Epistemological plumb pudding and the navigation of the World.
"The celestial sphere can be considered to be infinite in radius."
"...be they millimetres apart or across the Solar System from each other, will seem to intersect the sphere at a single point, analogous to the vanishing point of graphical perspective."
Celestial Navigation With An Impossible "Infinite Radius"
It seems, based upon description, that the celestial sphere might be better described as projecting out from the Earth's center.
Perhaps a celestial asterisk would be a more fitting description for the celestial sphere model. It appears that it is not possible to really discern how far away celestial objects like stars are, despite all official mathematical backed claims to the peer reviewed contrary.
"Because astronomical objects are at such remote distances, casual observation of the sky offers no information on the actual distances. All objects seem equally far away, as if fixed to the inside of a sphere of large but unknown radius, which rotates from east to west overhead while underfoot, Earth seems to stand still. For purposes of spherical astronomy, which is concerned only with the directions to objects, it makes no difference whether this is actually the case, or if it is the Earth which rotates while the celestial sphere stands still."
"The celestial sphere can be considered to be infinite in radius. This means any point within it, including that occupied by the observer, can be considered the center. It also means that all parallel lines, be they millimetres apart or across the Solar System from each other, will seem to intersect the sphere at a single point, analogous to the vanishing point of graphical perspective. All parallel planes will seem to intersect the sphere in a coincident great circle (a “vanishing circle”). Conversely, observers looking toward the same point on an infinite-radius celestial sphere will be looking along parallel lines, and observers looking toward the same great circle, along parallel planes. On an infinite-radius celestial sphere, all observers see the same things in the same direction.
For some objects, this is over-simplified. Objects which are relatively near to the observer (for instance, the Moon) will seem to change position against the distant celestial sphere if the observer moves far enough, say, from one side of planet Earth to the other. This effect, known as parallax, can be represented as a small offset from a mean position. The celestial sphere can be considered to be centered at the Earth's center, the Sun's center, or any other convenient location, and offsets from positions referred to these centers can be calculated.
In this way, astronomers can predict geocentric or heliocentric positions of objects on the celestial sphere, without the need to calculate the individual geometry of any particular observer, and the utility of the celestial sphere is maintained. Individual observers can work out their own small offsets from the mean positions, if necessary. In many cases in astronomy, the offsets are insignificant."
Conjectural Little Stars
"figure used in printing and writing to indicate footnote, omission, etc., or to distinguish words or phrases as conjectural," late 14c., asterich, asterisc, from Late Latin asteriscus, from Greek asteriskos "little star," diminutive of aster "star" (from PIE root *ster- (2) "star"). As a verb from 1733."
Navigating The Globe
This is a model that represents what we can actually observe. All celestial phenomena rises in the east and sets in the west.
Celestial Navigation (instruction video) source: NathanielsCAD
Different Types of Time
"Sidereal time /saɪˈdɪəriəl/ is a time-keeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects. Using sidereal time it is possible to easily point a telescope to the proper coordinates in the night sky. Briefly, sidereal time is a "time scale that is based on Earth's rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars" rather than the Sun."
"Solar time is measured by the apparent diurnal motion of the Sun, and local noon in apparent solar time is the moment when the Sun is exactly due south or north (depending on the observer's latitude and the season). A mean solar day (what we normally measure as a "day") is the average time between local solar noons ("average" since this varies slightly over the year).
Earth makes one rotation around its axis in a sidereal day; during that time it moves a short distance (about 1°) along its orbit around the Sun. So after a sidereal day has passed, Earth still needs to rotate slightly more before the Sun reaches local noon according to solar time. A mean solar day is, therefore, nearly 4 minutes longer than a sidereal day."
