Here's a little historical background to provide some context for the next part in this series.
Welcome to the Brave Old World Of I.Q & Eugenics!
University trained and indoctrinated minds seem to love narrowing their fields of focus down to as limited a vision of reality as they can get it. They can and often do, specialize to the point of insanity, or so it seems to me. The use of statistical studies as "science" is something most of us have been long conditioned to accept as rationale. The fact that such studies can be more subjective and more subject to manipulation and bias, seems to go ignored by most. Too many of us are simply happy to parrot back the author's conclusions without understanding any of the underlying assumptions. We are conditioned to avoid truly placing subjects into the proper robust contexts they deserve. Instead we tend to rely on the short cut "Clift Notes" version of reality.
A Stern Intelligence Warning To Those Living In the Land of Technocratic Bureaucracy: You Had Better "Make The Grade"
"An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Wrocław he advocated in a 1912 book."
William Stern Defines Your Mind For You
"William Stern (German: [ʃtɛɐ̯n]; 29 April 1871 – 27 March 1938), born Wilhelm Louis Stern, was a German psychologist and philosopher noted as a pioneer in the field of the psychology of personality and intelligence. He was the inventor of the concept of the intelligence quotient, or IQ, later used by Lewis Terman and other researchers in the development of the first IQ tests, based on the work of Alfred Binet. He was the father of the German writer and philosopher Günther Anders. In 1897, Stern invented the tone variator, allowing him to research human perception of sound in an unprecedented way."
"Alfred Binet (French: [binɛ]; July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet-Simon test. In 1904, the French Ministry of Education asked psychologist Alfred Binet to devise a method that would determine which students did not learn effectively from regular classroom instruction so they could be given remedial work. Along with his collaborator Théodore Simon, Binet published revisions of his test in 1908 and 1911, the last of which appeared just before his death."
"Despite Binet's extensive research interests and wide breadth of publications, today he is most widely known for his contributions to intelligence. Wolf (1973) postulates that this is the result of his not being affiliated with a major university. Because Binet did not have any formalized graduate study in psychology, he did not hold a professorship with a prestigious institution where students and funds would be sure to perpetuate his work (Siegler, 1992). Additionally, his more progressive theories did not provide the practical utility that his intelligence scale would evoke.
Binet and his coworker Fere discovered what they called transfer and they also recognized perceptual and emotional polarization. Binet and Fere thought their findings were a phenomenon and of utmost importance. After investigations by many, the two men were forced to admit that they were wrong about their concepts of transfer and polarization. Basically, their patients had known what was expected, what was supposed to happen, and so they simply assented. Binet had risked everything on his experiment and its results, and this failure took a toll on him."
The Work of Lewis Terman: World War One As A Social Engineering Petri Dish
"Lewis Madison Terman (January 15, 1877 – December 21, 1956) was an American psychologist, noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford Graduate School of Education."
"He is best known for his revision of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and for initiating the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius."
"He was a prominent eugenicist and was a member of the Human Betterment Foundation. He also served as president of the American Psychological Association. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Terman as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with G. Stanley Hall."
"Terman published the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale in 1916 and revisions were released in 1937 and 1960. Original work on the test had been completed by Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon of France. Terman promoted his test – the "Stanford-Binet" – as an aid for the classification of developmentally disabled children."
"Early on, Terman adopted William Stern's suggestion that mental age/chronological age times 100 be made the intelligence quotient or IQ. Later revisions adopted the Wechsler cohort-norming of IQ."
"Revisions (mostly recently the fifth) of the Stanford-Binet remain in widespread use as a measure of general intelligence for both adults and for children."
"The first mass administration of IQ testing was done with 1.7 million soldiers during World War I, when Terman served in a psychological testing role with the United States military. Terman was able to work with other applied psychologists to categorize army recruits. The recruits were given group intelligence tests which took about an hour to administer. Testing options included Army alpha, a text-based test, and Army beta, a picture-based test for nonreaders. 25% could not complete the Alpha test. The examiners scored the tests on a scale ranging from "A" through "E"."
