A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

Article index

Navigating The Science of Crowd Control: Collecting Identities

 

(A Long Tradition Of An Imaginative Cultural Oral Freudian Fixation)

"Tom Pettitt, Associate Professor of English at the University of Southern Denmark, agrees with Ong, et al., by considering literate learning more the anomaly than the rule. He considers this to be a post-Gutenberg era where knowledge is formed through digital media, delivered over the internet. Calling the previous 500 years a "Gutenberg Parenthesis", he explains that before Gutenberg, knowledge was formed orally and, now, in this post-Gutenberg era, knowledge is formed—increasingly—through "secondary orality" on the Internet ."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_orality

 

A New Wave of Internet Telephone Game Role-Players Nudges New Identity Products Online

Flat Earth and the Truth "Movement" seem to be more about community building than real research and education. YouTube seems to be encouraging this kind of online community building. YouTube is a useful tool for education when supplemented with reading and other sources. The internet puts a library of vast educational resource in our hands and most use this tool for posting selfies and for watching echo chamber amateur videos that simply parrot back what the "community" wants to hear. There are plenty of educational videos and university lectures worth watching on YouTube, yet most self identifying "truth seekers" seem to be content with fourth hand information from some guy on YouTube as "proof" that the Earth is Flat and we are all part of some kind of alien laboratory experiment.

 

A Flooded & Flattened YouTubed Earth

”About 1 year ago, conspiracy youtubers started getting flooded with flat earth video recommendations even though they had previously never watched a flat earth video in their life. Cass Sunstein, … chief Obama administration propagandist describes this technique in his book “Nudge.” "

"The technique is to target groups whose opinion they want to shape and gently nudge in the certain directions with several techniques. These include infiltrators and internet forums or comments sections of articles as well as using connections with websites such as youtube to give people recommendations based on their data to push them where they need to go."

Flat Earth Psychological Operations – The Flat Earth PSYOP | 2012 ...

 

A Crowded Set of Self Identifying Individual Minds

"Convergence Theory - whereas the Contagion Theory states that crowds cause people to act in a certain way, Convergence theory states that people who want to act in a certain way come together to form crowds. Developed by Floyd Allport (1924) and later expanded upon by Neil Miller and John Dollard (1941) as "Learning Theory," the central argument of all convergence theories is that collective behavior reveals the otherwise hidden tendencies of the individuals who take part in the episode. It asserts that people with similar attributes find other like-minded persons with whom they can release these underlying tendencies. People sometimes do things in a crowd that they would not have the courage to do alone because crowds can diffuse responsibility but the behavior itself is claimed to originate within the individuals. Crowds, in addition, can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior

The power of the crowd | John Drury | TEDxSussexUniversity source: TEDx Talks

 

Social Identity & Group Membership: Moving Goal Posts

We are supposed to self identify and sort ourselves into more easily divided and conquered communities. We are supposed to fight among ourselves and not focus on the real source of our problems. We aren't supposed to look in the mirror and start there.

"This influence is evidenced by findings that when the stated purpose and values of a group changes, the values and motives of its members are shown to also change."

"In crowds which are more ambiguous, individuals will assume a new social identity as a member of the crowd. This group membership is made more salient by confrontation with other groups, a relatively common occurrence for crowds."

"Social identity theory posits that the self is a complex system made up primarily of the concept of membership or non-membership in various social groups. These groups have various moral and behavioral values and norms, and the individual's actions depend on which group membership (or non-membership) is most personally salient at the time of action.[9] This influence is evidenced by findings that when the stated purpose and values of a group changes, the values and motives of its members are shown to also change.[19] Crowds are an amalgam of individuals, all of whom belong to various conflicting groups. However, if the crowd is primarily related to some identifiable group (such as Christians or civil-rights activists), then the values of that group will dictate crowd action.[9] In crowds which are more ambiguous, individuals will assume a new social identity as a member of the crowd.[1] This group membership is made more salient by confrontation with other groups, a relatively common occurrence for crowds.[1]

The group identity serves to create a set of standards for behavior; for certain groups violence is legitimate, for others it is unacceptable.[1] This standard is formed from stated values, but also from the actions of others in the crowd, and sometimes from a few in leadership-type positions.[1]

