Sir Isaac Newton Was Not A Scientist
(born 1643 - died 1727)
"scientist (n.) 1834, a hybrid coined from Latin scientia (see science) by the Rev. William Whewell (1794-1866), English polymath, by analogy with artist, in the same paragraph in which he coined physicist (q.v.)."
Isaac Newton, philosopher source: King's College Halifax
"Disputing Leibniz about God"
"Not surprisingly Newton was criticized, especially by continental thinkers, for what they took to be a philosophy (and theology) laced with problems. In 1710, for example, Leibniz went on record against the idea of action at a distance, which he saw to be equivalent to an embrace of miracles. He even suggested in a review of a Newtonian work that it seemed a return to "a certain fantastic scholastic philosophy," thereby hinting that Newton was trying to take natural philosophy backward rather than forward."
It is understandable why Newton spoke out in the face of such accusations. He tried once more to answer his critics about matter and attraction in a new edition of the Principia. In preparation for some time, it finally appeared in 1713 under the editorship of Roger Cotes, Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy in Cambridge. At the end of the work there now stood a General Scholium in which Newton waxed eloquent not only about gravity, but about its relation to God. Concerning gravity, he criticized those who insisted on speculating about its cause. He insisted on staying within the limits of his mathematical treatment, declaring in a famous phrase, "I feign no hypotheses." Concerning God, Newton declared that the beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from an intelligent Being who ruled over all. Newton declared that God was omnipresent not only in virtue, but also in substance "
"Newton's God "had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion"
"Leibniz did not think much of Newton's abilities as a philosopher. He later explained to Johann Bernoulli that he recognized that Newton and his editor had him in mind in their new edition of the Principia, and he was ready to reply. To do so he wrote to Princess Caroline of Ansbach, a young girl he had tutored in at the court in Berlin who was now wife of the Hannoverian heir to the English throne. Caroline had read Leibniz's Theodicy and had sought her former teacher's opinion of the theology of her new homeland. Leibniz informed her that Newton made God into a corporeal being who uses space as an organ by which to perceive things, adding that Newton also believed that God had to step in from time to time to wind up the watch of the clockwork cosmos to prevent it from running down. Newton's God "had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. This latter view Leibniz apparently inferred from a passage in the final query of the Latin edition of the Opticks, in which Newton observed that the irregular movement of comets would eventually disrupt the system of the planets "till this system wants a reformation." Indeed, Newton acknowledged that the repeated elliptical orbits of planets are never exactly identical, and he believed God occasionally caused comets to strike the sun as a means refueling its power."
"His ‘Philosophiae Naturalis Principis Mathematica’ laid the foundations for classical mechanics, as well as becoming the cornerstone of the Scientific Revolution..."
"The theories that dominated the fields of science, astronomy, physics and the natural world weren't limited to what was expressed in these written works."
"His ideas would go on to inspire other influential figures such as Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Albert Einstein. Thus, Newton indirectly influenced the discoveries made by later scientists like these, including Lagrange’s contributions to calculus of variations and his solution of polynomial equations, as well as Einstein’s special theory of relativity."
Newton's Impact on Society
"When discussing Newton’s impact on society and his influence on the scientific community, one of the words that may come to your mind is ‘significant’. Another may be ‘inspiring’, or ‘powerful’. “Newtonian” is a term that has been used for generations to describe the bodies of knowledge that owe their existence to his theories. So, it seems to be safe to say that the contribution that Isaac Newton has made, not only to the scientific community, but to society as a whole, is extensive.
His ‘Philosophiae Naturalis Principis Mathematica’ laid the foundations for classical mechanics, as well as becoming the cornerstone of the Scientific Revolution and ‘The Opticks’ created doorways of understanding into the properties of light. The theories that dominated the fields of science, astronomy, physics and the natural world weren't limited to what was expressed in these written works.
His ideas would go on to inspire other influential figures such as Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Albert Einstein. Thus, Newton indirectly influenced the discoveries made by later scientists like these, including Lagrange’s contributions to calculus of variations and his solution of polynomial equations, as well as Einstein’s special theory of relativity.
His invention of the refracting telescope has inspired the Hubble Space Telescope; one of NASA's modern creations.
Likewise, in the modern day-to-day age, Newton influences the discoveries made; as his theories and laws are included in the curriculum taught to today’s students, laying a foundation for the findings that are yet to be found.