Recruits who earned scores of "A" would be trained as officers while those who earned scores of "D" and "E" would never receive officer training. The work of psychologists during the war proved to Americans that intelligence tests could have broader utility. After the war Terman and his colleagues pressed for intelligence tests to be used in schools to improve the efficiency of growing American schools."
Origins of Ability:
"Terman followed J. McKeen Cattell’s work which combined the ideas of Wilhelm Wundt and Francis Galton saying that those who are intellectually superior will have better “sensory acuity, strength of grip, sensitivity to pain, and memory for dictated consonants”. At Clark University,"
"Terman wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled Genius and stupidity: a study of some of the intellectual processes of seven “bright” and seven “stupid” boys. He administered Cattell’s tests on boys who were considered intelligent versus boys who were considered unintelligent."
"Unlike Binet and Simon, whose goal was to identify less able school children in order to aid them with the needed care required, Terman proposed using IQ tests to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track. He believed IQ was inherited and was the strongest predictor of one's ultimate success in life."
Genetic Studies of Genius:
Seven Bright vs Seven Stupid Boys Does Not A Thorough Scientific Study Make
Nothing like pseudo scientifically based nonsense to use as the foundation for social engineering "Brave New Worlds" and all sorts of endless streams of versions of "1984". Nothing like building a house of cards on a towering pile of assumptive and prejudicial ideas. The I.Q. Test is clearly the product of the work of what would seem to be mostly European men, who would seem to have had very limited views about human intelligence. Why would anyone base any conclusions and subsequent social engineering projects on such flimsy so-called "evidence"? The I.Q. Test is more of a series of brainteasing puzzles than a scientific tool. The way the questions are posed may or may not influence how the individual scores on the test. The more complex problems might have more than one seemingly logical solution. Have you ever taken an I.Q. Test? There are many available online, most seem to require payment at the end to enable you to see your results. I would suggest taking one of these tests, if you can find a free one. You might think you solved the more complex problems and you might find out that you did not. Some answers might be more subjective than the authors and proponents of the I.Q. Tests, might care to admit. In any case one set of brain teasing style tests is no real way to robustly measure anything at all. Human intelligence is far more complex than that. Perhaps you think otherwise and you are entitled to do so. It's not my place nor my job to mind your thoughts for you.
A Californian Daydreaming "Genius" Study of Genetics
"The Genetic Studies of Genius, today known as the Terman Study of the Gifted, is the oldest and one of the longest running longitudinal studies in the field of psychology. It was begun in 1921 to examine the development and characteristics of gifted children into adulthood. The study was started by Lewis Terman at Stanford University and is now the oldest and longest running longitudinal study in the world The results from the study have been published in five books, a monograph, and dozens of articles. A related retrospective study of eminent men in history by Catharine Cox, though not part of the longitudinal study, was published as part of the Genetic Studies of Genius."
"Terman had previously performed studies in intelligence, including his doctoral dissertation. In 1916, he adapted Alfred Binet's intelligence test for the United States and expanded its range. The result was the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which are still in use today (in an updated form). After his service in developing the Army Alpha during World War I, Terman returned to Stanford in order to start his study.
Terman had already found some bright children through his earlier research, and some of these were part of the sample in the Genetic Studies of Genius."
"He hired several assistants, including Florence Goodenough and Catharine Cox, to search the public schools of California for additionally gifted children."
A 1,528 Student Study With Clear Californian Cultural Bias
A study by what would seem to be, upper class, university educated European male minds couldn't possibly be biased in any way. Further there couldn't possibly be a clear social agenda driving all of this. That agenda wouldn't act to prejudice the researchers, no not at all. Of course I am being sarcastic. I think there is clear evidence to suggest that these men had their own ideas in mind and the I.Q. Test was used as a tool to implement those social engineering "theories", rather than being a true measure of intelligence or true tool of science.
We are seeing a version of classism reinforced with racial stereotypes of one kind or another. Eugenics is nothing but the lowest common denominator divide and conquer politics. It is social engineering at its finest. It's what all the fuss is about. We always have to seemingly, instinctually find ways to further divide ourselves into more easily managed social resourced communities. Those on top of this insane pyramid scheme need only gently push us and we seem to be more than happy to oblige and self sort like the good herd of mass cattle that we all seem to often be.