A concern with this theory is that while it explains how crowds reflect social ideas and prevailing attitudes, it does not explain the mechanisms by which crowds enact social change.[9]"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowd_psychology#Social_identity_theory

 

Identity Is A Cultured Commercial Product

identity puts the cult into the word culture

Politics reinforces social identities as one is supposed to self identify with one type of political party or another. One is supposed to self identify as their supposed race, or nationality. One is supposed to self identify as one's religious belief system, one's adult behavior choices, one's appetite preferences and so much more. Sports teams, pop bands and all sorts of other idols exist as identity icons for us to emulate and identify with. One is even supposed to self identify with the cosmic model that they think has the most explanatory power.

 

Monty Haul Presents: A Flying Bread Circus

"Many years ago, when David Cameron was still at school, boys of his age would fall about laughing at a Monty Python sketch involving two men in a pub, one of whom was desperate to drawout information about the other's sex life. His continually repeated phrase was: "Nudge, nudge, wink wink, say no more!"

Nudge – with or without a wink – has a special meaning in modern political theory, and was very much in vogue in Mr Cameron's circles two years ago, before the current economic crisis began. Then it disappeared, as if they had decided to say no more. Now, it appears, it is back. The man who elevated "nudge" into a political catchphrase, the Chicago-based academic, Richard Thaler, says that his idea is at last getting serious attention in Downing Street, as it is in Barack Obama's White House."

First Obama, now Cameron embraces 'nudge theory' | The Independent

Nudging Minds By Authoring "Choice Architecture": It's All About Obtaining Our Consent

"Nudge theory (or nudge) is a concept in behavioural science, political theory and economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to try to achieve non-forced compliance to influence the motives, incentives and decision making of groups and individuals. The theory claims to be at least as effective, if not more effective, than direct instruction, legislation, or enforcement. The concept has influenced British and American politicians."

"At the heart of nudge theory is the concept of nudge. The first formulation of this term and associated principles was developed in cybernetics by James Wilk before 1995 and described by Brunel University academic D. J. Stewart as "the art of the nudge" (sometimes referred to as micronudges[1]). It also drew on methodological influences from clinical psychotherapy tracing back to Gregory Bateson, including contributions from Milton Erickson, Watzlawick, Weakland and Fisch, and Bill O'Hanlon.[2] In this variant, the nudge is a microtargetted design geared towards a specific group of people, irrespective of the scale of intended intervention.

In 2008, Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein's book Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness brought nudge theory to prominence. The volume brought the discourse on nudge theory to the wider public. It also gained a following among US and UK politicians, in the private sector and in public health.[3] The authors refer to influencing behaviour without coercion as libertarian paternalism and the influencers as choice architects.[4] Thaler and Sunstein defined their concept as:

A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. To count as a mere nudge, the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates. Putting fruit at eye level counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not.

In this form, drawing on behavioral economics, the nudge is more generally applied to influence behavior."

"One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the men's room urinals at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, which is intended to "improve the aim". "

Nudge theory - Wikipedia

 

CROWDED FLAT EARTH FUNDED FUN IN THE MAGIC SPOTLIGHT SUN

 

MATURE LANGUAGE & CONTENT LIES AHEAD:

 

THE TRUTH ABOUT FLAT EARTH IDENTITIES

"To the crowd and the public Blumer adds a third form of collective behavior, the mass. It differs from both the crowd and the public in that it is defined not by a form of interaction but by the efforts of those who use the mass media to address an audience." 

"The first mass medium was printing."

"Collective behavior takes many forms but generally violates societal norms (Miller 2000, Locher 2002). Collective behavior can be tremendously destructive, as with riots or mob violence, silly, as with fads, or anywhere in between. Collective behavior is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable under typical social circumstances (Locher 2002)."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior

YouTube is an example of the mass medium of today and it has a more powerful effect over the human mind.

Flat Earth: Why Pay Attention?  source: John le Bon

Learn to think for yourself. It's a continuing education.

It seems to me that JBL is more right about human behavior than he is wrong, and his work is worth checking out.

A Feed Your Head Link: http://www.johnlebon.com/key-topics/b...