One of the main reasons that Newton’s theories have made such a great impact on society as opposed to the discoveries made by other scientists, owes greatly to the fact that his contributions to science have helped to explain the world around us. Through his reasoning, the way in which the world works; the orbit of the planets, the composition of light and the laws of motion and gravity; has been explained. The understanding of the composition of earth and the elements that define it allow a greater respect for the place that we are blessed to live in."
Sir Isaac Newton: A Father of Modern Science
"Newton was a physicist and mathematician from England. His work laid the foundation of classical mechanics (also called Newtonian physics or mechanics in his honor) and is generally credited with jump starting the scientific revolution. Newton was also one of the first people to assume that the natural world is governed by universal laws that can be expressed mathematically. Generally speaking, Newton’s list of accomplishments are long and profound – his influence will be felt for the rest of human history."
"He discovered the three laws of motion that we all know and love. Newton’s First Law is the law of inertia and is probably his most widely known law. It basically states that an object at rest remains at rest or an object in motion remains in motion unless if an outside force acts upon it. Newton’s Second Law is probably the least known, and basically states that an applied force on an object is equal to the rate of change it its momentum, but, whereas the law itself isn’t very well known, the equation is – its expressed mathematically as F=ma and basically means force is equal to the mass of an object times its acceleration. Newton’s Third Law competes with the first law in popularity, and famously states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."
"Newton also worked on heliocentricism. At the time, geocentricism was still competing with heliocentricism (though, the sun-centered model was more widely accepted). Newton’s determined that the planets did not orbit around the sun (more precisely, the Sun’s center), but rather two bodies orbited around the common center of gravity. With this, the heliocentric model of the solar system continued to get more accurate and Newton’s work essentially dealt the final blows to geocentricism."
How To Use Math To Model Rates of Change:
"In the heady atmosphere of 17th Century England, with the expansion of the British empire in full swing, grand old universities like Oxford and Cambridge were producing many great scientists and mathematicians. But the greatest of them all was undoubtedly Sir Isaac Newton.
Physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, Newton is considered by many to be one of the most influential men in human history. His 1687 publication, the "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (usually called simply the "Principia"), is considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, and it dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Although largely synonymous in the minds of the general public today with gravity and the story of the apple tree, Newton remains a giant in the minds of mathematicians everywhere (on a par with the all-time greats like Archimedes and Gauss), and he greatly influenced the subsequent path of mathematical development."
"The initial problem Newton was confronting was that, although it was easy enough to represent and calculate the average slope of a curve (for example, the increasing speed of an object on a time-distance graph), the slope of a curve was constantly varying, and there was no method to give the exact slope at any one individual point on the curve i.e. effectively the slope of a tangent line to the curve at that point.
Intuitively, the slope at a particular point can be approximated by taking the average slope (“rise over run”) of ever smaller segments of the curve. As the segment of the curve being considered approaches zero in size (i.e. an infinitesimal change in x), then the calculation of the slope approaches closer and closer to the exact slope at a point (see image at right).
Without going into too much complicated detail, Newton (and his contemporary Gottfried Leibniz independently) calculated a derivative function f ‘(x) which gives the slope at any point of a function f(x). This process of calculating the slope or derivative of a curve or function is called differential calculus or differentiation (or, in Newton’s terminology, the “method of fluxions” - he called the instantaneous rate of change at a particular point on a curve the "fluxion", and the changing values of x and y the "fluents"). For instance, the derivative of a straight line of the type f(x) = 4x is just 4; the derivative of a squared function f(x) = x2is 2x; the derivative of cubic function f(x) = x3 is 3x2, etc. Generalizing, the derivative of any power function f(x) = xr is rxr-1. Other derivative functions can be stated, according to certain rules, for exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions such as sin(x), cos(x), etc, so that a derivative function can be stated for any curve without discontinuities. For example, the derivative of the curve f(x) = x4 - 5x3 + sin(x2) would be f ’(x) = 4x3- 15x2 + 2xcos(x2).
Having established the derivative function for a particular curve, it is then an easy matter to calcuate the slope at any particular point on that curve, just by inserting a value for x. In the case of a time-distance graph, for example, this slope represents the speed of the object at a particular point."
"In economics, calculus is used to compute marginal cost and marginal revenue, enabling economists to predict maximum profit in a specific setting. In addition, it is used to check answers for different mathematical disciplines such as statistics, analytical geometry, and algebra."
"What is Calculus? When Do You Use It In The Real World?"
