How to Grow Copper Crystals with Electricity! | Electrochemistry Explained source: Bunsen Burns
Crystal Structure Review source: Scott Ramsay
CYMATICS: Science Vs. Music - Nigel Stanford source: Nigel John Stanford
Overlapping Decagons on the Iranian Plateau: History of Architecture and the History of Mathematics source: The Met
"The history of science shows that theories are perishable"
"The history of science shows that theories are perishable. With every new truth that is revealed we get a better understanding of Nature and our conceptions and views are modified. Dr. Hertz did not discover a new principle. He merely gave material support to hypothesis which had been long ago formulated. It was a perfectly well-established fact that a circuit, traversed by a periodic current, emitted some kind of space waves, but we were in ignorance as to their character. He apparently gave an experimental proof that they were transversal vibrations in the ether. Most people look upon this as his great accomplishment. To my mind it seems that his immortal merit was not so much in this as in the focusing of the investigators' attention on the processes taking place in the ambient medium. The Hertz-wave theory, by its fascinating hold on the imagination, has stifled creative effort in the wireless art and retarded it for twenty-five years. But, on the other hand, it is impossible to over-estimate the beneficial effects of the powerful stimulus it has given in many directions.
As regards signaling without wires, the application of these radiations for the purpose was quite obvious. When Dr. Hertz was asked whether such a system would be of practical value, he did not think so, and he was correct in his forecast. The best that might have been expected was a method of communication similar to the heliographic and subject to the same or even greater limitations.
In the spring of 1891 I gave my demonstrations with a high frequency machine before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Columbia College, which laid the foundation to a new and far more promising departure. Altho the laws of electrical resonance were well known at that time and my lamented friend, Dr. John Hopkinson, had even indicated their specific application to an alternator in the Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, Nov.13, 1889, nothing had been done towards the practical use of this knowledge and it is probable that those experiments of mine were the first public exhibition with resonant circuits, more particularly of high frequency. "
"While the spontaneous success of my lecture was due to spectacular features, its chief import was in showing that all kinds of devices could be operated thru a single wire without return. This was the initial step in the evolution of my wireless system. The idea presented itself to me that it might be possible, under observance of proper conditions of resonance, to transmit electric energy thru the earth, thus dispensing with all artificial conductors."
"Anyone who might wish to examine impartially the merit of that early suggestion must not view it in the light of present day science. I only need to say that as late as 1893, when I had prepared an elaborate chapter on my wireless system, dwelling on its various instrumentalities and future prospects, Mr. Joseph Wetzler and other friends of mine emphatically protested against its publication on the ground that such idle and far-fetched speculations would injure me in the opinion of conservative business men. So it came that only a small part of what I had intended to say was embodied in my address of that year before the Franklin Institute and National Electric Light Association under the chapter "On Electrical Resonance." This little salvage from the wreck has earned me the title of "Father of the Wireless" from many well-disposed fellow workers, rather than the invention of scores of appliances which have brought wireless transmission within the reach of every young amateur and which, in a time not distant, will lead to undertakings overshadowing in magnitude and importance all past achievements of the engineer."
"Crystal Radio Demonstrations"
"Crystal radios are one of the best devices for demonstrating a resonating electrical circuit. They are low cost and easy to understand."
"When radio was new, crystal sets were the first receivers available. They are so simple they don't even need a battery or other power source. They literally pull power out of the air. However, before you start believing in perpetual motion machines, we must state that the first and second laws of thermodynamics are rigorously obeyed even by crystal radios. The power they pull out of the air is put into it by the radio station's transmitter. In fact, the transmitter puts a lot more power in than thousands of crystal radios could remove."
"Tesla was definitely not as eccentric (a polite word for crazy) as he may have seemed. Electrical power actually can be transmitted without wires. We do it on a regular basis with radio and television. However, there are some serious problems involved with transmitting enough power, to say, run a city."
"Crystal radios contain an inductor and a capacitor in an electrical circuit tuned to resonate at the carrier frequency of a radio broadcast. The signal is then passed through a diode to transform it from AC to DC (see Figure 1) form so that it can drive a very sensitive ear phone."