 

The Gutenberg Galaxy Gets Rebranded As The YouTube Universe

"In The Gutenberg Galaxy, Marshall McLuhan discussed his notion of the "global village", a concept that can be related to Ong's account of secondary orality. Liliana Bounegru notes the emergence of social media (e.g. Facebook) and microblogging (i.e.Twitter) are re-tribalizing our cultures. Conversations in these social spaces are written, but are more conversational in tone than written communications; they are "rapid communication with large groups of people in a speed that would resemble oral storytelling, without having to share the same physical space with your audience." "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_orality

"In the early 1960s, McLuhan wrote that the visual, individualistic print culture would soon be brought to an end by what he called "electronic interdependence": when electronic media would replace visual culture with aural/oral culture. In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base." McLuhan's coinage for this new social organization is the global village."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy

 

A Trailer Park Piss Take

Overstanding The Flat Earth Firmament

Trailer Park Boys Flat Earth Review  source: John le Bon

 

...And Thus The Flat Earth Profit Proclaimed:

Rain is God's Pee!

 

The Flat Earth "Activist Social Movement"

NASA Fakes Outer Space So The Earth is Flat: Logical Fallacy & Cognitive Dissonance

Flat Earth YouTube gurus like to mix some valid criticisms of NASA and mainstream cosmology with a whole bunch of law hanging Flat Earth fruit that people like Neil deGrasse Tyson can easily swat aside. Most people associate Flat Earth with ignorance and the Flat Earth guru knows this. The typical Flat Earth YouTube content provider seems very unwilling to admit that they are wrong. They resort to obvious logical fallacies like strawmen arguments and goal post movement and of course the almighty and ever effective fingers in the ears defense. The typical Flat Earth community building and crowd funded shepherd may or may not admit that the self labelled Flat Earth community has no working model or map. These minds will use atmospheric refraction as evidence of Flat Earth but ignore the same phenomena when it is presented as evidence the Earth is better described as spherical. The self labelled and self identified Flat Earther refuses to admit we are too small compared to the size of the Earth to easily notice curvature and they simply ignore any evidence that contradicts their seemingly precious, all important, identity reinforcing, world view. The Flat Earth YouTube guru acts more like a modern snake oil salesman than any kind of real researcher.

The Flat Earth guru will pee on your leg and will tell you that it is raining.

Instead of actually taking the time and truly making an effort to learn about mainstream astronomy and the mainstream model, the Flat Earther relies on amateur YouTube efforts for their so-called "education". The Flat Earth YouTube "community" is a parrot filled echo chamber that associates valid cosmological criticism with what seems to be nothing but absolute and illogically premised nonsense.

"When people find themselves in a situation that is vague, ambiguous, or confusing new norms "emerge" on the spot and people follow those emergent norms, which may be at odds with normal social behavior. Turner and Killian further argue that there are several different categories of participants, all of whom follow different patterns of behavior due to their differing motivations."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior

 

Ricky's Dad & Bubble's Explanation

Trailer Park Boys - Bubbles explains piss jugs  source: deth2christ666

 

"One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the men's room urinals at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, which is intended to "improve the aim". "

Nudge theory - Wikipedia

 

A Proper Gander At Propaganda: Behavioral Birds of A Feather Get Flocked Together

"congregate (v.)  mid-15c., from Latin congregatus "flocking together," past participle of congregare "to herd together, collect in a flock, swarm; assemble," from com- "together" (see com-) + gregare "to collect into a flock, gather," from grex (genitive gregis) "a flock" (see gregarious). Related: Congregated; congregating."

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=congregate&allowed_in_frame=0

 

A Behavioral Collective Divides Everyone For Governmental Help

"Turner and Killian (1957) were the first sociologists to back their theoretical propositions with visual evidence in the form of photographs and motion pictures of collective behavior in action. Prior to that sociologists relied heavily upon eyewitness accounts, which turned out to be far less reliable than one would hope."

"Turner and Killian's approach is based largely upon the arguments of Blumer, who argued that social "forces" are not really forces. The actor is active: He creates an interpretation of the acts of others, and acts on the basis of this interpretation."