Magnetic North is Located at The Earth's Geographic South Pole
"The Arab Empire significantly contributed to navigation, and had trade networks extending from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Indian Ocean and China Sea in the east, Apart from the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, navigable rivers in the Islamic regions were uncommon, so transport by sea was very important. Islamic geography and navigational sciences made use of a magnetic compass and a rudimentary instrument known as a kamal, used for celestial navigation and for measuring the altitudes and latitudes of the stars. "
Astronavigation: Sailing Around The Globe
"Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient science of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position. Celestial navigation uses "sights," or angular measurements taken between a celestial body (the sun, the moon, a planet or a star) and the visible horizon. The sun is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the moon, a planet, Polaris, or one of 57 other navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in the nautical almanacand air almanacs."
"Celestial navigation is the use of angular measurements (sights) between celestial bodies and the visible horizon to locate one's position on the globe, on land as well as at sea. At a given time, any celestial body is located directly over one point on the Earth's surface. The latitude and longitude of that point is known as the celestial body’s geographic position (GP), the location of which can be determined from tables in the Nautical or Air Almanac for that year."
Ptolemy's Planetarium Projector
"Claudius Ptolemy lived in Rome around 100 AD. His model of the solar system and heavenly sphere was a refinement of previous models developed by Greek astronomers. Ptolemy’s major contribution, however, was that his model could so accurately explain the motions of heavenly bodies, it became the model for understanding the structure of the solar system. It is beyond the scope of this course to discuss all the complex social and historical implications of an Earth-centered versus a Sun-centered model of the solar system. But nearly all the early models, including Ptolemy’s version of the solar system, assumed that the Earth was the center of not only the solar system, but the entire universe.
The Ptolemaic model accounted for the apparent motions of the planets in a very direct way, by assuming that each planet moved on a small sphere or circle, called an epicycle, that moved on a larger sphere or circle, called a deferent. The stars, it was assumed, moved on a celestial sphere around the outside of the planetary spheres."
"As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth. In the planetarium projector, motors and gears provide uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. One motor moves the planet projector around in a big circle, which in this case is the deferent, and another gear or motor takes the place of the epicycle."
"A good example of a "typical" planetarium projector of the 1960s was the Universal Projection Planetarium type 23/6, made by VEB Carl Zeiss Jena in what was then East Germany. The planetarium projector was a 13-foot (4.0 m)-long dumbbell-shaped object, with 29-inch (740 mm)-diameter spheres attached at each end representing the night sky for the northern and southern hemispheres. Connecting the two spheres was a framework that held nearly 150 individual projectors, including those dedicated to the planets, the Sun, and specific stars.
Each globe held representations of almost 4,500 stars per hemisphere. The "stars" were created by tiny holes that were punched into copper foil, ranging from 0.023 to 0.452 mm in size, the larger holes letting more light get through and thereby creating brighter star images. Two glass plates held this foil between them to create what was called a "star field plate". Each globe was illuminated using a 1,500-watt lamp that was located in its center. A number of aspherical condenser lenses were placed within each globe to focus the light onto the plates. Twenty-three of the most prominent stars had their own projectors, designed to project a small disk instead of pinpoint of light, and were also colored: Betelgeuse and Antares would appear reddish, Rigel and Spica would each have a blue tinge. An image of the Milky Way was created by using drum-type projectors that were studded with unfocused pinprick-sized holes based on photographic images of our galaxy. Specific projectors could imitate the light changes of such variable stars as Algol or Omicron Ceti, and other projectors could produce images of the constellations, of specific historical comets, compass points and other astronomical phenomena. When a particular star or planet dipped below the artificial horizon, a gravity-based mercury-filled shutter would be activated, blocking out the light."
Isn't the Earth best described as a motionless globe?