Nikola Tesla & The Fine Art of Tuning It All In
"In pioneering experiments conducted 1887, Heinrich Hertz showed that a simple spark coil and a small antenna could be used to broadcast radio waves. Using a primitive radio receiver Hertz was able to detect these waves from a few feet away. Working in New York City around 1891, Nikola Tesla devised major improvements to the Hertz oscillator, creating the Tesla coil resonance transformer with its tuned primary and secondary circuits. When used as a wireless transmitter Tesla's oscillator was able to produce radio waves thousands of times more powerful than ever before achieved. By the mid 1890s Nikola Tesla was focused on the development of an independent, remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) called the "telautomaton." Using his newly developed wireless technology he was able to eliminate the physical connection that had previously been needed between the moving object and the stationary controller. Instead of depending on interconnecting electrical wires to carry the controlling signals, he used radio waves. On November 8, 1899 Tesla's ROV design received United States Patent No. 613,809, "Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles." Tesla's more powerful radio transmitter made his ROV a practical reality and opened up the age of wireless telecommunications."
"An important feature of every system for wireless remote control is its immunity to interference. In order to achieve this Tesla developed a method for selectively activating the vehicle's wireless receiver. He called this "the art of individualization." In its most basic form he would transmit the control signals using only a single frequency. If greater security was needed, he used a wireless signal produced on a multiple of frequencies -- the transmitter worked at a number of separate wave lengths, like a pipe organ playing a musical chord or, alternatively, a specific sequence of notes. On the receiver side each one of the individual frequency components had to be tuned in, in order for the control circuitry to respond. In 1903 he was granted the "System of Signaling" and "Method of Signaling" patents covering these techniques."
"These patents describe the electronic AND-gate logic circuit, a fundamental element of all present day digital computers. They also lay out the basic principles of frequency-hopping and frequency-division multiplexing in wireless spread spectrum telecommunications."
"Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-gray metallic luster, it is a tetravalent metalloid. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbonabove it and germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium below. It is not very reactive, although more reactive than carbon, and has great chemical affinity for oxygen; it was first purified and characterized in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius.
Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates."
"Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen."
"Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and often with little processing of the natural minerals. Such use includes industrial construction with clays, silica sand, and stone. Silicate is used in Portland cement for mortar and stucco, and mixed with silica sand and gravel to make concrete for walkways, foundations, and roads. Silicates are used in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass and many other specialty glasses. Silicon compounds such as silicon carbide are used as abrasives and components of high-strength ceramics.
Elemental silicon also has a large impact on the modern world economy. Most free silicon is used in the steel refining, aluminium-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica). Even more visibly, the relatively small portion of very highly purified silicon used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is essential to integrated circuits — most computers, cell phones, and modern technology depend on it. Silicon is the basis of the widely used synthetic polymers called silicones.
Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces are required by animals. However, various sea sponges and microorganisms, such as diatoms and radiolaria, secrete skeletal structures made of silica. Silica is deposited in many plant tissues, such as in the bark and wood of Chrysobalanaceae and the silica cells and silicified trichomes of Cannabis sativa, horsetails and many grasses."
"Pure monocrystalline silicon is used to produce silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics, and in some high-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic applications. Pure silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor, which means that unlike metals, it conducts electron holes and electrons released from atoms by heat; silicon's electrical conductivity increases with higher temperatures. Pure silicon has too low a conductivity (i.e., too high a resistivity) to be used as a circuit element in electronics. In practice, pure silicon is doped with small concentrations of certain other elements, which greatly increase its conductivity and adjust its electrical response by controlling the number and charge (positive or negative) of activated carriers. Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, semiconductor detectors, and other semiconductor devices used in the computer industry and other technical applications. In silicon photonics, silicon can be used as a continuous wave Raman laser medium to produce coherent light, though it is ineffective as an everyday light source.
In common integrated circuits, a wafer of monocrystalline silicon serves as a mechanical support for the circuits, which are created by doping and insulated from each other by thin layers of silicon oxide, an insulator that is easily produced by exposing the element to oxygen under the proper conditions. Silicon has become the most popular material for both high power semiconductors and integrated circuits because it can withstand the highest temperatures and greatest electrical activity without suffering avalanche breakdown (an electron avalanche is created when heat produces free electrons and holes, which in turn pass more current, which produces more heat). In addition, the insulating oxide of silicon is not soluble in water, which gives it an advantage over germanium (an element with similar properties which can also be used in semiconductor devices) in certain fabrication techniques."
