Ancient History = Fiction?
Social Engineering 102: Historical Propaganda Psy Ops
Could mythology be crafted to provide foundation for the manufacturing of nation states?
UnSpun 074 - Jacob Duellman: “Scaliger notatus, hallucinatio Scaligeri" source: GnosticMedia
Joseph Justus Scaliger
"Joseph Justus Scaliger (/ˈskælədʒər/; 5 August 1540 – 21 January 1609) was a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the last sixteen years of his life in the Netherlands."
"It was during this period of his life that he composed and published his books of historical criticism. His editions of the Catalecta (1575), of Festus(1575), of Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius (1577), are the work of a man determined to discover the real meaning and force of his author. He was the first to lay down and apply sound rules of criticism and emendation, and to change textual criticism from a series of haphazard guesses into a "rational procedure subject to fixed laws" (Mark Pattison).
But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize perceived ideas of ancient chronology—to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart; and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared. It was this innovation that distinguished Scaliger from contemporary scholars. Neither they nor those who immediately followed seem to have appreciated his innovation. Instead, they valued his emendatory criticism and his skill in Greek. His commentary on Manilius is really a treatise on ancient astronomy, and it forms an introduction to De emendatione temporum; in this work Scaliger investigates ancient systems of determining epochs, calendars and computations of time. Applying the work of Nicolaus Copernicus and other modern scientists, he reveals the principles behind these systems.
In the remaining twenty-four years of his life he expanded on his work in the De emendatione. He succeeded in reconstructing the lost Chronicleof Eusebius—one of the most valuable ancient documents, especially valuable for ancient chronology. This he printed in 1606 in his Thesaurus temporum, in which he collected, restored, and arranged every chronological relic extant in Greek or Latin."
Scaliger & Newton: British Social Engineers
Sir Isaac Newton & The Gregorian Calendar
"Newton’s interest in scientific chronology was initially sparked by the international discussion about setting the date of Easter and about the adoption of the Gregorian reform of the calendar. This was the subject of correspondence between Newton’s great rival, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and the Royal Society in the early months of 1700. Many of Newton’s contemporaries, notably John Graunt and Sir William Petty, were interested in using statistics to estimate the historical speed of population growth in a manner that might confirm the framework of biblical time. Happy to accept elements of the received chronology of the Hebrew Bible, Newton desired to regulate information provided by ancient dynasty lists, which appeared to describe a succession of generations. Rather than consider whether there had been enough time to people the earth, he tried to calculate how much time, on average, would be needed for the orderly succession of a given number of named rulers. He was less careful than some of his contemporaries in his analysis of textual evidence. The extreme antiquity of the Egyptian dynasties presented a problem, which Newton solved by adopting the identification made by Sir John Marsham in the early 1670s between the historical king Sesostris and the biblical pharaoh Sesac. For proof of the radical shortening of secular history that this move implied, and to make it conform with the chronology of the ancient Greeks that he proposed, Newton eventually looked to astronomy. He hoped to use the periodicity provided by the precession of the equinoxes to date historical observations of the heavens, reported in the fourth century BC by Eudoxus, in order to control the earliest dates in Greek history. These he associated with the expedition of the Argonauts (which he believed to be historical fact), the Trojan War, and the writings of Hesiod. In reworking data that he took from the Hellenistic Commentary of Hipparchus, Newton sought to identify historical “colures”. A colure is the meridian that passes through the poles of the celestial sphere and cuts the sun’s apparent path through the heavens at the points that it has reached at the solstices (or, alternatively, at the equinoxes). The region of the heavens identified by such a colure shifted over time due to the precession of the equinoxes and thus its description could in theory generate precise dates."
Sir Isaac Newton's Whiggy Work on Prophecy: Newton Believed The Jewish People Would Return To Israel
"Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) was, as considered by others within his own lifetime, an insightful and erudite theologian. He wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies and religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.
Newton's conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity; in recent times he has been described as a heretic."
"He (Newton) took a great interest in the Jews, and we found no negative expressions toward Jews in his writing,” said Levy-Rubin.
“He said the Jews would ultimately return to their land.”
Sir Isaac Newton's Work on Prophecy - Stephen D. Snobelen source: Abrahamic Faith
The Power of Predictive Prophetic Programming
"Newton relied upon the existing Scripture for prophecy, believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be, "so little understood". Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy, Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject, including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible."
The End of the World vs Start of the Millennial Kingdom
"In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".
Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060. While Newton also had many other possible dates (e.g. 2034), he did not believe that the End of the World would take place in 2060.
To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied in Revelation and Daniel.