Eugenics by any other name still smells as "$weet".
It's perhaps not so funny, but it does seems obvious that the same old eugenically Darwinian, social engineering ideas never die nor ever go away. They simply get rebranded and regurgitated over and over again, seemingly throughout all "Space-Time". Hindu Caste systems and Feudal class rankings are pretty much the same thing. The idea that one is born into their profession in some manner, is an old one. Once humanity gets beyond basic tribal like social structures, centered around the naturally occurring family unit, we sure seem to end up as prisoners and wages slave in a very real global commercial, pyramid scheme. We left or were dragged from Eden, for a long con-job ride on the USS Enterprise!
The I.Q. Test would appear to be a brainteasing, social engineering tool and not much more. It measures the pattern recognition element of human cognitive functioning. More robust data and a whole lot more information, based on more than a couple of thousand children from California, would provide for a more logical foundation to then base assumptions on. Even then, I'd rather avoid some kind of governmental science council running my life for me. Experts should share information, they should not try to make social policy and resulting laws. In fact we need less of the social policies and less laws. We need less of all the social engineering and more direct control over our own individual lives.
By the way do you think the modern education system produces truly educated minds that know how to critically think for themselves? Is that how the system is set up?
Government has replaced family and local real world communities, in many ways and this is a problem. We have been conditioned to look to peer reviewed and official sanctioned sources for our information. We are not conditioned to critically question the conclusions the authorities come to. In fact the authorities usually do not enjoy being truly questioned at all. They do not seem interested in questioning underlying assumptions at all. Too often this is the case. Most people and sadly most policy makers seem happy to ignorantly rely on the so-called professional wisdom and confusions of authority to base decisions on rather than having the so-called expert truly demonstrate and explain the assumptions underlying their claims. In my opinion studies based on standardized tests are suspect. The next part of this series will delve further into this subject.
"Terman initially hoped to find the 1,000 most intelligent children, but eventually found 1,444. However, Terman gradually added subjects to the study through 1928 until there were 1,528 (856 males and 672 females). Not all subjects were discovered with the Stanford-Binet. Some were selected for the study with the National Intelligence Tests and the Army Alpha."
"The study subjects were born between 1900 and 1925, all lived in California, were about 90% white, and the majority came from upper- or middle-class families."
"Terman's goal was to disprove the then-current belief that gifted children were sickly, socially inept, and not well-rounded. Therefore, the first volume of the study reported data on the children's family, educational progress, special abilities, interests, play, and personality. He also examined the children's racial and ethnic heritage."
"Terman was a proponent of eugenics, although not as radical as many of his contemporary social Darwinists, and believed that intelligence testing could be used as a positive tool to shape society."
"Based on data collected in 1921–22, Terman concluded that gifted children suffered no more health problems than normal for their age, save a little more myopiathan average. He also found that the children were usually social, were well-adjusted, did better in school, and were even taller than average. A follow-up performed in 1923–1924 found that the children had maintained their high IQs and were still above average overall as a group. Data collected in the 1920s also including a pioneering effort to implement above-level testing on a large scale, a practice that is widespread in gifted education today."
"The study is still supported by Stanford University and will continue until the last of the “Termites” withdraws from the study or dies."
"Terman’s study of genius and gifted children was a lifelong interest. His fascination with the intelligence of children began early in his career since he was familiar with Alfred Binet’s research in this area.
Through his studies on gifted children, Terman hoped first, to discover the best educational settings for gifted children and, second, to test and dispel the negative stereotypes that gifted children were “conceited, freakish, socially eccentric, and [insane]”.
Previously, the research had looked at genius adults had been retrospective, examining their early years for clues to the development of talent. With Binet’s development of IQ tests, it became possible to quickly identify gifted children and study them from their early childhood into adulthood. In his 1922 paper called A New Approach to the Study of Genius, Terman noted that this advancement in testing marked a change in research on geniuses and giftedness. Throughout his life Terman developed several methods for examining individuals with high ability, such as the longitudinal method and above-level testing. Some of these procedures would be adopted by other social scientists studying very different populations.