Nikola Tesla & Colorado's Quartz Filled, "Radio-Active" Pike's Peak
"Pikes Peak is itself, an intrusive center and smoky quartz and amazonite can be found in many areas within four miles (6 km) of the summit. For example, amazonite can be found next to Barr Trail, the main hiking route to the summit of Pikes Peak. The most famous collecting area on the Peak is Glenn Cove, a glacial cirque located at 11,000 feet (3,400 m) on the north side of the mountain. Quartz crystals, amazonite and topaz crystals can be found in pockets on steep cliffs in this area."
"For nine months Tesla conducted experiments at Colorado Springs. Though he kept a day-to-day diary that was rich in detail, the results of his experiments are not clear. One question has never been definitively answered: Did Tesla actually transmit wireless power at Pikes Peak?"
"There are some reports that he did transmit a signal several miles powerful enough to illuminate vacuum tubes planted in the ground. But this can be attributed to conductive properties in the ground at Colorado Springs."
Colorado Springs: Where Nikola Tesla Is Supposed To Have Used The Earth As A Conductor
"Fort Carson is a United States Army installation located in El Paso County, Colorado, near the city of Colorado Springs.
The 137,000-acre (55,000 ha) installation extends southward into Pueblo and Fremont counties. That part of the installation located within El Paso County forms a census-designated place (CDP) which had a population of 13,815 in the 2010 census.
Fort Carson is the home of the 4th Infantry Division, the 10th Special Forces Group, the 440th Civil Affairs Battalion (USAR), the 71st Ordnance Group (EOD), the 4th Engineer Battalion, the 759th Military Police Battalion, the 10th Combat Support Hospital, the 43rd Sustainment Brigade, the Army Field Support Battalion-Fort Carson, the 423rd Transportation Company (USAR) and the 13th Air Support Operations Squadron of the United States Air Force. The post also hosts units of the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve and the Colorado Army National Guard. Ft. Carson was also home to the 5th Infantry Div. Known as the Red Devils."
"Camp Carson was established in 1942, following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. The city of Colorado Springs, Colorado purchased land south of the city and donated it to the War Department. Construction began immediately and the first building, the camp headquarters, was completed January 31, 1942. Camp Carson was named in honor of the legendary Army scout, General Christopher "Kit" Carson, who explored much of the West in the 1800s"
"At the construction's peak, nearly 11,500 workers were employed on various construction projects at the new camp. Facilities were provided for 35,173 enlisted men, 1,818 officers and 592 nurses. Nearly all of the buildings were of mobilization type construction, with wood sided exteriors. The hospital complex was constructed of concrete block, and considered to be semi-permanent, and had space for 1,726 beds, expandable to 2,000 beds. The 89th Infantry Division was the first major unit to be activated at Camp Carson. During World War II, over 100,000 soldiers trained at Camp Carson. Along with three other infantry divisions – the 71st Infantry Division, 104th Infantry Division and 10th Mountain Division – more than 125 units were activated at Camp Carson and more than 100 others were transferred to the mountain post from other installations.
Nurses, cooks, mule packers, tank battalions, a Greek infantry battalion, and an Italian ordnance company trained at Camp Carson during the war years. Camp Carson was also home to nearly 9,000 Axis prisoners of war – mostly Italians and Germans. The internment camp at Camp Carson opened on the first day of 1943. These POWs alleviated the manpower shortage in Colorado by doing general farm work, canning tomatoes, cutting corn, and aiding in logging operations on Colorado's Western Slope.
Between 1942 and 1956, pack mules were a common sight at Camp Carson. The first shipment arrived by train from Nebraska in July 1942. The mules were used by Field Artillery (Pack) battalions to carry equipment, weapons and supplies over mountainous terrain. The most famous of these animals was Hambone, the pride of the 4th Field Artillery Battalion. For 13 years, he carried first sergeants up Ute Pass to Camp Hale. Camp Hale, located near Leadville, Colorado, was where the Army conducted cold weather and mountain warfare training. Hambone died in March 1971 and was buried with full military honors.
By April 1946, the post-war military strength at the camp was around 600 and on 16 December 1949, Strategic Air Command opened a survival school at Camp Carson for training in mountainous terrain (moved to Stead Air Force Base, Nevada, in 1952.)"
Why The Springs?
Perhaps the answer is quartz, of course. What Nikola Tesla may have got working in Colorado might not have been so easily adapted to a world-wide system, as he had envisioned.
Myths and legends are mixed freely with actual events, we can at times end up with more questions than any real answers. No great conspiracy is needed to explain the boastful and showmanship nature of those who seek investors for one kind of scheme or another.