"There are a lot of branches of mathematics that are known to man. Also known as the "language of numbers", it means many things to many people. Some may know it as a useful tool that is a key to getting civilizations rolling. But to others, they find it as an academic nuisance that only serves to lower grade transcripts. Still, what can't be denied is that mathematics is here to stay and it is actually a part of our lives, even down to the most basic things.
One of the foremost branches of mathematics is calculus. The formal study of calculus started from the 17th century by well-known scientists and mathematicians like Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, although it is possible that it has been at use as early as the Greek era. It is a mathematical discipline that is primarily concerned with functions, limits, derivatives, and integrals just to name a few. This discipline has a unique legacy over the history of mathematics. Even though it is split between the 2 definitions of Newton and Leibniz, it has still been able to create a new mathematical system and was used in a variety of applications.
There are 2 different fields of calculus. The first subfield is called differential calculus. Using the concept of function derivatives, it studies the behavior and rate on how different quantities change. Using the process of differentiation, the graph of a function can actually be computed, analyzed, and predicted. The second subfield is called integral calculus. Integration is actually the reverse process of differentiation, concerned with the concept of the anti-derivative. Either a concept, or at least semblances of it, has existed for centuries already. Even though these 2 subfields are generally different form each other, these 2 concepts are linked by the fundamental theorem of calculus.
Though it is complicated to use well, calculus does have a lot of practical uses - uses that you probably won't comprehend at first. The most common practical use of calculus is when plotting graphs of certain formulae or functions. Using methods such as the first derivative and the second derivative, a graph and its dimensions can be accurately estimated. These 2 derivatives are used to predict how a graph may look like, the direction that it is taking on a specific point, the shape of the graph at a specific point (if concave or convex), just to name a few.
When do you use calculus in the real world? In fact, you can use calculus in a lot of ways and applications. Among the disciplines that utilize calculus include physics, engineering, economics, statistics, and medicine. It is used to create mathematical models in order to arrive into an optimal solution. For example, in physics, calculus is used in a lot of its concepts. Among the physical concepts that use concepts of calculus include motion, electricity, heat, light, harmonics, acoustics, astronomy, and dynamics. In fact, even advanced physics concepts including electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of relativity use calculus. In the field of chemistry, calculus can be used to predict functions such as reaction rates and radioactive decay. Meanwhile, in biology, it is utilized to formulate rates such as birth and death rates. In economics, calculus is used to compute marginal cost and marginal revenue, enabling economists to predict maximum profit in a specific setting. In addition, it is used to check answers for different mathematical disciplines such as statistics, analytical geometry, and algebra.
As you can see, calculus has a huge role in the real world. For most professions, learning it is the key to success. So this is why you can't dismiss calculus as just another nuisance. If it is, interest on the matter wouldn't have lasted as long as it did."
Calculating Climate in the Calculus Classroom As Part of A Program of Social Change
"There is a great need for scientific research on climate instability and the related energy issues, and the mathematics community can and should be involved. But we also need the mathematics community to be part of the education process since as we gain understanding of the seriousness of these problems and the need for societal changes to address them, it will be beneficial – indeed, it will be necessary – to have an educated population to appreciate and support such changes. Nearly halfway through the United Nation’s decade of education for sustainable development, the mathematics community should ask itself: Are we helping in general, not just on the research side of climate instability? Are we making the impact on educating about sustainability that we should?"
"Consider that approximately three quarters of a million students or more take a calculus I class each year.  We should be looking to incorporate education about climate instability and, in general, sustainability into our calculus classes. Further, the vast majority of these students won’t end up as math majors and for many of these students calculus is a terminal math course. So, not only do we have lots of students to impact in calculus I, but this may also be the last time that we can provide quantitative information about important issues facing the planet.
The question now becomes: How do we incorporate these types of issues into calculus? Given that data is much more accessible due to the internet, the basic idea is simple. We can use a spreadsheet to fit curves/functions to real data on global average temperature, oil consumption, atmospheric CO2, etc. Once we have the functions, calculus tools can be used to answer important sustainability questions. For example, given the available data, figure 1 is easy to create in Excel and we now have a function to work with. With a little analysis, including some calculus, we can have students compute the current rate of change of global average temperature (according to the model) and make predictions by extrapolating the curve or extrapolating the tangent line off the current year. These are standard calculus problems, but here we have added context and we can encourage discussions among students and faculty (including faculty from other disciplines) about the ramifications of these calculations. It is important to note that we don’t have to cut our typical content (teaching students to do the curve-fitting takes no more than one class period), but to simply change the nature of problems and examples. This is merely one example; further examples and data sets can be found at. "
$haping $ocial Roles:
Astronomy has always been one of the main driving forces behind the social structures of humanity. Whether the foundations for social structures rely on mystical musings or scientific fact, the motions of the heavenly bodies have always been used as inspiration for the "fabric" of society itself. We can have Popes and Kings dressing as Sun Emperor Gods or we can have a Sun centric based cosmology. We can worship Sons of Gods of Gods like Apollo or Sol Invictus who symbolize the Sun.