Like most Protestant theologians of his time, Newton believed that the Papal Office, (and not any one particular Pope) was the fulfillment of the Biblical predictions about AntiChrist, whose rule was predicted to last for 1,260 years. They applied the Day-year principle (in which a day represents a year in prophecy) to certain key verses in the books of Daniel and Revelation (also known as the Apocalypse), and looked for significant dates in the Papacy's rise to power to begin this timeline. Newton's calculation ending in 2060 is based on the 1,260-year timeline commencing in 800 AD when Charlemagne became the first Holy Roman Emperor and reconfirmed the earlier (756 AD) Donation of Pepin to the Papacy."
"Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth."
Alchemy and Religion
"Even in his lifetime, Newton was hailed as an eminent scientist and mathematician of unparalleled genius. But Newton also studied alchemy and religion. He wrote a forensic analysis of the Bible in an effort to decode divine prophecies. He held unorthodox religious views, rejecting the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. After his death, Newton’s heir, John Conduitt, the husband of his half-niece Catherine Barton, feared that one of the fathers of the Enlightenment would be revealed as an obsessive heretic. And so for hundreds of years few people saw his work. It was only in the 1960s that some of Newton’s papers were widely published."
"Right after Newton died, he was given a monument in Westminster Abbey. Newton was very famous during his life and after that he’s almost like a god. He had been sanctified. Part of history is this process of increasing humanization of Newton. And of making him a more complex person; Newton the man, as opposed to his created ideas.
Soon after he died, Newton’s religious views were the subject of much speculation and many hoped his papers would reveal the truth of what he really believed. His descendants made sure very few saw the papers because they were a treasure trove of dirt on the man. He had complex religious beliefs, subscribing to a heresy called anti-Trinitarianism. Basically, he didn’t believe that Christ was as powerful as God. His papers were bursting with evidence for just how heretical his views were."
Newton's Apocalypse Revealed:
"English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton produced many works that would now be classified as occult studies. These works explored chronology, alchemy, and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him, as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. In this sense, some believe that any reference to a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanical in nature is somewhat inaccurate.
After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works, economist John Maynard Keynes, for example, opined at the tercentenary of his birth in 1942 that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason, he was the last of the magicians." In the Early Modern Period of Newton's lifetime, the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. Distinctions between science, superstition, and pseudoscience were still being formulated, and a devoutly Christian biblical perspective permeated Western culture."
"Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction, several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of the Philosopher's Stone. Most notably are documents entitled Artephius his secret Book, followed by The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus, wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius; these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled Nicholas Flammel, His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius, And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum, a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. Nicolas Flamel, one subject of the aforementioned work, was a notable, though mysterious figure, often associated with the discovery of the Philosopher's Stone, hieroglyphical figures, early forms of tarot, and occultism. Artephius, and his "secret book", were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists."
"Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone, the Animal or Angelicall Stone, the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses, and the vegetable or the growing stone. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem."
"Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon, dedicating an entire chapter of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended to his observations regarding the temple. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible, which he translated himself from Hebrew."
Sir Isaac Newton’s Jewish writings enter the 21st century
“He (Newton) took a great interest in the Jews, and we found no negative expressions toward Jews in his writing,” said Levy-Rubin. “He said the Jews would ultimately return to their land.”
Social Engineering A Biblical Tower of Babel
The Oxford Movement of The 1830s & Rewriting History
"The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams and William Palmer."
The Oxford Movement
The Oxford Movement source: Ryan Reeves
The Oxford Tractarian Movement, Catholic Jesuit Futurism & Zionism
"During the 19th and 20th Centuries, the counter-reformation continued and the subversion of Protestantism by the Jesuits would intensify in Britain and the United States. In Britain and America, much of the subversion has its roots in the Oxford Tractarian Movement and its Jesuitical futuristic prophetic schemes. These futuristic schemes would be later be attached to Zionism and its variants such as British-Israelism in order to influence the political sphere.
Froom writes of how Jesuitical futurism began to overcome Protestantism in England during the 1800’s:
“Catholic Futurism, initially projected by Jesuit Ribera about 1585, began to obtain a foothold and then gain momentum among Protestants in Britain. Thus the same concept that sought to break the force of the Reformation view of the papal Antichrist, by assuming a future infidel antichrist, was again invoked to weaken the force of the great evangelical advent and prophetic awakening. Protestant expositors, some leaning toward Rome and some prompted by rationalistic concepts, joined hands in the attempt—perhaps unwittingly—to promote the Jesuit position. This, moreover, came to be tied inseparably with the Oxford Tractarian Movement of the Anglican Church, wherein ninety tracts were scattered by the hundreds of thousands to favor Rome and to disprove the Protestant concept of Antichrist” (Leroy Froom, Prophetic Faith Of Our Fathers, Vol. 3, 655, 656).