Not all patents are created equal.
"Tesla's notes at the Colorado Springs experimental station were unpublished until the release of this book. Arrangements through the Nikola Tesla Museum allowed Aleksandar Marinčić to make commentaries on the notes. The Nikola Tesla Museum published the work to mark the 120th anniversary of Tesla's birth."
"Mobilized Radio-Teletype Tested by Signal Company"
"Editor’s note: This article ran in the March 13, 1953, issue."
“CAMP CARSON SIGNAL OFFICER EXTENDS GREETINGS TO THE PERSONNEL ATTENDING THE SIGNAL INSTRUCTIONAL AND DEMONSTRATION TEAM IN YOUR CITY PS THIS MESSAGE IS BEING sent and received via the Signal Corps newest in high speed mobile radio-teletype equipment, the AN GRC 26A PD—“
"With this message, to personnel watching a demonstration, new vistas on the communications front were opened for Camp Carson when the newest compact radio-teletype equipment was tested recently."
"The mobile set received by the 529th Sig. Opn. Co. last week has the signal men absorbed and enthused over its performance. During tests messages have been received and sent up to a 1200 mile range.
The radio-teletype equipment manned by skilled corps technicians is another facility enabling Army commanders to be informed of important developments in their commands and to receive communications from higher headquarters.
It can also provide a speedy two-way communications with land based commands and ocean going vessels.
The 529th men have already named their latest electronic addition the “Angry 26” — their version of the abbreviation “AN GRC 26A” which stands for Army-Navy Ground Radio Communications.
The $18,000 set presently is being used in an experimental stage with another similar set manned by a demonstration team instructing various ROTC and Army reserve units in the Fifth Army area.
Last Tuesday contact was established and maintained with the demonstration team in Omaha, Neb. These radio contacts are made Mondays through Thursdays from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. during which time the demonstration team sets up their mobile radio-teletype equipment with the units for instructional purposes.
Three tele-typewriters, a tape distributor, sending and receiving apparatus and assorted electronic devices complete the set which requires a 2-1/2-ton truck to transport it.
Communications by voice with a similarly equipped radio unit is possible, even while sending or receiving messages mechanically over the radio electrically activated typewriters. It’s a matter of adjusting frequencies, according to the Signal Corps technicians.
One teletypewriter machine makes a type-written code punched copy of each message, received or sent. In order to relay the message, the operator places the tape in the tape distributor machine, adjusts assorted dials, switches and levers and the message will be relayed — sent out —, over the radio-teletype system.
On another teletypewriter, the operator can view the typewritten message being dispatched over the impulse interrupted air waves. Messages can be sent out at the rate of 60 or more words per minute.
News items from the radio-teletype equipped news services have been received during the current testing phase. Through the relay system the men of the 529th have received the latest news from Sian, Hong Kong, France and Argentina.
Any radio-teletype unit sending with a strong enough signal can be picked up by the Carson set. The present 1200 mile range is certain to be increased after the new antenna is installed according to Lt. William G. Harris, commanding officer.
Major George H. Schmidt, post Signal officer, exercises general supervision over all Carson’s Signal Corps units and operations. The use of the present wire-teletype service will not be discontinued.
At the present time there are three “Angry 26’s” undergoing testing phases at Carson."
World Wars, Banana Republics, MI-6, Rockefeller Center & Your Mind
"As of its founding RCA was the largest radio communications firm in the United States. However, American Marconi had been falling behind industry advances, particularly in vacuum tube technology, and GE needed access to additional patents before its new subsidiary could be fully competitive. The result was a series of negotiations and a complicated set of cross-licensing agreements between various companies. On July 1, 1920, an agreement was made with the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T), which purchased 500,000 shares of RCA, although it would divest these shares in early 1923. The United Fruit Company held a small portfolio of radio patents, and signed two agreements in 1921. GE's traditional electric company rival, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Corporation, had also purchased rights to some critical patents, including one for heterodyne receiving originally issued to Reginald Fessenden, plus regenerative circuit and superheterodyne receiver patents issued to Edwin Armstrong."
"Westinghouse was able to use this to negotiate a cross-licensing agreement, effective July 1, 1921, that included a concession that 40% of RCA's equipment purchases would be from Westinghouse. Following these transactions, GE owned 30.1% of RCA's stock, Westinghouse 20.6%, AT&T 10.3%, and United Fruit 4.1%, with the remaining 34.9% owned by individual shareholders.