The rising and setting sun and interest in calendars are examples of how astronomy has always been used to design social roles, time is a tool used to drive industry, even and maybe especially, agricultural based effort. Vocations rely on how a society is ordered in the first place.
Roosters and flowers recognize the power and glory of the heavenly body we call the Sun.
Goethe's poem about the Sun is supposed to have inspired Nikola Tesla's polyphase alternating current discovery. The NASA Apollo missions were named after this all important star of the heavens. Solar panels dot roof top landscapes in an attempt to save the world from climate change.
Sun & Water Cycle:
"The sun is what makes the water cycle work. The sun provides what almost everything on Earth needs to go—energy, or heat. Heat causes liquid and frozen water to evaporate into water vapor gas, which rises high in the sky to form clouds...clouds that move over the globe and drop rain and snow. This process is a large part of the water cycle. Even in a dry desert environment, the water cycle is taking place. If you look at a picture of a real desert–no, the Sahara Desert will do, but Antarctica at the bottom of the world is even more of a desert. This place actually gets less precipitation than the Sahara does! The inner regions of Antarctica gets only about 2 inches of precipitation per year. The winds here blow up snow from the land and put it into the atmosphere, which is part of the water cycle. And the sun helps out, too, causing sublimation to occur, which causes snow to evaporate directly into water vapor gas."
Cosmology has always been used to provided mythical foundation to society's enterprise.
We can base our ideas on superstitious style belief systems or we can attempt to use empirical science as foundation for our beliefs.
What matters more is how such ideas become mythical sources for social identities and the creation of culture and civilization, not which ideas are actually true.
Cosmology and Astronomical Physics in Newton's General Scholium
I suggest you watch this at a low volume, this video contains sporadic audio hits.
Cosmology and Astronomical Physics in Newton's General Scholium source: King's College Halifax
From The Geocentric Universe of Ptolemy To The Sun Centered Clockwork Universe of Newton
"In the history of science, the clockwork universe compares the universe to a mechanical clock. It continues ticking along, as a perfect machine, with its gears governed by the laws of physics, making every aspect of the machine predictable."
"This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment, when Isaac Newton derived his laws of motion, and showed that alongside the law of universal gravitation, they could explain the behaviour of both terrestrial objects and the solar system.
A similar concept goes back, to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. In this widely popular medieval text, Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi, the machine of the world, suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine.
Responding to Gottfried Leibniz, a prominent supporter of the theory, in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence, Samuel Clarke wrote:
"The Notion of the World's being a great Machine, going on without the Interposition of God, as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker; is the Notion of Materialism and Fate, and tends, (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence,) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World."
In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra, Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. This steel artwork contains moving gears, a working clock, and a movie of the lunar terminator."
Let's Get (Cosmologically) Physical with The Royal Society
From Mars to the Multiverse: Newton Lecture 2012 source: Institute of Physics
"One of Isaac Newton's 17th-century alchemy manuscripts, buried in a private collection for decades, reveals his recipe for a material thought to be a step toward concocting the magical philosopher's stone."
The "philosopher's stone" was a mythical substance that alchemists believed had magical properties and could even help humans achieve immortality."
Golden Armored Apollo Argonauts Seek The Golden Fleece
Sun dials become intricate geared clockworks that would grow into a mechanized and then electrified industrial age of the fifty week, five day work week. Today in the age of electronic media and global social connections, many of us seem to work more hours than our medieval peasant ancestors did during the era of the "Three Estates".