Jesuit Futurism would influence Irving and Darby in England, and later Scofield in America:
“Far too many evangelicals today do not realize who was behind the work of Maitland, Todd, Burgh, and the whole Oxford Tractarian Movement. The reason that futurism made its way to Irving and Darby—and latter Scofield—is because it flourished in the Anglican Church, and the reason futurism flourished in Anglicanism is for the simple reason that the Jesuits were personally behind this work…The fact of the matter is clear: The whole Oxford movement with its birth of modern day dispensational futurism was, from its inception, a movement going back to Rome.” (D.S. Farris, Futurism: The Counterfeit Prophecy, Chp. 8)
After having been injected into the body of Christ, the concepts of Dispensational Futurism would later be leveraged to benefit political Zionism:
“the Jesuits were very successful at implementing Dispensational Futurism into the policies of Great Britain, and Britain indeed became the champion for Zionism. The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. The letter stated the position, agreed at a British Cabinet meeting on October 31, 1917, that the British government supported Zionist plans for a Jewish “national home” in Palestine, with the condition that nothing should be done which might prejudice the rights of existing communities there. The Jesuit Illuminati was very successful in conditioning (through the Jesuit Counter Reformation) Great Britain to nurture the ideology of Zionism among European Jews. The second task of the Jesuits was to create events that would trigger the relocation of the Jews to Palestine. Part two of the Jesuit Illuminati’s geopolitical strategy was to create Fascism inevitably to create the State of Israel in Palestine.” (D.S. Farris, The Two-Horned Beast: Part Two – The New World Order, Chp. 11)"
"The roots of British-Israelism are obscure, but it appears to be a movement created for political purposes as opposed to something that Christians genuinely (and erroneously) believed in. In the early days of the Zionist movement, there were some British politicians who embraced British-Israelism and supported relocating the racial Jews to Palestine because they thought it would fulfill ‘prophecy’ faster and hasten the second coming of Christ. Most telling is that British-Israelism arose out of British Freemasonry; therefore, we can assume British-Israelism originated with the Jesuits considering the Jesuits control Freemasonry and the country of Britain. Barry Chamish wrote in an article titled ‘British Freemasonry Covets Israel’:
“Without British Freemasonry there would be no modern state of Israel. In the 1860s, the British-Israelite movement was initiated from within Freemasonry.”
"Anton Chaitkin adds:
“The British monarchy and its prime ministers and Foreign Office fabricated British Israelism in the nineteenth century, from earlier versions of the story. They claimed that Queen Victoria was descended from the Biblical King David, and was thus a descendant of the Davidic family tree that produced Jesus. They taught that the tribes of Israel wandered into northern Europe; that by this supposed genealogy, the British are the real Chosen People, and the British Empire is thus God’s empire. The modern Jews, by this British account, are not the historical Hebrews of Old Testament Israel, but rather, the British are."
"But, says the British Israel myth, in a leap of logic, the Jews need to be put into Palestine, to fulfill prophecy, get slaughtered in a war with the Muslims, and bring about the End Times. To provide fuel for this mythology, the royal family asked the British Grand Lodge of Freemasonry to establish the Palestine Exploration Fund.”
The Palestine Exploration Fund
"The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London. It was founded in 1865 and is the oldest known organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant region, today now known as Palestine. Often simply known as the PEF, its initial object was to carry out surveys of the topography and ethnography of Ottoman Palestine with a remit that fell somewhere between an expeditionary survey and military intelligence gathering Consequently, it had a complex relationship with Corps of Royal Engineers, and its members sent back reports on the need to salvage and modernise the region."
"The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was founded under the royal patronage of Queen Victoria in 1865 by a group of distinguished academics and clergymen, most notably the Dean of Westminster Abbey, Arthur Stanley, and Sir George Grove."
"The original mission statement of the PEF was to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant. The PEF now has a history rich in association with many of the outstanding names of Levantine exploration including: Charles Wilson , Sir Charles Warren, Claude Conder...Olga Tufnell."
Freemason Master & Scout Leader: General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., R.E., 1840-1927
"Born in 1840, Charles Warren was educated at Cheltenham College, from which he proceeded to Sandhurst and Woolwich. He was gazetted in 1857 in the Royal Engineers, was given his company in 1869, and six years later became Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel."