Terman found his answers in his longitudinal study on gifted children: Genetic Studies of Genius. Initiated in 1921, the Genetic Studies of Genius was from the outset a long-term study of gifted children. Published in five volumes, Terman followed children with extremely high IQ in childhood throughout their lives. The fifth volume examined the children in a 35-year follow-up, and looked at the gifted group during mid-life.
Genetic Studies of Genius revealed that gifted and genius children were in at least as good as average health and had normal personalities. Few of them demonstrated the previously-held negative stereotypes of gifted children. He found that gifted children did not fit the existing stereotypes often associated with them: they were not weak and sickly social misfits, but in fact were generally taller, in better health, better developed physically, and better adapted socially than other children. The children included in his studies were colloquially referred to as "Termites". The gifted children thrived both socially and academically. In relationships, they were less likely to divorce. Additionally, those in the gifted group were generally successful in their careers: Many received awards recognizing their achievements. Though many of the children reached exceptional heights in adulthood, not all did. Terman explored the causes of obvious talent not being realized, exploring personal obstacles, education, and lack of opportunity as causes.
Terman died before he completed the fifth volume of Genetic Studies of Genius, but Melita Oden, a colleague, completed the volume and published it. Terman wished for the study to continue on after his death, so he selected Robert Richardson Sears, one of the many successful participants in the study as well as a colleague of his, to continue with the work."
"The study is still supported by Stanford University and will continue until the last of the “Termites” withdraws from the study or dies."
Terman seems to have been a eugenics racist who thought the Italian, (the people who are credited with building Rome, a global empire, and the Renaissance), the Portuguese, (pioneers in sea exploration and commerce) and the Mexicans (the people who supposedly built pyramids nobody seems to be able to figure out), were seemingly genetically inferior to the European folk. This was his conclusion based upon the sample of students from one state, California and based upon the I.Q. Tests this guy was pushing.
Terman was a proponent of forced sterilization, does that sound like a good idea to you?
Forced Sterilization comes across as nothing but sick and completely unnatural, social engineering to me.
How much more dehumanizing and anti-family can one get?
This would be what I would call Evil and the proverbial work of Satan or Uncle Sam, the Scam.
Do you think it possible that this guy's conclusions might have been biased in any way? Do you think I.Q. Tests really measure anything but someone's interest and patience in solving brainteasers? The next part of this article will get into this subject further. This part was meant as a primer of sorts. This guy was lawfully concerned with the personal habits of other people.
What happened to "Be fruitful and multiply"?
Who gave Terman the right to decide who can and who cannot reproduce?
Do you think it s good idea to allow the state to decide such things?
"Terman came to believe that IQ was, in addition to dependent on education, highly heritable.
His innovative wide-scale IQ testing exposed him to diverse groups of test-takers. Administering the tests to Spanish-speakers and unschooled African-Americans from the Southwest, he concluded:
“High-grade or border-line deficiency... is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come... Children of this group should be segregated into separate classes... They cannot master abstractions but they can often be made into efficient workers... from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding” (The Measurement of Intelligence, 1916, p. 91-92).
"Testing other groups in California, he observed: Perhaps a median IQ of 80 for Italian, Portuguese, and Mexican school children in the cities of California would be a liberal estimate. How much of this inferiority is due to the language handicap and to other environmental factors it is impossible to say, but the relatively good showing made by certain other immigrant groups similarly handicapped would suggest that the true causes lie deeper than environment." (Mental and Physical Traits of a Thousand Gifted Children, Volume 1, 1925, p. 57)"
"The suggestions of a significant role for genetics in IQ lead Terman to later join the Human Betterment Foundation, a Pasadena-based eugenics group founded by E.S. Gosney in 1928 which had as part of its agenda the promotion and enforcement of compulsory sterilization laws in California."
"A modern-day assessment of Terman's contributions concluded:
Lewis Terman was a man of his less-than-enlightened time. He believed in eugenics, and his research project was called “Genetic Studies of Genius.” He naively assumed that his high IQ kids (nearly all white) would become the future leaders of science, industry, and politics. His inclusion of girls was an important exception to the biases of the era, since women had only just gotten the right to vote, and had few career options.
However, Terman was above all a scientist; and he was dedicated to collecting meaningful data, and to accepting what the data showed even when it contradicted his beliefs."