A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

Article index

Kurt Lewin's Fields Of Social Force: How To Implement Change

 

Lewin's Force Field Analysis: How To Implement Change

Question: How does mass social change occur?

"Developed in 1951 by sociologist Kurt Lewin, the Force Field Analysis is a technique used to evaluate the forces in an environment that encourage and work against change. Lewin identified these forces as driving and restraining forces. By identifying these forces, organizations put themselves in a position to develop strategies to help implement change."

Lewin's Force Field Analysis  source: Alanis Business Academy

 

Answer: War Is A Great Motivator

 

World Wars & The Transition To The 'Post Modern' World of Planned Obsolescence

 

World War In The Context Of This Ever Changing World In Which We Live In...

"An early model of change developed by Lewin described change as a three-stage process. The first stage he called "unfreezing". It involved overcoming inertia and dismantling the existing "mind set". It must be part of surviving. Defense mechanisms have to be bypassed. In the second stage the change occurs. This is typically a period of confusion and transition. We are aware that the old ways are being challenged but we do not have a clear picture as to what we are replacing them with yet. The third and final stage he called "freezing". The new mindset is crystallizing and one's comfort level is returning to previous levels. This is often misquoted as "refreezing" (see Lewin,1947). Lewin's three-step process is regarded as a foundational model for making change in organizations. There is now evidence, however, that Lewin never developed such a model and that it took form after his death in 1947."

Kurt Lewin - Wikipedia

 

NEVER FORGET 9/11/1941: WORLD WAR TWO CHANGED EVERYTHING "FOREVER"!

The Pentagon - Wikipedia

 

Unfreezing The Public Mind With The Power of Propaganda & The Art of Behavior Change:

The American Public Goes From Anti-War To Pro-War

Opposition to World War II - Wikipedia

 

Transitioning From Stages: Unfreezing & Dismantling Public Mindset

Opposition To War

"During the debate over whether to invade Iraq, or whether to stay in Afghanistan, many people looked back to World War II, describing it as a good and just war — a war the U.S. knew it had to fight. In reality, it wasn't that simple. When Britain and France went to war with Germany in 1939, Americans were divided about offering military aid, and the debate over the U.S. joining the war was even more heated. It wasn't until two years later, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and Germany declared war against the U.S., that Americans officially entered the conflict."

'Angry Days' Shows An America Torn Over Entering World War II : NPR

 

The Purpose Of The War: Creating Post Modern & Consumer Society

(Please excuse the typos in the quoted material below)

"But one can also come at the break from the other side, and describe it in terms of periods of recent social life. As I have suggested, non-Marxists and Marxists alike have come around to the general feeling that at some point following World War II a new kind of society began to emerge (variously described as postindustrial society, multinational capitalism, consumer society, media society and so forth). New types of consumption planned obsolescence: an ever more rapid rhythm of fashion and sty styling g changes the penetration of advertising, television and the media generally to a hitherto unparalleled degree throughout society; the replacement of the old tension between city and country, center and province, by the suburb and by universal standardization; the growth of the great networks of superhighways and the arrival of automobile culture - these are some of the features which would seem to mark a radical break with that older prewar society in which high-modernism was still an underground force.

I believe that the emergence of postmodernism is closely related to the emergence of this new moment of late, consumer or multinational capitalism. I believe also that its formal features in many ways express the deeper logic of that particular social system. I will only be able, however, to show this for one major theme: namely the disappearance of a sense of history, the way in which our entire contemporary social system has little by little begun to lose its capacity to retain its own past, has begun to live in a perpetual present and in a perpetual change that obliterates traditions of the kind which all earlier social formations have had in one way or another to preserve."

"Think only of the media exhaustion of news: of how Nixon and, even more so, Kennedy are figures from a now distant past. One is tempted to say that the very function of the news media is to relegate such recent historical experiences as rapidly as possible into the past." 

http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf

 

1948 or 1984 or Today: George Orwell & The Birth of The Post World War Two Age Of Television

 

Welcome To The Multimedia Age of 1984  = 2+2 = 5

"The other main way the party elite, symbolized in the mustached figurehead Big Brother, encourage and police correct thought is through the technology of the Telescreen. These “metal plaques” transmit things like frightening video of enemy armies and of course the wisdom of Big Brother. But the Telescreen can see you, too. During mandatory morning exercise, the Telescreen not only shows a young, wiry trainer leading cardio, it can see if you are keeping up. Telescreens are everywhere: They are in every room of people’s homes. At the office, people use them to do their jobs."

