Medieval Life: Estates of the Realm
Medieval Life: Estates of the Realm source: Ryan Reeves
The Third Estate
"In the pamphlet, Sieyès argues that the third estate – the common people of France – constituted a complete nation within itself and had no need of the "dead weight" of the two other orders, the first and second estates of the clergy and aristocracy. Sieyès stated that the people wanted genuine representatives in the Estates-General, equal representation to the other two orders taken together, and votes taken by heads and not by orders. These ideas came to have an immense influence on the course of the French Revolution."
Sumptuary Laws In Modern Times:
"While there are rarely restrictions on the type or quality of clothing, beyond maintenance of public decency (covering parts of the body, depending upon the jurisdiction; not exhibiting unacceptable wording or images), it is widely forbidden to wear certain types of clothing restricted to specific occupations, specifically the uniforms of organisations such as police and the military."
"In some jurisdictions clothing or other visible signs of religious or political opinion (e.g. Nazi imagery in Germany) are forbidden in certain public places."
"Many American states in the 20th century prohibited the wearing of KKK hoods, masks, masquerade, or drag; gay men in New York City seized on the exemption for masquerade balls in the 1920s to 1930s to go in drag."
The Christendom Regime
"The estates of the realm were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe. Different systems for dividing society members into estates developed and evolved over time.
The best known system is the French Ancien Régime (Old Regime), a three-estate system used until the French Revolution (1789–1799). Monarchy was for the king and the queen and this system was made up of clergy (the First Estate), nobles (the Second Estate), and peasants and bourgeoisie (the Third Estate). In some regions, notably Scandinavia and Russia, burghers (the urban merchant class) and rural commoners were split into separate estates, creating a four-estate system with rural commoners ranking the lowest as the Fourth Estate. Furthermore, the non-landowning poor could be left outside the estates, leaving them without political rights. In England, a two-estate system evolved that combined nobility and bishops into one lordly estate with "commons" as the second estate. This system produced the two houses of parliament, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. In southern Germany, a three-estate system of nobility (princes and high clergy), ritters (knights), and burghers was used.
Today the term "Fourth Estate" usually refers to forces outside the established power structure (evoking medieval three-estate systems), most commonly in reference to the independent press or media. Historically, in Northern and Eastern Europe, the Fourth Estate meant rural commoners."
No Purple Cloth For You Bourgeois!
"The sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempted to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.
Societies have used sumptuary laws for a variety of purposes. They were used as an attempt to regulate the balance of trade by limiting the market for expensive imported goods. They made it easy to identify social rank and privilege, and as such could be used for social discrimination."
"The laws frequently prevented commoners from imitating the appearance of aristocrats and also could be used to stigmatize disfavored groups."
"In the Late Middle Ages, sumptuary laws in medieval cities were instituted as a way for the nobility to cap or limit the conspicuous consumption of the prosperous bourgeoisie. If bourgeois subjects appeared to be as wealthy or wealthier than the ruling nobility, it could undermine the nobility's presentation of themselves as powerful, legitimate rulers. This could call into question their ability to control and defend their fief, and inspire potential traitors and rebels. Such laws continued to be used for these purposes well into the 17th century."
The Protestant Reformation and Work
You are called to work for minted and mass printed money. There will be no vacation from you divinely assigned vocation.
"early 15c., "spiritual calling," from Old French vocacion "call, consecration; calling, profession" (13c.) or directly from Latin vocationem (nominative vocatio), literally "a calling, a being called" from vocatus "called," past participle of vocare "to call" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak")."
"Sense of "one's occupation or profession" is first attested 1550s."
"Bring out your debt!"
The Protestant Reformation and Work source: Ryan Reeves
"The feudal system during the medieval period was the basis of almost everything in the country. It was based mainly on the exchange of lands for services. It became the way of the people for it fostered the movement of towns and countries. The Lord and his family, including his servants were supported by the income generated from his properties. These properties were estates that comprised of agricultural lands, villages, other estate properties and the manor where the lord and his family lived. Since the majority of the property was composed of crop lands, the lord would need farmers and other workers to cultivate the land. Thus, medieval farming became most of the medieval people’s primary occupation."
Medieval Work & Leisure
"There was a different pace of work and concept of leisure in the Middle Ages. Work followed the natural rythmn of the day and seasons; leisure was plentiful, governed by the feast days of the liturgical calendar. It seems that today's man, instead of scorning the so called Dark Ages, should envy the medieval man, who enjoyed so many holidays. Regine Pernoud helps us understand how the medieval people worked and rested.
