've Been Living in a Simulated Reality A Long Long Time
"Robust Decision Making is a rigorous combination of scenario planning with powerful computing to support decisionmakers by helping to
identify potential strategies robust to future unknowns
characterize the vulnerabilities of such strategies, and
evaluate tradeoffs among alternatives.
Developed by researchers from RAND, Evolving Logic, the Pardee RAND Graduate School, and elsewhere, RDM can inform decisions under conditions of "deep uncertainty" in areas such as energy and resources management, infrastructure investment, and policy planning for cases in which stakeholders do not know — or cannot agree upon — actions, consequences, and probabilities."
What is “gaming”?
"Deputy Secretary of Defense Bob Work's February 2015 memo on reinvigorating wargaming has spurred a great deal of interest among defense circles. But what the U.S. defense community means by “wargaming” is a very broad set of activities that cover everything from group discussions, planning exercises, training exercises, and meetings that identify requirements and gaps.
I distinguish wargames by this key question: Are there are at least two opposing sides, with an equal opportunity to affect outcomes through their decisions? The more an event is about reviewing the internal processes of one side, rather than examining the consequences that player decisions are having on the course of events, the more it is about planning than gaming. There is nothing wrong with planning. It is simply a different tool.
Another important question is: What proportion of time do participants spend engaging in first-person role play versus third-person commentary about their topics of expertise? Signs of role-playing include immersion in the role's perspective, first-person dialogue, emotional engagement, and active attempts to further the role's objectives. My favorite example of this was watching a State Department participant play a host nation government in a game. With a flushed face, raised voice, and adamant hand gestures, she said, “They [the U.S.] just can't do this. This is our country!” She was so engaged in role playing that she was angry on behalf of a fictitious government—against the government she was part of in real life. The less role-playing within the context of a specific scenario—and the more participant commentary that takes place outside of a role—the less it is a game and the more it is an expert panel discussion. Again, there is nothing wrong with expert panel discussion—it is again simply a different tool"
"If you are interested in gaming, you already know more about it than you likely give yourself credit for. Model United Nations, board games, card games, miniatures games—if you've taken part in any of these, you have experience that will translate to gaming serious issues.."
"And remember to look for the markers of successful games. Active engagement and the right roster of players are not enough to result in a good game. In a truly successful game, what you should see are leading experts in their field immersed in role playing and thinking of things that had not occurred to them before."
Theatrical Roles That Need Filling: The Art of Gaming The Long Con
"In 16th century Europe, traveling teams of players performed a form of improvisational theatre known as the Commedia dell'arte, with stock situations, stock characters and improvised dialogue. In the 19th and early 20th century, many board games and parlour games such as the game Jury Box included elements of role-playing. Mock trials, model legislatures, and the "Theatre Games" created by Viola Spolin arose, in which players took on the roles of characters and improvised, but without the formalised rules which would characterise modern role-playing games."
"Drawing inspiration from Chess, Helwig, Master of Pages to the Duke of Brunswick created a battle emulation game in 1780. According to Max Boot's book War Made New (2006, pg 122), sometime between 1803 and 1809, the Prussian General Staff developed war games, with staff officers moving metal pieces around on a game table (with blue pieces representing their forces and red pieces those of the enemy), using dice rolls to indicate random chance and with a referee scoring the results. Increasingly realistic variations became part of military training in the 19th century in many nations, and were called "kriegsspiel" or "wargames". Wargames or military exercises are still an important part of military training today.
Wargaming moved from professional training to the hobby market with the publication of Little Wars, children's toy soldier game, by H.G. Wells in 1913. A niche hobby of wargaming emerged for adults that recreated model games around actual battles from the Napoleonic period onward. Although a single marker or miniature figure typically represented a squad of soldiers, some "skirmish level" or "man to man" games did exist where one figure represented one entity only.
The board wargame Diplomacy, invented by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released in 1959, made social interaction and interpersonal skills part of its gameplay. A live-action variant of Diplomacynamed Slobbovia was used for character development rather than conflict.
In the late 1960s, fantasy elements were increasingly used in wargames. Linguist M. A. R. Barker began to use wargame-like sessions to develop his creation Tékumel. In 1970, the New England Wargamers Association demonstrated a fantasy wargame called Middle Earth at a convention of the Military Figure Collectors Association. Fantasy writer Greg Stafford created the board wargame White Bear and Red Moon to explore conflicts in his fantasy world Glorantha, though it did not see publication until 1974.
Gary Gygax of the University of Minnesota's wargaming society developed a set of rules for a late medieval milieu. This unusual wargame saw publication in 1971 under the name Chainmail. Although Chainmail was a historical game, later editions included an appendix for adding fantasy elements such as wizards and dragons.
A wargame session was held at the University of Minnesota in 1969, with Dave Wesely as the moderator, in which the players represented single characters in a Napoleonic scenario centering on a small town named Braunstein. This did not lead to any further experimentation in the same vein immediately, but the ground had been laid. It actually bore greater resemblance to later LARP games than what would conventionally be thought of as a role-playing game. Wesely would, later in the year, run a second "Braunstein," placing the players in the roles of government officials and revolutionaries in a fictional banana republic. The two games would be used partially by Dave Arneson who was a participant, to focus his ideas regarding a fantasy realm known as Blackmoor, and by 1971, Arneson would be running what could be conventionally recognized as a role-playing game based on his Blackmoor world.
Blackmoor contained core elements that would become widespread in fantasy gaming: hit points, experience points, character levels, armor class, and dungeon crawls. Like the wargames it grew from, Blackmoor used miniature figures and terrain grids to illustrate the action. The key difference with the Blackmoor games, which allowed it to become a game distinct from the wargame-based Braunsteins, was the ability of the players to set their own character goals, in addition to the scenario goals set by Arneson. Arneson and Gygax then met and collaborated on the first Dungeons & Dragons game."