"The story revolves around Winston Smith and Julia, who try to resist their government’s overwhelming control over facts. Their act of rebellion? Trying to discover “unofficial” truth about the past, and recording unauthorized information in a diary. Winston works at the colossal Ministry of Truth, on which is emblazoned IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. His job is to erase politically inconvenient data from the public record. A party member falls out of favor? She never existed. Big Brother made a promise he could not fulfill? It never happened."

"Back in London during World War II, Orwell saw for himself how a liberal democracy and individuals committed to freedom could find themselves on a path toward Big Brother. He worked for the BBC writing what can only be described as “propaganda” aimed at an Indian audience."

2017 isn't '1984' – it's stranger than Orwell imagined - The Conversation

 
 

Massive & Coordinated Public Relations or Propaganda Campaigns Are Needed To Motivate The Public Into Supporting War

As The World War One Hollywood celebrity promoted War Bond campaign proved, the public is more easily shepherded when larger than life social figures like Hollywood celebrities endorse governmental effort. Hollywood has long been the propaganda arm of the United States government. The same international banking interests that run the high level governments of the world also run Hollywood as well as the rest of the major corporations of this vast world of ours. The history we are sold as fact is in fact, more Hollywood inspired fantasy than most like to think.

"Celebrities were called upon to help secure public support for the war effort during World War I. Actor Charlie Chaplin and actress Mary Pickford were among the personalities who made public appearances to encourage support. Here Douglas Fairbanks generates enthusiasm for the purchase of U.S. war bonds in front of a Manhattan crowd during wartime."

Douglas Fairbanks Encouraging Purchase of War Bonds - World ...

War bond - Wikipedia

 

Ian Flemming's Family Banking & Bonding Business

"The firm of Robert Fleming & Co., known as Flemings, was founded in Dundee, Scotland in 1873 by Robert Fleming, a successful manufacturer of jute fabrics used for sandbags in the American Civil War. The firm was originally formed as a series of investment trusts, pooling money from Scottish investors into overseas ventures, and later moved into merchant banking. In 1909 the firm moved its headquarters to London.

In 1873, Robert Fleming cofounded the Scottish American Investment Company for the purpose of investing in high risk, high return American railroad bonds. The Scottish Widows was a significant early investor.[citation needed] In 1876, Flemings represented the bondholders' committee of the Erie Railway, then under the control of Jay Gould, and saw its plan for the financial reorganisation of the railroad largely adopted. Due to the successful Erie experience, and in its role as a significant railroad investor, Flemings was involved in the successful restructuring of numerous other North American railroads in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s.  Each restructuring produced significant gains for the Fleming investment trusts and drew more investors. Flemings assumed a central role in the 1886 battle with Jay Gould for control of the Texas & Pacific Railway, in which the Flemings bondholder group ultimately triumphed. Overall, Flemings claimed to have made a 40% return on investments in US railroads.

By 1900, opportunities in railroads had subsided and Flemings largely left North America. In the 1990s, it entered into a US asset management venture with T. Rowe Price, a large US mutual fund company."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fleming_%26_Co.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Fleming

 

"The Real 007 Used Fake News to Get the U.S. into World War II"

"The informational function of the media would thus be to help us forget, to serve as the very agents and mechanisms for our historical amnesia."

http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf

 

Get War Bonded With Hollywood Stars: Hollywood Hearts War

WWII ALL STAR BOND RALLY w/ BOB HOPE, BETTY GRABLE, HARPO MARX 25944  source: PeriscopeFilm

 

The Flemings: A Scottish Merchant Bonding &  Banking Family

"Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co., and his father was the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 until his death on the Western Front in 1917. Educated at Eton, Sandhurst and, briefly, the universities of Munich and Geneva, Fleming moved through several jobs before he started writing."