In 1930, RCA agreed to occupy the yet-to-be-constructed landmark building of the Rockefeller Center complex, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, which in 1933 became known as the RCA building (now the Comcast Building). This lease was critical for enabling the massive project to proceed as a commercially viable venture — David Rockefeller cited RCA's action as being responsible for "the salvation of the project". "
A Rockefeller Center For British Mind Control:
Propaganda & Electronic Media in The 20th Century: The Original Electronic "Social Media" Revealed
"British Security Co-ordination (BSC) was a covert organisation set up in New York City by the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in May 1940 upon the authorisation of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Its purpose was to investigate enemy activities, prevent sabotage against British interests in the Americas, and mobilise pro-British opinion in the Americas. As a 'huge secret agency of nationwide news manipulation and black propaganda', the BSC influenced news coverage in the Herald Tribune, the New York Post, The Baltimore Sun, and Radio New York Worldwide. The stories disseminated from Rockefeller Center would then be legitimately picked up by other radio stations and newspapers, before being relayed to the American public. Through this, anti-German stories were placed in major American media outlets to turn public opinion.
Its cover was the British Passport Control Office. BSC benefitted from support given by the chief of the US Office of Strategic Services, William J. Donovan (whose organisation was modelled on British activities), and US President Franklin D. Rooseveltwho was staunchly anti-Nazi."
Eric Dollard - A History of the Marconi and R.C.A. Station, Bolinas, California source: Aaron Murakami
"RCA originated as a reorganization of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America (commonly called "American Marconi"). In 1897, the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited, was founded in London to promote the radio (then known as "wireless telegraphy") inventions of Guglielmo Marconi. As part of a worldwide expansion, in 1899 American Marconi was organized as a subsidiary company, holding the rights to the use the Marconi patents in the United States and Cuba. In 1912 it took over the assets of the bankrupt United Wireless Telegraph Company, and from that point forward it had been the dominant radio communications company in the United States.
With the entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917, most civilian radio stations were taken over by government, to be used for the war effort. Although the overall U.S. government plan was to restore civilian ownership of the seized radio stations once the war ended, many Navy officials hoped to retain a monopoly on radio communication even after the war. Defying instructions to the contrary, the Navy began purchasing large numbers of stations outright. With the conclusion of the conflict, Congress turned down the Navy's efforts to have peacetime control of the radio industry, and instructed the Navy to make plans to return the commercial stations it controlled, including the ones it had improperly purchased, to the original owners.
Due to national security considerations, the Navy was particularly concerned about returning the high-powered international stations to American Marconi, since a majority of its stock was in foreign hands, and the British already largely controlled the international undersea cables. This concern was increased by the announcement in late 1918 of the formation of the Pan-American Wireless Telegraph and Telephone Company, a joint venture between American Marconi and the Federal Telegraph Company, with plans to set up service between the United States and South America.
The Navy had installed a high-powered Alexanderson alternator, built by General Electric (GE), at the American Marconi transmitter site in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It proved to be superior for transatlantic transmissions to the spark transmitters that had been traditionally used by the Marconi companies. Marconi officials were so impressed by the capabilities of the Alexanderson alternators that they began making preparations to adopt them as their standard transmitters for international communication. A tentative plan made with General Electric proposed that over a two-year period the Marconi companies would purchase most of GE's alternator production. However, this proposal was met with disapproval, on national security grounds, by the U.S. Navy, which was concerned that this would guarantee British domination of international radio communication."
"The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. It was initially a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric (GE), however in 1932 GE was required to divest its control as part of the settlement of an antitrust suit.
At its height as an independent company RCA was the dominant communications firm in the United States. Beginning in the 1920s it was a major manufacturer of radio receivers, and also developed the first national radio network, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC).
It had a leading role in the introduction of black-and-white television in the 1940s and 1950s, and color television in the 1950s and 1960s. During this time the company was closely identified with the leadership of David Sarnoff, who was general manager at its founding, became company president in 1930, and remained active, as chairman of the board, until the end of 1969.
In the 1970s RCA began to falter, suffering major loses in the mainframe computer industry and other failed projects such as videodisks. In 1986 it was reacquired by General Electric, which over the next few years sold off most of the RCA assets. The RCA trademarks are currently owned by Sony Music Entertainment and Technicolor, which in turn license the brand name to other companies including Voxx International, Curtis International, and TCL Corporation for their individual products."