"Here are some instances of collective behavior: the Los Angeles riot of 1992, the hula-hoop fad of 1958, the stock market crashes of 1929, and the "phantom gasser" episodes in Virginia in 1933-34 and Mattoon, IL in 1944 (Locher 2002, Miller 2000). The claim that such diverse episodes all belong to a single field of inquiry is a theoretical assertion, and not all sociologists would agree with it. But Blumer and Neil Smelser did agree, as did others, indicating that the formulation has satisfied some leading sociological thinkers."

"The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry Giddings (1908) and employed later by Robert E. Park (1921), Herbert Blumer (1939), Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), and Neil Smelser (1962) to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. Use of the term has been expanded to include reference to cells, social animals like birds and fish, and insects including ants.[1] Collective behavior takes many forms but generally violates societal norms (Miller 2000, Locher 2002). Collective behavior can be tremendously destructive, as with riots or mob violence, silly, as with fads, or anywhere in between. Collective behavior is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable under typical social circumstances (Locher 2002)."

Four Forms: 

"Although there are several other schema that may be used to classify forms of collective behavior the following four categories from Blumer (1939) are generally considered useful by most sociologists."

The crowd

"Scholars differ about what classes of social events fall under the rubric of collective behavior. In fact, the only class of events which all authors include is crowds. Clark McPhail is one of those who treats crowds and collective behavior as synonyms. Although some consider McPhail's work overly simplistic (Locher 2002), his important contribution is to have gone beyond the speculations of others to carry out pioneering empirical studies of crowds. He finds them to form an elaborate set of types.

The classic treatment of crowds is Gustave LeBon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind(1896), in which the author interpreted the crowds of the French Revolution as irrational reversions to animal emotion, and inferred from this that such reversion is characteristic of crowds in general. LeBon believed that crowds somehow induced people to lose their ability to think rationally and to somehow recover this ability once they had left the crowd. He speculated, but could not explain how this might occur. Freud expressed a similar view in Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922). Such authors have thought that their ideas were confirmed by various kinds of crowds, one of these being the economic bubble. In Holland, during the tulip mania (1637), the prices of tulip bulbs rose to astronomical heights. An array of such crazes and other historical oddities is narrated in Charles MacKay's Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (1841).

At the University of Chicago, Robert Park and Herbert Blumer agreed with the speculations of LeBon and other that crowds are indeed emotional. But to them a crowd is capable of any emotion, not only the negative ones of anger and fear.

A number of authors modify the common-sense notion of the crowd to include episodes during which the participants are not assembled in one place but are dispersed over a large area. Turner and Killian refer to such episodes as diffuse crowds, examples being Billy Graham's revivals, panics about sexual perils, witch hunts and Red scares. Their expanded definition of the crowd is justified if propositions which hold true among compact crowds do so for diffuse crowds as well.

Some psychologists have claimed that there are three fundamental human emotions: fear, joy, and anger. Neil Smelser, John Lofland, and others have proposed three corresponding forms of the crowd: the panic (an expression of fear), the craze (an expression of joy), and the hostile outburst (an expression of anger). Each of the three emotions can characterize either a compact or a diffuse crowd, the result being a scheme of six types of crowds. Lofland has offered the most explicit discussion of these types."

The public

"Boom distinguishes the crowd, which expresses a common emotion, from a public, which discusses a single issue. Thus, a public is not equivalent to all of the members of a society. Obviously, this is not the usual use of the word, "public." To Park and Blumer, there are as many publics as there are issues. A public comes into being when discussion of an issue begins, and ceases to be when it reaches a decision on it."

The Mass

"To the crowd and the public Blumer adds a third form of collective behavior, the mass. It differs from both the crowd and the public in that it is defined not by a form of interaction but by the efforts of those who use the mass media to address an audience."

"The first mass medium was printing."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior

 

Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition

Art has always been the medium for social shepherding It doesn't matter if the art is type set or hand drawn or even word of mouth.

YouTube and social media is just the new printing press and town square rolled into one. The modern digital computer medium means we have the means of both manufacture and distribution at our fingertips. We can use the same machine to both make all sorts of artifices and we can use the same machine to easily make that product globally available. Ideas are as much products as sneakers and toilet paper are.