Ian Fleming - Wikipedia

 

Ian Flemming & Cultural Manipulation: Bring on The Sexual Revolt!

"Dark side of 007 author Ian Fleming"

"HE WORKED for British naval intelligence."

By NEIL CLARK

"He was a serial womaniser who loved adventure.

He chain-smoked and drank heavily. He was multilingual and was fascinated by gadgets. He loved fast cars. If that sounds a bit like James Bond it is not surprising. It is in fact a profile of 007's creator, the novelist Ian Fleming.

A new TV film about Fleming appears in the new year and its producers say that it will be "sexed up". But in truth the author's life doesn't need much sensationalising.

Fleming, born in 1908, was an Old Etonian who came from a wealthy establishment family. His father was a Conservative MP who was killed in the First World War.

Among his earlier jobs was working as a journalist for news agency Reuters, for whom he reported from Moscow on the trial of British engineers accused of espionage. He left to work in the City but was not a success.

His life was transformed when he got a job with naval intelligence in the Second World War and was involved in planning various important operations, including the setting up of a secret commando unit. "I couldn't have had a more interesting war," he later said.

He wrote his first James Bond book Casino Royale in 1952. He was later asked on the radio programme Desert Island Discs "Is there much of you in it?" The author replied: "I hope not… I certainly haven't got his guts nor his very lively appetites."

However Fleming's sexual appetite was every bit as voracious as 007's. "No one I have ever known had sex so much on the brain as Ian," said a girlfriend Lady Mary Pakenham. While at Sandhurst he caught a sexually transmitted disease from a prostitute and his mother forced him to resign from the army officer training centre. In 1935 he met Muriel Wright, a society model, at the fashionable Austrian ski resort of Kitzb¼hel. "Mu" - as she was known - became besotted with Fleming but Fleming was never one to stay faithful to one woman and while he was dating Wright he also had affairs with others. Wright's brother was furious when he heard about the way Fleming was treating his sister and went round to the latter's flat with a horsewhip.

"But Ian had received advance intelligence of his intentions and had slipped off with Mu to Brighton for the weekend," says Andrew Lycett, Fleming's biographer."

Dark side of 007 author Ian Fleming | Life | Life & Style | Express.co.uk

 

"On Her Majesty’s Semitic Service"

By Seth Rogovoy

 

Read more: http://forward.com/culture/165218/on-her-majesty-s-semitic-service/

"It’s hard to imagine anyone less Jewish — or more goyish — than James Bond: He of the shaken-not-stirred-martinis; he who serially beds the blond, buxom “Bond girls”; he who drives the latest, fastest, gadget-equipped sports car. He may be the hero, but he’s no mensch. The United Kingdom newspaper the Daily Mirror recently called the fictional secret agent (and sometimes it’s easy to forget that Bond is an invented character, not a real person) “a British icon as enduring as the Royal Family and the Rolling Stones.

In fact, Bond was the literary creation of novelist Ian Fleming, a notorious right-winger who, like many Englishmen of his generation, wore his anti-Semitism on his sleeve. Fleming’s books, unlike the much more popular films they spawned, occasionally trade in vulgar and hateful Jewish stereotypes, and whenever a character does seem Jewish, he is always a villain.

Yet from its beginning a half-century ago, from the 1962 “Dr. No” up through the most recent entry in the series, “Skyfall” — the 23rd Bond film, which opens in the United States on November 9 — Jews have played an essentially creative role in the James Bond film series. “Skyfall” features a Jewish director (Sam Mendes), and an actor, Daniel Craig, who, while not Jewish himself, is well known for his portrayal of heroic Jews (including roles in “Defiance” and “Munich”) and who is married to the prominent British Jewish actress Rachel Weisz. (Besides which, my mother always said it was a dead giveaway that a celebrity is Jewish when he sports two first names, like Laurence Harvey or Jack Benny.)