Behold Apollo, The Lord of The Muses:
A Solar Divinity Crucified On A Sine Wave Dollar Sign™ Is The Greatest Holy Symbol for All "Time"
Coin Reconsidered: The Political Alchemy of Commodity Money
By Christine Desan
"Medieval coin plays an essential role in the imagined history of money: it figures as the primal "commodity money" — a natural medium, spontaneously adopted by parties in exchange who converge upon a metal like silver to represent the value of other goods. As a natural medium with a price objectively established through trade, commodity money appears to offer an independent means of measure in the market. But as the history offered here reveals, medieval money was nothing like its imagined alternative. England’s early coin became a medium when the government began to spend and tax in that unit of account, took coin as a mode of payment, and allowed it to be transferred between people in the meantime. Individuals participated in the arrangement, paying for coin in exchange for the unique quality — liquidity — that set money apart from a commodity. That quality was orchestrated by the very channels that brought public and private together in the project of making a medium. In fact, insofar as the English equated money with the commodity it contained, they engineered instability into the heart of their medium. Depreciating coin — diluting its commodity content — offered a cure. It also confirmed that coin had never been the "commodity money" imagined in later accounts. Coin was, instead, a constitutional medium, one that related the government to its participants and thus helped to configure the world it appeared merely to measure."
'It starts with the commonsense of a silver penny. Coin is the archetypical commodity money. The monies of the medieval world — it seems obvious, undeniable — were disks of precious metal, slivers of durable value that circulated, commodities in traveling form. There is even a genesis story that explains their origin. It imagines the Dark Ages as a sort of soup. Exchange was a murky broth of barter in which people traded all sorts of objects among themselves — grain, gold, cows and hides, promises, services, fish, and salt. From that fluid mix, metal rose gradually like fat to the surface, becoming a favored medium and marker of value as it passed endlessly from hand to hand. Its brokers were the actors imagined by Marx and Menger, buyers and sellers converging upon pieces of precious metal to mediate each transaction and, ultimately, to create prices in a common medium. The story arcs from that foundation in a simple monetary world through centuries in which people transferred value tangibly between themselves in direct exchange. It comes to ground in the age of the gold standard, understood as an order that institutionalized the anchor naturally provided by metal."
"The "ideal commodity money" model is, in itself, a kind of genesis story. Its dynamism turns on individuals who calculate the value of coin according to a "world price" for silver, the commodity at the heart of the system. Participants use that referent to determine the amount of coin in the system. They can pay for goods in either silver or coin, and choose between the two by comparing the world price of goods in silver to the price of goods in coin. Coin is effectively identified with the commodity; it is distinct only insofar as it imports convenience, measuring and regularizing the commodity. The public role is facilitative and administrative: the government mints silver into units, setting a starting point for subsequent action by individuals. Indeed, the system is self-calibrating, as opposed to centrally defined: the decentralized and rational actions of participants produce an equilibrium that is ultimately good for everyone."
NEWTON AND THE MINT
by John H. Lienhard
"Today, Isaac Newton coins money. The University of Houston's College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them."
"Newton is a trouble to my mind. I've just finished another biography -- Peter Ackroyd's delightful little book titled Newton.Ackroyd treats Newton's excesses with disorienting objective respect. Yes, he was petty, vindictive, unforgiving of criticism, obsessive, and strung to the snapping point. But genius is meaningless without focus, and Newton's focus was legendary.
By the age of 51, he'd written the laws of motion, explained orbital mechanics, diagnosed light and color, and co-invented the calculus. On the side, he'd also worked tirelessly in alchemy. Ackroyd suggests that it took his alchemist's mind to formulate gravity as a force without substance and beyond explanation.
Then Newton underwent an 18-month mental breakdown marked by rages, sleeplessness, ranting letters ... He recovered from the worst of it, but he'd suffered a major burnout. His scientific drive had gone stale. Then the Crown began consulting him on economics and currency. British coinage was, it seems, in shambles.
Counterfeiting and coin shaving had been blatant for a long time. The silver content of coins was badly regulated. The situation was a mess and Newton was among those calling for a recall of all old coins and for minting of completely new coinage.
In 1696, Newton was offered the post of Warden of the Mint. It was supposed to be a cushy sinecure, but it took him away from bucolic Cambridge and hurled him into the teeming social world of London. No one, certainly not the lazy Master of the Mint, realized that no post would be a sinecure with Newton occupying it."
"Newton tore into the job. He reorganized the Mint, bought new equipment, and used his alchemical knowledge of metallurgy. He brought order out of chaos. The Master of the Mint died after three years, and Newton got his job. As the ruler of Britain's revised currency he instituted the shift to a gold standard. The shilling, pound, and pence were redefined so that twenty-one shillings and six pence would stay equivalent to one gold guinea.
Newton also became a detective, hunting down counterfeiters. He enforced the neglected death-by-hanging-drawing-and-quartering penalty. He could be found in taverns and the halls of Newgate prison searching for leads. The flip side of this life was that Newton changed from an isolated academic, wrapped in a brown study, to a wealthy London social figure. He re-invented himself as well as England's monetary system.