"Between 1867 and 1870 Captain Warren carried out the explorations in Palestine which form the basis for our knowledge of the topography of ancient Jerusalem and the archaeology of the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sherif. This first major expedition of the Fund, in addition to the information it provided concerning Jerusalem, served to raise the public interest in the work of the Fund sufficiently such that £60,000 was raised by public subscription to carry out the great Survey of Western Palestine. In addition to his explorations on, under, and around the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sherif, Warren surveyed the Plain of Philistia and carried out a very important reconnaisance of central Jordan."
"He later held an important administrative post in Cape Colony. He was promoted General in 1904, and the next year was placed on the retired list. He was a keen Freemason and first Master of the First Lodge founded with the aim of conducting Masonic research. After his retirement he took a keen interest in the Church Lads' Brigade and was a pioneering Scoutmaster in the movement founded by his boyhood friend and military colleague, Lord Baden-Powell."
Sir Charles Meets Jack The Ripper
"General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS (7 February 1840 – 21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers. He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of the Biblical Holy Land, and particularly of the Temple Mount. Much of his military service was spent in British South Africa. Previously he was police chief, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888 during the Jack the Ripper murders."
"His command in combat during the Second Boer War was criticised, but he achieved considerable success during his long life in his military and civil posts."
"Warren was born in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, the son of Major-General Sir Charles Warren. He was educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School and Wem Grammar School in Shropshire. He also attended Cheltenham College for one term in 1854, from which he went to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst and then the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich (1855–57). On 27 December 1857, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers."
"Warren was a devout Anglican and an enthusiastic Freemason, becoming the third District Grand Master of the Eastern Archipelago in Singapore and the founding Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge."
"He had previously authored several books on Biblical archaeology, particularly Jerusalem, and also wrote "On Veldt in the Seventies", and "The Ancient Cubit and Our Weights and Measures". He died of pneumonia, brought on by a bout of influenza, at his home in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, was given a military funeral in Canterbury, and was buried in the churchyard at Westbere, Kent, next to his wife."
A Fellowship of the Banking Ring
"In 1880, Warren returned to England to become Chief Instructor in Surveying at the School of Military Engineering. He held this post until 1884, but it was interrupted in 1882, when the Admiralty sent him to Sinai to discover what had happened to Professor Edward Henry Palmer's archaeological expedition. He discovered that the expedition members had been robbed and murdered, located their remains, and brought their killers to justice. For this, he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) on 24 May 1883 and was also awarded a Order of the Medjidie, Third Class by the Egyptian government. In 1883, he was also made a Knight of Justice of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and in June 1884 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)."
The Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
"The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George.
The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs."
Royal Profits From Offficially Imposed Belief Systems
"The London Evening Standard published an article on July 23 titled, “Will William and Kate Call for the Rabbi?” It said, “Queen Victoria, convinced that the British royal family was descended from King David, had all her male offspring circumcised. The tradition continued through Edward vii, the Duke of Windsor and Prince Charles, who was circumcised by Jacob Snowman gp at Buckingham Palace in 1948. His brothers Andrew and Edward also underwent the same procedure.”
Sadly, this article only scratched the surface of what Queen Victoria believed about the throne from which she ruled.
Any student of the Bible knows that circumcision is taught in the Bible. The ancient Israelites practiced it to demonstrate their belief in God.
Queen Victoria believed “the British royal family was descended from King David.” Did she know that God made a covenant with David that his throne would continue forever? Probably so. Did she also know that she was actually sitting on God’s throne (which we prove in our book The United States and Britain in Prophecy)—the very throne from which Christ is about to rule this Earth after He returns? Perhaps she did.
Did the Queen know that God promised in the Bible to punish the rulers on that throne if they forsook their part in God’s covenant with David? Her belief in circumcision would seem to indicate that she did. The author of the article had no interest in digging further into this mind-staggering subject, which would explain the true meaning behind Prince George’s birth."
The British Monarch Is Like The Pope
"The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury (currently Justin Welby) is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It dates its establishment as a national church to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury."
The British Government Manufactures The Nation State of Israel
"There was already sympathy for the aims of Zionism in the British government, including the Prime Minister Lloyd George. In late 1917, the British Army drove the Turks out of Southern Syria, and the British foreign minister, Lord Balfour, sent a public letter to Lord Rothschild, a leading member of his party and leader of the Jewish community. The letter subsequently became known as the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It stated that the British Government "view[ed] with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people". The declaration provided the British government with a pretext for claiming and governing the country. New Middle Eastern boundaries were decided by an agreement between British and French bureaucrats. The agreement gave Britain control over what parties would begin to call "Palestine"."