Even on a grander scale, a Jewish-inspired theme plays out in this gem business of a movie series, whose titles include “Goldfinger” and “Diamonds Are Forever.” Fleming based the title character of “Goldfinger,” who is Bond’s nemesis, on Ernö Goldfinger, the real-life Hungarian-born Modernist architect and leftist who was a neighbor of Fleming’s in Hampstead. Fleming invested his Goldfinger, renamed Auric (meaning “gold” in Latin), with an obsession with power. The movie “Goldfinger” elides the character’s Jewish origins, which in Fleming’s original are the subject of some consideration. Ironically, German actor Gert Fröbe, who portrayed Goldfinger in the film, had been a member of the Nazi Party during World War II.

Hollywood being Hollywood, a place more friendly and conducive to Jewish participation than Fleming’s universe — fictional or otherwise — there have been plenty of Jewish contributions, or contributions by people who happen to be Jewish, to the James Bond corpus:

Ken Adam, aka Sir Kenneth Adam, OBE, was the production designer on all the classic 1960s and ’70s Bond films, from “Dr. No” in 1962 to “Moonraker” in 1979. Adam was born in Berlin in 1921; his father and uncles were successful high-fashion clothiers, prominent in the city since the late 19th century. Adam and his family left for England in 1934, after Nazi harassment forced them out of business. Adam was one of only two German nationals who flew planes for the wartime Royal Air Force; had the Germans captured him, he could have been executed as a traitor rather than kept as a prisoner of war."

On Her Majesty's Semitic Service – The Forward

 

"Bond’s Semitic Villains"

By Robert F. Moss

"Much of the publicity surrounding the recently released film “Casino Royale,” the 21st in the 007 franchise, has dwelt on the new, blond-haired James Bond, Daniel Craig. The actor is no stranger to the spy world; he played a Mossad agent in Steven Spielberg’s “Munich.” The notion of a Jew with a license to kill, however, most likely would have aroused little enthusiasm in either Bond or his maker, Ian Fleming. Most of the 13 original Bond books made a point of disparaging Jews, a feature that was purged from the film versions.

“Casino Royale,” published in 1953, kicked off the Bond series, establishing most of Fleming’s trademark devices, among them a grotesque criminal nemesis for 007. In “Casino Royale,” the monster is Le Chiffre, a major Soviet operative. Like all Fleming villains, he is a racial hybrid, “a mixture of Mediterranean with Prussian or Polish strains,” and has “large lobes, indicating some Jewish blood.” Goldfinger, possibly Fleming’s most famous villain, is only suspected of having Jewish ancestry, but his fierce obsession with gold pretty much erases any doubt. Ernst Stavro Blofeld (“On Her Majesty’s Secret Service”) was supposedly baptized, but he has a Semitic-sounding name and a set of those telltale “enlarged lobes.”

Even when Fleming’s Jews are not sinister or demonic, they are confined to only a few avarice-driven professions, like banking and diamond dealing. Except for kindly Dr. Stengel (“Thunderball”), a German Jewish refugee, they are barred from medicine, science, law and journalism, to say nothing of the fraternity of valiant, selfless civil servants like Bond (though, ironically, Sidney Reilly, aka Salomon Rosenblum, “ace of spies,” was a major prototype for James Bond). Physically, Fleming’s Jewish men are always repellent, fat creatures with “black hairy bodies.” Jewish women are almost completely omitted.

In “Dr. No,” a character who clearly speaks for Fleming sums up Jamaica’s 450-year-old Portuguese-Jewish community as an enclave of rich, frivolous snobs who “spend too much of their fortune on… fine houses” and “fill the social column in the Gleaner,” which is Jamaica’s leading newspaper.

Surprisingly, Fleming’s slurs provoked little complaint during his lifetime, and he was able to report on Jamaican Jews as confidently as he did because he was on such good terms with them. Morris Cargill, a columnist for the Gleaner, was one of his closest friends, and Blanche Blackwell, a doyenne of Jamaican society, was his longtime mistress. Handsome, gracious and witty, Fleming was, in Cargill’s words, “delightful company.” "

Bond's Semitic Villains – The Forward

 

Live and Let Die: Fake News, Lies & World War Two

War of The Worlds or War of Words?