Yet, up to his death at 84, he never stopped trying to crush all opposition. I said that I'm troubled by Newton -- so effective in all he set out to do. It's easy to assume that his effectiveness sprang from his ruthlessness. It did not: Newton also brought intense focus to bear on everything he did. We need to remember that focus, not ruthlessness, was the alchemy of his astonishing abilities -- as it can be the alchemy of ours as well.
I'm John Lienhard at the University of Houston, where we're interested in the way inventive minds work."
Sun Up & Sun Down
Get up, go to work, Sun goes down, go home and go to sleep.
Seasons change and so do the "times".
Time defines our lives. Time means money and money means time.
Sir Isaac Newton belonged working at the Royal mint. It was an appropriate role for a mathematically minded Sun worshipping kind of "science" guy.
Ben Franklin: "Time is Money"
"The term was coined in 1914 by Austrian economist Friedrich von Wieser in his book Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Wirtschaft. The idea had been anticipated by previous writers including Benjamin Franklinand Frédéric Bastiat. Franklin coined the phrase "Time is Money", and spelt out the associated opportunity cost reasoning in his “Advice to a Young Tradesman” (1746): “Remember that Time is Money. He that can earn Ten Shillings a Day by his Labour, and goes abroad, or sits idle one half of that Day, tho’ he spends but Sixpence during his Diversion or Idleness, ought not to reckon That the only Expence; he has really spent or rather thrown away Five Shillings besides.”
Bastiat's 1848 essay "What Is Seen and What Is Not Seen" used opportunity cost reasoning in his critique of the broken window fallacy, and of what he saw as spurious arguments for public expenditure."
On The Dark Side of The Moon's Time
"Ticking away the moments that make up a dull day
You fritter and waste the hours in an offhand way.
Kicking around on a piece of ground in your home town
Waiting for someone or something to show you the way.
Tired of lying in the sunshine staying home to watch the rain.
You are young and life is long and there is time to kill today.
And then one day you find ten years have got behind you.
No one told you when to run, you missed the starting gun.
So you run and you run to catch up with the sun but it's sinking
Racing around to come up behind you again.
The sun is the same in a relative way but you're older,
Shorter of breath and one day closer to death.
Every year is getting shorter never seem to find the time.
Plans that either come to naught or half a page of scribbled lines
Hanging on in quiet desperation is the English way
The time is gone, the song is over,
Thought I'd something more to say."
Alchemy & Astrology: The Origins of Science
The motions of the heavenly bodies like the Sun, Moon, stars, comets and planets have long been used to define the bounds of reality for humanity. The rooster knows of the power of the Sun to define time and calls the farmer to wake up to the work day. Clockwork mechanics emulate the natural motions of the heavenly bodies, defining history for humanity. Kings and queens dress up like Sun and Moon divinities. Solar crosses and Sun gods and sons of God all point to Solar idolatry of one kind or another.
The Sun centered ideas of the age of enlightenment would seem to be logically founded on the power and obvious importance of the Sun itself.
Look up at the sky!
Do not look beneath your feet.
Ours is a global culture founded by Sun worshippers.
All of life itself relies on the motion of the Sun. Astrological and alchemical thinking would be used to supposedly predict the future. Today modern science relies on peer reviewed models to predict the future and to define society in the same way the older esoteric and mystical based reasoning did. Alchemy and zodiac astronomy would become chemistry, medicine, psychology, sociology, astrophysics and all the rest of the empirical based sciences.
Mystically minded men, alchemists and zodiac astronomers would advise royal rulers on societal matters in the same way modern scientists advise corporate and governmental bodies today.
Societies are built on a mixture of mystical alchemical type reasoning and more logical and empirical based rationales.
Dark matter multiverse musings have replaced zodiac style mythical metaphysics as contemplative (existential) philosophy. World views define social roles (vocations).
The Fundamental Teachings of Ancient Alchemy and Hermeticism source: Phil Harris
The Optical Revolution Revealed: Telescopes Change The World!
Observation of the heavenly bodies through magnified lens became the source for empirical based research. What would become scientifc presupposition relied on appearances and not real demonstration as nobody could have claimed to have put any object into orbit back before the 20th century. What people like Galileo reported they saw through telescopic lens became the source and foundation for future science. Interpretation of observation would be used in place of true empirical evidence. This would become the peer reviewed process of modern mainstream university taught scientific education and procedure of modern times.