"The British Mandate (in effect, British rule) of Palestine, including the Balfour Declaration, was confirmed by the League of Nations in 1922 and came into effect in 1923. The boundaries of Palestine initially included modern Jordan, which was removed from the territory by Churchill a few years later. Britain signed a treaty with the United States (which did not join the League of Nations) in which the United States endorsed the terms of the Mandate.
Between 1919 and 1923, another 40,000 Jews arrived in Palestine, mainly escaping the post-revolutionary chaos of Russia (Third Aliyah), as over 100,000 Jews were massacred in this period in Ukraine and Russia. Many of these immigrants became known as "pioneers" (halutzim), experienced or trained in agriculture and capable of establishing self-sustaining economies. The Jezreel Valley and the Hefer Plain marshes were drained and converted to agricultural use. Land was bought by the Jewish National Fund, a Zionist charity that collected money abroad for that purpose. A mainly socialist underground Jewish militia, Haganah ("Defense"), was established to defend outlying Jewish settlements."
The Balfour Declaration
"The Balfour Declaration was a single paragraph in a letter dated 2 November 1917 from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. It read:
His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
The text of the letter was published in the press one week later, on 9 November 1917. The Balfour Declaration was later incorporated into the Mandate for Palestine. The original document is kept at the British Library.
The issuance of the declaration had many long-lasting consequences and there remains ongoing controversy whether the Balfour Declaration contradicts earlier promises the British may have made to Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, the Sharif of Mecca, in the McMahon–Hussein correspondence."
Nation Building 201:
A World War Won
"The Jewish population of the USA increased about ten times between 1880 and 1920, with the immigration of poorer, more liberal and radical, "downtown", Eastern European immigrants fleeing persecution. It was not until 1912, when the secular "people's lawyer" Louis Brandeis became involved in Zionism, just before the First World War, that Zionism gained significant support. By 1917, the American Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, which Brandeis chaired had increased American Zionist membership ten times to 200,000 members; "American Jewry thenceforth became the financial center for the world Zionist movement".
As in the US, England had experienced a rapid growth in their Jewish minority. About 150,000 Jews migrated there from Russia in the period 1881–1914. With this immigration influx, pressure grew from British voters to halt it; added to the established knowledge in British society of Old Testament scripture, Zionism became an attractive solution for both Britain and the Empire.
In the search for support, Herzl, before his death, had made the most progress with the German Kaiser, joining him on his 1898 trip to Palestine. At the outbreak of war in 1914, the offices of the Zionist Organization were located in Berlin and led by Otto Warburg, a German citizen. With different national sections of the movement supporting different sides in the war, Zionist policy was to maintain strict neutrality and "to demonstrate complete loyalty to Turkey", the German ally controlling Palestine. Following Turkey's entry into World War I in August however, the Zionists were expelled from Tel Aviv and its environs."
World War I & The Church
World War I and the Church source: Ryan Reeves
How The First World War Changed Jewish History
"Though World War II overshadows World War I in American Jewish consciousness, Professor Daniel Schwartz argues that it was the latter that shifted the arc of Jewish history — by fanning virulent anti-Semitism, and by motivating the British-Zionist alliance that led to the creation of the State of Israel."
The Vatican & Israel
"Holy See–Israel relations deals with the diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel. Formal diplomatic relations between the two states were established in 1993 after the adoption of the Fundamental Accord by the two States on 30 December 1993. A Vatican Nunciaturein Israel and an Israeli embassy in Rome were established on 19 January 1994. From the Vatican's point of view, the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two states is part of the Christian–Jewish reconciliation; and from the Israeli point of view, the normalisation of diplomatic relations. Prior to the establishment of diplomatic relations, the interests of the Catholic Church in Israel were looked after by the Apostolic Delegate to Jerusalem and Palestine, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and the Custodian of the Holy Land, all of which continue to function.
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo was appointed as the first Apostolic Nuncio to Israel, Shmuel Hadas was appointed first Israeli Ambassador to the Holy See, in September of that year. The present Nuncio to Israel is Giuseppe Lazzarotto, who was appointed on 20 August 2012. He follows Antonio Franco, who was appointed in 2006, Pietro Sambi, who was appointed in 1998, and the first Nuncio to Israel, Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo.
The present Israeli Ambassador to the Holy See is Zion Evrony (de), who was appointed on 31 July 2012. He follows Mordechay Lewy, who was appointed in May 2008, Oded Ben-Hur (from June 2003), Yosef Neville Lamdan (from September 2000), Aharon Lopez (from April 1997), and Shmuel Hadas (from September 1994)."