Evolution of DNA Sequencing Methods
They do not actually and magically examine DNA. They examine cultures that they grow in laboratories.
"The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography. Following the development of fluorescence-based sequencing methods with a DNA sequencer, DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude faster."
Evolution of DNA Sequencing Methods source: Jonathan Eisen
Modern Science is More Like A Religion Than Most Think
Most of us do not realize how the history of science is filled with con men charlatans who sought only to profit from interest in whatever was currently being sold as science to the public. DNA seems like a form of astronomy; a mystical "science" devoted to interpreting a rorschach test in a certain way. Modern science is a religious faith that relies on its adherents unquestioning faith in the authority of scientific scripture. One must not question underlying assumptions, even though that is how one really learns how things work. Parroting and echoing is not only encouraged by the system, this form of social conditioning is rewarded by the educational grading system. This is why we have generations of uncritical thinking minds who are unconsciously playing make believe scientists.
Consider how relatively new DNA science is and how there are many different ways to do the sequencing. This seems like somewhat questionable science to me.
"Scientific misconduct is more prevalent than anyone would like to think. Some of the biggest names in science - Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Galileo Galilei - have been guilty of questionable behaviour. Einstein cherry-picked data and fudged proofs of E=mc2 (he never managed to prove it properly); in the Principia, Newton massaged his equations to fit with the latest data. And Galileo tried to convince the pope that the earth moved around the sun by "proving" that this was what caused the tides, when everyone knew even then that it was the moon.
In 2005, the journal Nature published a report showing that a third of scientists admitted to having misbehaved in the previous three years. The cited crimes included falsifying data, ethical breaches, dropping inconvenient data points and failing to give proper credit to the work of others."
"Top UK geneticist faces new inquiry over claims of research misconduct"
"The inquiry will centre on several research papers published by Latchman’s human genetics research group based at nearby University College London. A screening panel at UCL has recommended a full investigation after it completed an initial assessment of the new allegations, according to details obtained by the Guardian under the Freedom of Information Act.
Latchman retracted two of his published research papers last year and corrected a number of others, but questions have been raised over dozens of studies from his group on the PubPeer website, a forum used by academics to discuss scientific research. Many of the comments raise concerns about images in papers that Latchman and other scientists co-authored between 1990 and 2013.
The first paper that Latchman’s group retracted included an image that was labelled as new data, but which the scientists had actually published in an older study. In the second paper, six images had either been flipped around or duplicated and given labels that made them look new. The corresponding author of the second paper, Anastasis Stephanou, who is now at the European University in Cyprus, took responsibility for the latter image irregularities and said his co-authors, including Latchman, were “completely unaware” of the inappropriate figure manipulations. Dr Stephanou did not respond to a request for comment."
By the way how does everyone know the Moon causes tides? Perhaps another "force" is at work causing both phenomena. Blind adherence to one explanation is not science, it is religion.
History of DNA
"Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was first discovered and isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, but it remained understudied for many decades because proteins, rather than DNA, were thought to hold the genetic blueprint to life. This situation changed after 1944 as a result of some experiments by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty demonstrating that purified DNA could change one strain of bacteria into another. This was the first time that DNA was shown capable of transforming the properties of cells.
In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick put forward their double-helix model of DNA, based on crystallized X-ray structures being studied by Rosalind Franklin. According to the model, DNA is composed of two strands of nucleotides coiled around each other, linked together by hydrogen bonds and running in opposite directions. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides – adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) – with an A on one strand always paired with T on the other, and C always paired with G. They proposed such a structure allowed each strand to be used to reconstruct the other, an idea central to the passing on of hereditary information between generations."
"The foundation for sequencing proteins was first laid by the work of Fred Sanger who by 1955 had completed the sequence of all the amino acids in insulin, a small protein secreted by the pancreas. This provided the first conclusive evidence that proteins were chemical entities with a specific molecular pattern rather than a random mixture of material suspended in fluid. Sanger's success in sequencing insulin greatly electrified x-ray crystallographers, including Watson and Crick who by now were trying to understand how DNA directed the formation of proteins within a cell. Soon after attending a series of lectures given by Fred Sanger in October 1954, Crick began to develop a theory which argued that the arrangement of nucleotides in DNA determined the sequence of amino acids in proteins which in turn helped determine the function of a protein. He published this theory in 1958."