Isn't this what we really experience and observe? There are reasons why the works of men like Einstein exist in the first place,
"I have come to believe that the motion of the Earth cannot be detected by any optical experiment."- Physicist, Albert Einstein
Navigating By Sea
Navigation by Lighthouses: "Night Piloting" 1943 US Navy; Chesapeake Bay source: Jeff Quitney
Navigating Fake Outer Space with Live Action Cartoon Characters:
NASA is Little More Than A Hollywood Special Effects Studio & Astronauts Are Life Actors
International banking interests manage the world governments. Nation states are as fake as outer space and both ideas are designed to give you mythology to identify with. The rocket is a modern religious artifact and represents both the imagined hopeful power of humanity's ability to transcend the bonds of our Earthly and seemingly mortal existence and the imagined dreadful and terrifying power to destroy the world many times over in a global holocaust of nuclear radioactive fire. Space programs remind us of the existential threat of a nuclear war and reinforces the belief in the need for all the needless layers of governmental "protection" we do not need. Nation states are far less powerful than they want or need us all to know. Wars are more fake and contrived events than most think and history is made of a lot more lies and myth than most might care to admit. We exist to serve government, government does not exist to serve us. Wars have been used for centuries to keep us the vast global human resource in our place turning the wheel of industrial time for all "eternity". The world is run as one global banking and commercial based enterprise from the top down. University trained elite level minds manage affairs for higher level blue blooded royal lineages who retain more power (at least on paper) than most know. The world is literally bound by a paperwork trail of treaties, constitutions, laws, contracts, tithes, fees, fines and all sorts of jail time. Things do not really work as advertised but most, (even those in the system) do not know this. This makes truly navigating the world of human construct that much more difficult. The more industrialized and urbanized the "times", the more specialized and seemingly dependent on government does humanity become.
Mockumenting Canadian Cartoon Characters
A Trailer Park "Tin Foiled" Show
Playing Space With Bubbles - Col Chris Hadfield Preview source: SwearNet
Outer Space Is A Great Imaginary Place To Use As A Setting For Justifying An Expanded Global Governmental Race
PROBLEM > REACTION > SOLUTION
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We have reams of studies and statistics and dinosaur bones of all sorts to back up officially sanctioned claims of historical global climate change and the desperate need for global crisis management.
We have televised terrifying crisis after an endless cycle of News fed violence.
We have highly edited videos of decades of endless Hollywood produced Newsreel war clips.
Our hard earned taxed wages go to fund more governmental growth than just NASA's Hollywood nonsense.
The Defense Industry is much bigger than that. Government itself is more titanic than just one program like NASA. The entire beast keeps growing and one of its basic purposes is the simple redistribution of wealth with the intent of driving new industrialized social engineering projects. This is how internationally banking biased, European trained minds, have long crafted global culture and industrialized civilization.
Introducing An Endless Generation of Meta Layers of United Globally Divided & Conquered State & County Bounded Nations
"The United Nations involvement in space related activities can be traced back to the beginning of the Space Race. After the first man-made object orbited the Earth in 1957, the UN has focused on ensuring outer space is used for peaceful purposes. The Launch of Sputnik marked the beginning of the Space Race as well as the beginning of satellite use for the advancement of science.
As the Cold War began, fear of Outer Space being used for military purposes spread through the international community. This led to the creation of multiple organizations with the intent of governing how outer space can be used in order to assure it does not become the next frontier for conflict."
"In 1958, the United Nations established the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space which originally consisted of 18 members: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Sweden, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Arab Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
In 1959, the United Nations permanently established the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and grew to involve 24 countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Lebanon, and Romania.) The main focuses of COPUOS is to promote cooperation in the peaceful use of outer space, and share information regarding outer space and its exploration.
In 1962, the two COPUOS subcommittees: the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee met for the first time and continue to do so annually."
The Cold War Was Used To Reinforce The Belief That "We" Need The U.N. Right Around The Time It Was Created
Wars and talk of war have long been used to justify the belief in the need for all government in the first place. The Israeli and Palestinian conflict and a whole host of other perpetually managed and seemingly crafted apocalyptic threats justify the need for the U.N. and other such global governmental bodies. Funny how they can never seem to figure out this whole "peace" thing. We've had some 70 years of post World War Two United Nation's branded global bridge building and the world seems that much more dangerous as a result, assuming we believe the mainstream historical narrative and mainstream promoted current events.
It's been some 50 years since Men supposedly walked on the Moon and yet none of us can take a rocket ride into the sky nor can any of us wait on a line to be groped to get on board NASA's famed Vomit Comet. Only the elite few get to visit that film set.