Demonstrable ballistic physics proves Sir Isaac Newton's Orbital Mechanics are wrong. It is that simple.
A constant horizontal velocity cannot magically balance with a downward acceleration.
Sir Isaac Newton cast a powerful spell on the minds of humankind.
Newton's "Circular" Reasoned Motion: A Mathematical Liar's Paradox
The person who put the video below together did a nice job explaining orbital mathematics.
The "V" in the equations stands for a fixed number. The G is fixed too but this is misleading as the "G" represents the so-called "Gravitational Constant" which is not logically relevant here. The apple that mythically struck Newton's noggin must have had ill effect as the apple itself was speeding up and not traveling at a constant velocity. The number 4 can never be balanced by mathematical notation or an equation that represents an increasing value. This is just like the liar's paradox. "This sentence is a lie." might be grammatically correct but it has no context. The mathematical equations that are claimed to support Newton's flawed concept are examples of the same.
Mathematical model replaces replicable experiment. People then get lost in the math.
Mathematics is not demonstrable physics. Mathematics and abstract reasoning lie at the foundation of nearly all systems of modern thought and this kind of thinking is not based in reality or Nature at all. Mathematical model has replaced both demonstrable experiment and common sense. Math is a fine tool. Without it we have no computers, among many other things. Math is also a language and language can be grammatically correct gibberish.
"When you assume, you make an ass out of you and me..."
The “assumed uniform circular motion” is a fixed velocity. Gravity is not. The other problem that immediately comes to mind is how one could possibly achieve such precise control over a rocket to be able to get anywhere near where it would need to be to enter into this mythical orbit. To be able to do this countless times over and over again, is also another tall tale and mythic artifact of religion. This is not even considering the real amount of fuel and all the rest of the real physical problems that would have to be dealt with. All NASA apologies aside, obviously. This article is focused on showing the fundamental fallacy with Newton's foundational idea.
Newton's Gibberish "Methematics"
Consider how high and impossibly huge that mountain would be and how incredibly sub microscopically small the rocket and we would be, in comparison. Scale and proportion matter. The mountain and rocket are not drawn to scale and no mountain is that high. This is the foundation of the space programs of the world and this foundation is absolute nonsense and fantasy backed with gibberish mathematics.
Sir Isaac's powerful incantation is clothed in mesmerizing mathematical notation.
"Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. The motion of these objects is usually calculated from Newton's laws of motion and of universal gravitation. It is a core discipline within space mission design and control. Celestial mechanics treats more broadly the orbital dynamics of systems under the influence of gravity, including both spacecraft and natural astronomical bodies such as star systems, planets, moons and comets. Orbital mechanics focuses on spacecraft trajectories, including orbital maneuvers, orbit plane changes, and interplanetary transfers, and is used by mission planners to predict the results of propulsive maneuvers. General relativity is a more exact theory than Newton's laws for calculating orbits, and is sometimes necessary for greater accuracy or in high-gravity situations (such as orbits close to the Sun)."
"Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal, and it was the key force for planetary motion. It appeared in his book A Treatise of the System of the World."
"In this experiment from his book (p. 5-8), Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance, the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth, in the direction that it was fired. If a gravitational force acts on the cannonball, it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. If the speed is low, it will simply fall back on Earth. (A and B) for example horizontal speed of 0 to 7,000 m/s for Earth."
"If the speed is the orbital speed at that altitude, it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit, just like the Moon. (C) for example horizontal speed of at approximately 7,300 m/s for Earth."
"Thought Experiment" is Marketing Slogan
Please notice it is admitted this is a thought experiment. Then we are to simply go along with all the assumptions and not apply demonstrable ballistic physics to the thought experiment. If we do that, we realize that Newton's idea is wrong. Let's also get something straight, the term "Thought Experiment" is marketing slogan and not science. It is called thinking not "Thought Experiment". One conducts real experiments.
A Magical Equation For a World of Thoughtless Nations
"Constant G" is Old School British Royal Society Marketing Slang
Worship a Magical Mathematical Formula as Religious Icon
The little 'v' represents a fixed number. The Big "G" does too and that's how this magic trick works. The problem is that gravity is an accelerated phenomena and demonstrable ballistic physics clearly show us that even a magically propelled object would fall back to Earth. One would need to have a magical genie that could continue to magically accelerate in perfect balance with the increasing force of gravity. Even then would an orbit be achieved? Einstein's genie from his General Relativity thought experiment is such an imagined being, In a way Einstein was pointing out that Newton was wrong. Einstein's genie could somehow magically fly and never needs rest. It can also forever accelerate without a power supply. None of these ideas should have ever been taken seriously.