Propaganda Dogma, Mad Gods and Religious Masses

"c. 1600 (in plural dogmata), from Latin dogma "philosophical tenet," from Greek dogma (genitive dogmatos) "opinion, tenet," literally "that which one thinks is true," from dokein "to seem good, think" (from PIE root *dek- "to take, accept"). Treated in 17c.-18c. as a Greek word in English."

dogma - Online Etymology Dictionary

Congregation

"mid-14c., "a gathering, assembly," from Old French congregacion (12c., Modern French congrégation), from Latin congregationem(nominative congregatio), noun of action from congregare (see congregate). "

"Used by Tyndale to translate Greek ekklesia in New Testament and by some Old Testament translators in place of synagoge. (Vulgate uses a variety of words in these cases, including congregatio but also ecclesia, vulgus, synagoga, populus.) Protestant reformers in 16c. used it in place of church; hence the word's main modern sense of "local society of believers" (1520s)."

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=congregation&allowed_in_frame=0

Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition  source: The Met

 

Cosmological Models Have Always Been Used As Tools For Managing Social Order

 

How To Connect With People - Alan Watts  source: Spiritual Mind

 

"Enlightened" Minds Define The Bounds of The Social Order With Cosmological "Insight" & Peer Reviewed "Proofs"

Welcome To The New Age of Consensus Generated Reality

"Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors – Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally – as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of nature and natural law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[145]

It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[146] Locke and Voltaireapplied concepts of natural law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton#Enlightenment_philosophers

 

Sir Isaac Newton was Knighted for Servicing Sailors

or

"How Newton Dated the Argonauts"

by SCOTT MANDELBROTE

"Visitors to Westminster Abbey who pause in front of the tomb of Sir Isaac Newton may find parts of its iconography hard to decipher. Their predecessors were similarly puzzled. The Gentleman’s Magazine on April 22, 1731, sought to inform its readers about what they might expect to see. It described the relief on the sarcophagus which shows putti engaged in experiments with a prism, a reflecting telescope, a balance and a furnace. These activities call to mind Newton’s work on the theory of light and colours, the invention that first brought him to the attention of the Royal Society, the gravitational theory of the Principia (published by that Society in 1687), and the public service which Newton performed as Warden and later Master of the Mint from 1696. The figure of Newton himself is recumbent on top of the sarcophagus, resting its right arm on four books. Two of these, the Principia and the Opticks (1704), came out in several editions during their author’s lifetime. Another, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published posthumously in 1728, blew up a storm of criticism on both sides of the Channel when it circulated in abbreviated form shortly before his death. Facing Newton come two winged cherubs, holding a scroll, which carries a depiction of the solar system and the terms of a converging series (Newton’s method for calculating the roots of functions). Rising behind Newton is a pyramid, at the top of which rests the weeping figure of Urania, muse of astronomy. Beneath her is a celestial globe, “on which”, as the Magazine explains, “several of the Constellations are drawn, in order to shew the path of the Comet in 1681, whose period he has with the greatest sagacity determin’d: And also the Position of the solstitial Colure mention’d by Hipparchus by which (in his Chronology) he has fixed the time of the Argonautic expedition”. "

"The calculation of colures was the method that Newton used to present one of the most astonishing claims of his Chronology, which was to date the expedition of the Argonauts to 937 BC and to conclude that this was just before the birth of Priam, future king of Troy. Newton’s need for precision about the location of particular stars in order to determine colures was one cause of his harrying the Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, for the completion of his celestial atlas. Newton’s preliminary findings intrigued Caroline, Princess of Wales, and interested numerous visitors to London in the decade or so before he died."

"The reader is drawn in by Feingold’s accounts of the history of chronology and the growth of Newton’s original interest in mythology and the ancient past. Key features of that development are nevertheless obscured. The most important of these is the extent to which, before 1700, Newton’s earliest pursuit of the history of civilization went hand in hand with an argument about the history of cosmology that was intended to support the methodological choices that he had made in writing the Principia."

http://www.the-tls.co.uk/articles/public/how-newton-dated-the-argonauts/

Precession of the Equinoxes and the Golden Fleece | Atlantis Rising ...

 

And Thus The Queen Did Speak: "Hey sailor, do you like my Golden Fleece?"