The rhythm of the working day in the Middle Ages varied a great deal in accordance with the seasons. It was the parish bell or that of the neighboring monastery that called the artisan to his workshop and the peasant to his field, and the time to ring the Angelus varied with the length of the natural day.
As a rule, people rose and went to bed at the same time as the sun. In winter, therefore, work began at about eight or nine o'clock and finished at five or six. In summer on the other hand, the day began at five in the morning and did not end until seven or eight at night. These are still the regular working hours of peasant families."
"First, people worked a five-and-a-half day week: Each Saturday and on the eve of every feast day, work stopped at one o'clock in some trades and for everyone at the hour of Vespers, that is, at four o'clock at the latest. The same rule applied to certain days that were observed without being kept as actual holidays, that is, about 30 days in the year, such as Ash Wednesday, Rogation Days and Childermas (the Slaughter of the Innocents), etc.
People also rested on the day of the patron saint of their guild and of their parish, and there was, of course, a complete holiday on Sundays and on holy days of obligation. These were very numerous in the Middle Ages – 30 to 33 a year, according to the province. Then, in addition to the four festivals observed in France today, there were, not only All Souls' Day, Epiphany, Easter Monday and Whit Monday and three days in Christmas week, but also a number of festivals, which pass almost unnoticed now, such as the Feast of the Purification, the Invention and Exaltation of the True Cross, the Annunciation, St. John's Day, St. Martin's Day, St. Nicholas' Day, etc.
The liturgical calendar thus governed the whole year and introduced great variety into it, especially as more importance was attached to these festivals than nowadays.
It was, moreover, from such feast days, and not from the day of the month, that time was reckoned: One spoke of St. Andrew's Day, and not of the 30th of November, and of three days after St. Mark's Day rather than of the April 28. People would also waive social obligations, such as those of justice in their honor: Insolvent debtors who were obliged to reside at a fixed abode – a system that calls to mind the debtors' prison, though in a milder form – were allowed to leave their residence and to come and go freely from Thursday in Holy Week until Easter Tuesday, from Whit Saturday to Whit Tuesday, and from Christmas Eve until the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ. These are notions that it is hard for us to grasp today."
"Altogether there were about 80 days of complete rest with over 70 partial holidays, that is, about three months of rest spread over the year. This ensured infinite variety in the routine of work. During this period, people might well have complained, like the cobbler in La Fontaine's fable, of having too many holidays!"
Doctoring Malpractice With A Dose of Literacy
"The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus (John Huss) in the early 15th century. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
The later Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the selling and buying of clerical offices. The reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Church's hierarchy, which included the pope."
"Reformation became a triumph of literacy, with specific accent given to education in native languages - in a church that was still speaking mostly Latin. From Hus's Six Errors to Luther's Ninety-Five Theses, both fixed to the door of their churches, the new ideas needed to be spread and understood.
Jan Hus himself is considered the author Orthographia bohemica dating to 1406. The book codified a modern Czech orthography and among other reforms it also introduced the accents now used in other Slavic and Baltic languages like Croatian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Polish, Slovak or Slovenian languages."
"Progress arrived with Gutenberg and his new printing press (approx. 1448). From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded much of Europe.[b] By 1530, over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten million copies. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre-Reformation styles, clichés and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes
Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. Especially effective were writings in German, including Luther's translation of the Bible, his Smaller Catechism for parents teaching their children, and his Larger Catechism, for pastors. Using the German vernacular the writers expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the German Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronised by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery."
"Once the new reformed churches established in Europe, the focus on education of children became clear. Orbis Pictus (World in Pictures) was the first widely used children textbook with pictures written in native languages in Europe. The exiled Czech educator Comenius wrote its first edition in German and Latin. The book spread around Europe quickly in different language forms. Literacy in native languages became also one of the chief projects for the Czech Hussites and especially for their later Unity of the Brethren branch."
Pilgrams & King Chartered Colonies
"These Puritan separatists were also known as "the Pilgrims". After establishing a colony at Plymouth (which became part of the colony of Massachusetts) in 1620, the Puritan pilgrims received a charter from the King of England that legitimised their colony, allowing them to do trade and commerce with merchants in England, in accordance with the principles of mercantilism. This successful, though initially quite difficult, colony strengthened the Protestant presence in America, which had started in the previous decade with the establishment of New Netherlands (the earlier French, Spanish and Portuguese settlements had been Roman Catholic) and became a kind of oasis of spiritual and economic freedom, to which persecuted Protestants and other minorities from the British Isles and Europe (and later, from all over the world) fled to for peace, freedom and opportunity. The Pilgrims of New England disapproved of Christmas, and celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. The ban was revoked in 1681 by Sir Edmund Andros, who also revoked a Puritan ban against festivities on Saturday night. Despite the removal of the ban, it wouldn't be until the middle of the 19th century that Christmas would become a popular holiday in the Boston region."