You Have To Have Faith
Please keep in mind I have left out centrifugal type effects which we would expect to occur. Of course we are not supposed to put orbits into any other context but the frame presented by the University system, Government and NASA. Demonstrable physical experiment shows us that we'd expect orbits to have measurable effect. We can't measure any such physical effect here on Earth and yet we must believe NASA and the rest of the catechism. There is no evidence the Earth orbits the Sun. All evidence is to the contrary. That's why there is a list of historical ad hoc logically fallacious explanations for every experiment that came back with an answer the Sun worshipping, Royal Society minded did not like.That's one reason why modern cosmology is a patchwork of different ideas.
imagine this, imagine that, before you know it, your brain goes splat!
Newton imagines the impossible. He wants us to believe that fixed velocity alone is enough to propel a physical body into a near perfect circular orbit around the Earth. What experiment did anyone ever do? None. NASA and Disney showed everyone a bunch of moving pictures on screens and the Governments and News of the World agree, so it must all be true.
I've left out any consideration for the real power and fuel requirements for really attempting to do any of this. NASA and other Military agencies around the world have many of us convinced that it is possible to send huge rockets incredible distances as if by magic. NASA has to fudge the fuel requirements. They also have to be lying about how fast a large man made object can travel. But these considerations are a lot more complicated to get into. It's easier to stick with the foundation of the claim. Here we can see the foundation is nonsense.
Newton's cannonball would spiral back towards the center of the Earth. His thought experiment is flawed. Below is a more logical "thought experiment" or rather a logical explanation that shows clearly the fallacy in Newton's reasoning.
BALLISTIC PHYSICS PROVE ORBITAL MECHANICS ARE NOTHING BUT DAY DREAM FANTASY
The pull of gravity is demonstrably separate from the horizontal motion of the projectile.
Horizontally Launched Projectiles
Below is an excerpt from a ballistic physics article. This is demonstrable science. We can replicate this phenomena.
"Let's return to our thought experiment from earlier in this lesson. Consider a cannonball projected horizontally by a cannon from the top of a very high cliff. In the absence of gravity, the cannonball would continue its horizontal motion at a constant velocity. This is consistent with the law of inertia. And furthermore, if merely dropped from rest in the presence of gravity, the cannonball would accelerate downward, gaining speed at a rate of 9.8 m/s every second. This is consistent with our conception of free-falling objects accelerating at a rate known as the acceleration of gravity."
"If our thought experiment continues and we project the cannonball horizontally in the presence of gravity, then the cannonball would maintain the same horizontal motion as before - a constant horizontal velocity. Furthermore, the force of gravity will act upon the cannonball to cause the same vertical motion as before - a downward acceleration. "
"The cannonball falls the same amount of distance as it did when it was merely dropped from rest (refer to diagram below). However, the presence of gravity does not affect the horizontal motion of the projectile."
Please notice that the orbit as represented by the letter "A" can never actually occur. We'd expect all attempts to arc back towards the center of the Earth, creating a golden ratio like spiral projectile path. Newton is wrong.
What would logically happen.
Constant vs Change
Projectile velocity is constat (ignoring atmospheric drag) and gravity is always changing. One cannot be equal to the other. The motions of the projectile are independent. One does not effect the other. Sir Isaac Newton's concept relies on gravitational pull, but only some imagined instant of it. All anyone could do was come up with some kind of mathematical equation that was mathematically sound, but like "This sentence is a lie." it has no real context or reality to it. Mathematical model becomes the founding stone of modern Cosmology.
CONSTANT V CHANGING
"The force of gravity acts downward and is unable to alter the horizontal motion. There must be a horizontal force to cause a horizontal acceleration. (And we know that there is only a vertical force acting upon projectiles.) The vertical force acts perpendicular to the horizontal motion and will not affect it since perpendicular components of motion are independent of each other. Thus, the projectile travels with a constant horizontal velocity and a downward vertical acceleration."
The Problem with Newton's Thought Experiment is shown below:
The red arc and arrow represents the horizontal fixed velocity. The black line with the double arrow heads represents the pull of gravity. Yet we are only looking at the first second of time. If we advance this we will see that the 4.9 meters distance becomes 19.6 meters and then 44.1 meters etc. Gravity increases while the projectile velocity remains the same. Physical orbits are impossible. Outer Space is a hoax.
The illustration is misleading.
A Rate of Change
"Free-falling objects are in a state of acceleration. Specifically, they are accelerating at a rate of 9.8 m/s/s. This is to say that the velocity of a free-falling object is changing by 9.8 m/s every second. If dropped from a position of rest, the object will be traveling 9.8 m/s (approximately 10 m/s) at the end of the first second, 19.6 m/s (approximately 20 m/s) at the end of the second second, 29.4 m/s (approximately 30 m/s) at the end of the third second, etc."
image source: How Fast? and How Far? - The Physics Classroom