 

Propaganda: Shepherding A Flock of Social Media Parrots

Online digital social multimedia is just the new version of the old word of mouth social media that became visual and graphic typographical art and design. Obviously human minds can use all media to tell lies. Even mathematical equation can be fallaciously applied.

"congregation for propagating the faith,"

"1718, "committee of cardinals in charge of Catholic missionary work," short for Congregatio de Propaganda Fide "congregation for propagating the faith," a committee of cardinals established 1622 by Gregory XV to supervise foreign missions. The word is properly the ablative fem. gerundive of Latin propagare (see propagation). Hence, "any movement to propagate some practice or ideology" (1790). Modern political sense dates from World War I, not originally pejorative. Meaning "material or information propagated to advance a cause, etc." is from 1929."

Propaganda - Online Etymology Dictionary

"Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes (1965/1973)"

"(French: Propagandes; original French edition: 1962) is a book on the subject of propaganda by French philosopher, theologian, legal scholar, and sociologist Jacques Ellul. This book appears to be the first attempt to study propaganda from a sociological approach as well as a psychological one. It presents a sophisticated taxonomy for propaganda, including such paired opposites as political–sociological, vertical–horizontal, rational–irrational, and agitation–integration. The book contains Ellul's theories about the nature of propaganda to adapt the individual to a society, to a living standard, and to an activity aiming to make the individual serve and conform."

"As early as 1928, Edward Bernays recognized propaganda as a modern instrument to produce productive ends and "help bring order out of chaos."[2] because of its secrecy it has been difficult to determine what constitutes propaganda and what the nature of propaganda is. For a time from 1920 to around 1933, propaganda was simplistically viewed as being able to modify sentiments and attitudes of an individuals without their being conscious. That limited perspective of propaganda as being able to influence the individual psychologically was prevalent.

The Institute for Propaganda Analysis from 1937, inspired by Harold Lasswell defined propaganda as "the expression of opinions or actions carried out deliberately by individuals or groups with a view to influencing the opinions or actions of other individuals or groups for predetermined ends and through psychological manipulations."[3]

This definition seemed more accurate and was supported by others such as Goebbels, a German propagandist, who stated, "We do not talk to say something, but to obtain a certain effect."[4] Similarly, F.C. Bartlett held an accurate interpretation of the goal of propaganda as not merely as an instrument to increase political understanding of events, but to obtain results through action. Ellul supports the idea that propaganda is made primarily because of a will to action for the purpose of effectively arming policy made by the state.

Leonard Doob, an American specialist, defined propaganda in 1948 as "the attempt to affect the personalities and to control the behavior of individuals towards desired ends."[5] Unending definitions show the uncertainty among specialists and the inability of definitions to encompass all that is propaganda. Just because the term propaganda cannot be defined with any degree of precision does not mean that attempts to define it should be abandoned. Ellul's definition in 1973 was as follows:

"Very frequently propaganda is described as a manipulation for the purpose of changing idea or opinions of making individuals 'believe' some idea or fact, and finally of making them adhere to some doctrine—all matters of the mind. It tries to convince, to bring about a decision, to create a firm adherence to some truth. This is a completely wrong line of thinking: to view propaganda as still being what it was in 1850 is to cling to an obsolete concept of man and of the means to influence him; it is to condemn oneself to understand nothing about propaganda. The aim of modern propaganda is no longer to modify ideas, but to provoke action. It is no longer to change adherence to a doctrine, but to make the individual cling irrationally to a process of action. It is no longer to transform an opinion but to arouse an active and mythical belief."[6]

Ellul did not dispute the traditional notions, but in this book, he argued that modern propaganda is viewed from an incomplete perspective. He holds that the main concern of propaganda through psychological influence is sparking action to a desired response by developing learned attitudes.

Prior attempts to define propaganda failed to fully elaborate on the development of learned attitudes, which ignored the sociological influences of propaganda by placing more emphasis on the psychological influences. Ellul maintained that modern propaganda is based on scientific analyses of both psychology and sociology."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda:_The_Formation_of_Men%27s_Attitudes

 

"The Social Movement"

 

"We change intellectual gears when we confront Blumer's final form of collective behavior, the social movement. He identifies several types of these, among which are active social movements such as the French Revolution and expressive ones such as Alcoholics Anonymous. An active movement tries to change society; an expressive one tries to change its own members.