"The original intent of the colonists was to establish spiritual Puritanism, which had been denied to them in England and the rest of Europe, to engage in peaceful commerce with England and the natives, and to Christianize the peoples of the Americas."
Crown Colonies: A Global British Commercial Enterprise
"Investors in the Virginia Company hoped to profit from the natural resources of the New World. In 1606 Captain Bartholomew Gosnold obtained of King James I a charter for two companies. The first, for the South-Virginia or London Company, covered what are now Maryland, Virginia and Carolina, between Latitude 34° and Latitude 41° North. Gosnold's principal backers were Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Edward Wingfield and Richard Hakluyt. The second Company, the Plymouth Adventurers, were empowered to settle as far as 45° North, encompassing what are present day Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England. The Company paid all the costs of establishing each colony, and in return controlled all land and resources there, requiring all settlers to work for the Company.
The first leader of the Virginia Company in England was its treasurer, Sir Thomas Smythe, who arranged the 1609 charter. He had been governor of the East India Company since 1603 and continued with one break until 1620."
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
"The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
This contrasts with the focus upon religious attendance, confession, and ceremonial sacrament in the Roman Catholic tradition. A person does not need to be a religious Calvinist in order to follow the Protestant work ethic, as it is a part of certain cultures impacted by the Protestant Reformation.[b]
The concept is often credited with helping to define the societies of Northern, Central and Western Europe such as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Switzerland. Even though some of these countries were more affected by Lutheranism or Anglicanism than Calvinism, local Protestants nevertheless were influenced by these ideas to a varying degree. As penal law was enacted to uphold the uniform teachings of the Church of England in England, only various English dissenters[c] held to those values. Among them were the Puritans who emigrated to New England, bringing the work ethic with them and helping define the culture of what would become the United States of America. Germanic immigrants brought their work ethic to the United States of America, Canada, South Africa and other European colonies.
The phrase was initially coined in 1904–1905[d] by Max Weber in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism."
The Science Revolution Leads To The 18th Century Cultural & Political Revolution
Put your cosplay powdered wigs on folks: The British Are Here!
The 18th Century source: Ryan Reeves
The American Revolution & The Church
American Revolution and the Church source: Ryan Reeves
British Empire: Sea Power Skull & Bones
"A privateer was a private person or ship that engaged in maritime warfare under a commission of war. The commission, also known as a letter of marque, empowered the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors."
"The Jolly Roger is a symbol that has been used by submarines, primarily those of the Royal Navy Submarine Service and its predecessors"
"The practice came about during World War I: remembering comments by First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson, who complained that submarines were "underhanded, unfair, and damned un-English" and that personnel should be hanged as pirates, Lieutenant Commander Max Horton began flying the flag after returning from successful patrols. Initially, Horton's submarine HMS E9 flew an additional flag after each successful patrol, but when there was no room for more, the practice was changed to a single large flag, onto which symbols indicating the submarine's achievements were sewn.
The practice of flying the Jolly Roger was adopted by some other submarines during World War I, but became more widespread in World War II. Flotilla commanders began to issue flags to submarines, and procedures were drafted for usage. Although some sources report the use of the flag being a universal practice among British submariners, some submarine captains did not take it up as the felt the practice was boastful and the achievements could not always be confirmed. Usage of the Jolly Roger was copied by some Allied submarines during World War II, and the flag has also been used by submarines from other Commonwealth nations.
The symbols on a Jolly Roger are used to indicate the achievements of the submarine. Bars represented ships torpedoed, although post-war flags have sometimes used the silhouette of the target ship instead. Mines indicated minelaying operations, while torches or lighthouses meant the boat had been used as a navigation marker for an operation. More unusual symbols have also been used, with comic character Eugene the Jeep marking the recovery of a Chariot manned torpedo, and a dog used for submarines involved in Operation Husky. Some icons are unique to a submarine: HMS Sibyl bears a scarlet pimpernel flower, marking the time a French spy forgot the recognition password and instead quoted from the play The Scarlet Pimpernel to prove herself, while a stork and baby was added to the Jolly Roger of HMS United when news of the birth of the captain's first child arrived while on patrol."
The Definitive Treaty of Peace 1783
"In the Name of the most Holy & undivided Trinity."
"It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the Hearts of the most Serene and most Potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, Arch- Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc.. and of the United States of America, to forget all past Misunderstandings and Differences that have unhappily interrupted the good Correspondence and Friendship which they mutually wish to restore; and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory Intercourse between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal Advantages and mutual Convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual Peace and Harmony; and having for this desirable End already laid the Foundation of Peace & Reconciliation by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the Commissioners empowered on each Part, which Articles were agreed to be inserted in and constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which Treaty was not to be concluded until Terms of Peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain & France,"
It is agreed that Creditors on either Side shall meet with no lawful Impediment to the Recovery of the full Value in Sterling Money of all bona fide Debts heretofore contracted."
The Navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the Subjects of Great Britain and the Citizens of the United States."
"The United States is still a British Colony"
"The trouble with history is, we weren't there when it took place and it can be changed to fit someones belief and/or traditions, or it can be taught in the public schools to favor a political agenda, and withhold many facts. I know you have been taught that we won the Revolutionary War and defeated the British, but I can prove to the contrary. I want you to read this paper with an open mind, and allow yourself to be instructed with the following verifiable facts. You be the judge and don't let prior conclusions on your part or incorrect teaching, keep you from the truth.
I too was always taught in school and in studying our history books that our freedom came from the Declaration of Independence and was secured by our winning the Revolutionary War. I'm going to discuss a few documents that are included at the end of this paper, in the footnotes. The first document is the first Charter of Virginia in 1606 (footnote #1). In the first paragraph, the king of England granted our fore fathers license to settle and colonize America. The definition for license is as follows.
"In Government Regulation. Authority to do some act or carry on some trade or business, in its nature lawful but prohibited by statute, except with the permission of the civil authority or which would otherwise be unlawful." Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1914.
Keep in mind those that came to America from England were British subjects. So you can better understand what I'm going to tell you, here are the definitions for subject and citizen.
"In monarchical governments, by subject is meant one who owes permanent allegiance to the monarch." Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1914.
"Constitutional Law. One that owes allegiance to a sovereign and is governed by his laws. The natives of Great Britain are subjects of the British government. Men in free governments are subjects as well as citizens; as citizens they enjoy rights and franchises; as subjects they are bound to obey the laws. The term is little used, in this sense, in countries enjoying a republican form of government." Swiss Nat. Ins. Co. v. Miller, 267 U.S. 42, 45 S. Ct. 213, 214, 69 L.Ed. 504. Blacks fifth Ed.
I chose to give the definition for subject first, so you could better understand what definition of citizen is really being used in American law. Below is the definition of citizen from Roman law.
"The term citizen was used in Rome to indicate the possession of private civil rights, including those accruing under the Roman family and inheritance law and the Roman contract and property law. All other subjects were peregrines. But in the beginning of the 3d century the distinction was abolished and all subjects were citizens; 1 sel. Essays in Anglo-Amer. L. H. 578." Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1914.
The king was making a commercial venture when he sent his subjects to America, and used his money and resources to do so. I think you would admit the king had a lawful right to receive gain and prosper from his venture. In the Virginia Charter he declares his sovereignty over the land and his subjects and in paragraph 9 he declares the amount of gold, silver and copper he is to receive if any is found by his subjects. There could have just as easily been none, or his subjects could have been killed by the Indians. This is why this was a valid right of the king (Jure Coronae, "In right of the crown," Black's forth Ed.), the king expended his resources with the risk of total loss.
If you'll notice in paragraph 9 the king declares that all his heirs and successors were to also receive the same amount of gold, silver and copper that he claimed with this Charter. The gold that remained in the colonies was also the kings. He provided the remainder as a benefit for his subjects, which amounted to further use of his capital. You will see in this paper that not only is this valid, but it is still in effect today. If you will read the rest of the Virginia Charter you will see that the king declared the right and exercised the power to regulate every aspect of commerce in his new colony. A license had to be granted for travel connected with transfer of goods (commerce) right down to the furniture they sat on. A great deal of the king's declared property was ceded to America in the Treaty of 1783. I want you to stay focused on the money and the commerce which was not ceded to America.
This brings us to the Declaration of Independence. Our freedom was declared because the king did not fulfill his end of the covenant between king and subject. The main complaint was taxation without representation, which was reaffirmed in the early 1606 Charter granted by the king. It was not a revolt over being subject to the king of England, most wanted the protection and benefits provided by the king. Because of the kings refusal to hear their demands and grant relief, separation from England became the lesser of two evils. The cry of freedom and self determination became the rallying cry for the colonist. The slogan "Don't Tread On Me" was the standard borne by the militias.
The Revolutionary War was fought and concluded when Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown. As Americans we have been taught that we defeated the king and won our freedom. The next document I will use is the Treaty of 1783, which will totally contradict our having won the Revolutionary War. (footnote 2)."