The social movement is the form of collective behavior which satisfies least well the first definition of it which was offered at the beginning of this article. These episodes are less fluid than the other forms, and do not change as often as other forms do. Furthermore, as can be seen in the history of the labor movement and many religious sects, a social movement may begin as collective behavior but over time become firmly established as a social institution.

For this reason, social movements are often considered a separate field of sociology. The books and articles about them are far more numerous than the sum of studies of all the other forms of collective behavior put together. Social movements are considered in many Wikipedia articles, and an article on the field of social movements as a whole would be much longer than this essay.

The study of collective behavior spun its wheels for many years, but began to make progress with the appearance of Turner and Killian's "Collective Behavior" (1957) and Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior (1962). Both books pushed the topic of collective behavior back into the consciousness of American sociologists and both theories contributed immensely to our understanding of collective behavior (Locher 2002, Miller 2000). Social disturbances in the U. S. and elsewhere in the late '60s and early '70s inspired another surge of interest in crowds and social movements. These studies presented a number of challenges to the armchair sociology of earlier students of collective behavior."

Theories developed to explain crowd behavior

"Contagion Theory - the Contagion Theory was formulated by Gustave Le Bon. According to Le Bon crowds exert a hypnotic influence over their members. Shielded by their anonymity, large numbers of people abandon personal responsibility and surrender to the contagious emotions of the crowd. A crowd thus assumes a life of its own, stirring up emotions and driving people toward irrational, even violent action (LeBon 1895). Le Bon's Theory, although one of the earliest explanations of crowd behavior, is still accepted by many people outside of sociology.[2][3][4]. However, critics argue that the "collective mind" has not been documented by systematic studies. Furthermore, although collective behavior may involve strong emotions, such feelings are not necessarily irrational. Turner and Killian (1957) argue convincingly that the "contagion" never actually occurs and participants in collective behavior do not lose their ability to think rationally.

Convergence Theory - whereas the Contagion Theory states that crowds cause people to act in a certain way, Convergence theory states that people who want to act in a certain way come together to form crowds. Developed by Floyd Allport (1924) and later expanded upon by Neil Miller and John Dollard (1941) as "Learning Theory," the central argument of all convergence theories is that collective behavior reveals the otherwise hidden tendencies of the individuals who take part in the episode. It asserts that people with similar attributes find other like-minded persons with whom they can release these underlying tendencies. People sometimes do things in a crowd that they would not have the courage to do alone because crowds can diffuse responsibility but the behavior itself is claimed to originate within the individuals. Crowds, in addition, can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people.

Emergent-Norm Theory - according to Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), crowds begin as collectivities composed of people with mixed interests and motives. Especially in the case of less stable crowds—expressive, acting and protest crowds—norms may be vague and changing, as when one person decides to break the glass windows of a store and others join in and begin looting merchandise. When people find themselves in a situation that is vague, ambiguous, or confusing new norms "emerge" on the spot and people follow those emergent norms, which may be at odds with normal social behavior. Turner and Killian further argue that there are several different categories of participants, all of whom follow different patterns of behavior due to their differing motivations.

Value-added Theory - Neil Smelser (1962) argues that collective behavior is actually a sort of release valve for built-up tension ("strain") within the social system, community, or group. If the proper determinants are present then collective behavior becomes inevitable. Conversely, if any of the key determinants are not present no collective behavior will occur unless and until the missing determinants fall into place. These are primarily social, although physical factors such as location and weather may also contribute to or hinder the development of collective behavior.

Complex Adaptive Systems theory - Dutch scholar Jaap van Ginneken claims that contagion, convergence and emergent norms are just instances of the synergy, emergence and autopoiesis or self-creation of patterns and new entities typical for the newly discovered meta-category of complex adaptive systems. This also helps explain the key role of salient details and path-dependence in rapid shifts."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior

 

Visually "Navigating" The Globe Postscript:

Atmospheric Light Refraction Acts Like A Series of Mirrors

Actual and Apparent Position - Atmospheric Refraction  source:  Meritnation