"The British ran a massive and illegal propaganda operation on American soil during World War II—and the White House helped."

"Thanks to the British sympathies of Nelson Rockefeller and his family, Stephenson opened an office in Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, on the 36th floor of the International Building North, at 636 Fifth Avenue. The sign over Room 3603 read “British Passport Control Office.” However, before long the floor-through office within was teeming with British and Canadian citizens, many in the U.S. on false diplomatic passports, and some Americans, all secretly employed by MI6.

Room 3603 housed two operational arms under Stephenson’s control. The British Information Service (BIS) ran a so-called “white,” or soft, propaganda operation that published magazines and pamphlets, paid for radio broadcasts, including over a New Jersey radio station it controlled, and broadcasted multilingual shortwave programming around the Western Hemisphere aimed at boosting support for the British cause. Stephenson’s operative David Ogilvy, after the war a famed advertising wizard, worked as an assistant director to George Gallup’s influential polling organization where he tracked Americans’ growing support for the British cause. Ogilvy also skewed survey questions to encourage the belief that their support was growing faster than it was.

Decades before the terms “viral media” and “fake news” were on anybody’s tongue, the BIS began subsidizing Overseas News Agency (ONA), a branch of the Jewish Telegraph Agency, to feed manufactured stories, often couched within factual material, about German atrocities, British pluck under the German bomber onslaught, and Hitler’s threats against the Americas, to its New Jersey Radio Station, which tagged them with the news agency label. That enabled friendly American newspapers and radio stations to report them as “news” from a reliable press source. Wire services, other radio stations and newspapers would then pick up the stories, which were soon being broadcasted and reported around the country."

"The gullible American press even reprinted the anti-Hitler predictions of a bogus Hungarian astrologer named Louis de Wohl. "

source article: The Real 007 Used Fake News to Get the U.S. into World War II

The Early History of Faking War on Film | History | Smithsonian

Live and Let Die - PAUL McCARTNEY & WINGS  source: citycity49

 

Hollywood Hearts War & Media Hoaxes: The Art & Craftiness of Fake News

Layers of Lies Protect The Truth: War Is More Hollywood Hoax Than Most Know

"Back in Hollywood, First Lieutenant Ronald Reagan was taking part in what he refers to in his autobiography as one of the major "secrets of war, ranking up with the atom bomb project": creating a complete miniature of Tokyo, so authentic in detail that even top Air Corps generals could not distinguish it from reality. Footage of fake bomb runs on the toy city were then used to brief bombing crews, who were taken by Reagnan’s voice over narrative all the way to his dramatic “Bombs away.” As areas of Tokyo were burned out, Reagan tells how the Hollywood team would “burn out” their counterparts in “our target scene,” obliterating along with the city, the boundaries between illusion and reality.”

War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination

Lookout Mountain Air Force Station - Wikipedia

How Oscar-winning directors faked WWII combat footage | New York ...

John Huston's Fake Documentaries Of World War II - KnowledgeNuts

Orson Welles - Wikipedia

Bombing of Hamburg, Dresden, and Other Cities | World War II Database

Slaughterhouse-Five - Wikipedia

Bombing of Dresden in World War II - Wikipedia

 

The Destruction of Dresden: Reality or Fiction?

Why would someone who claimed to have witnessed the fire bombings of Dresden first hand need to use someone else's account as a source?

Was Kurt Vonnegut someone who had actually worked during the war to produce fiction sold as fact?

Someone has to script the fake events sold as factual history, after all.

"Kurt Vonnegut (who witnessed the bombing of Dresden from the basement of a slaughterhouse as a prisoner of war) used The Destruction of Dresden as a source for the 1969 novel Slaughterhouse Five where he wrote that he emerged from the slaughterhouse to discover that "135,000 Hansels and Gretels had been baked like gingerbread men"."

"The Destruction of Dresden is a 1963 book by David Irving, in which Irving describes the February 1945 Allied bombing of Dresden in World War II. The book became an international best-seller during the 1960s debate about the morality of the World War II area bombing of the civilian population of Nazi Germany. The book is no longer considered to be an authoritative or reliable account of the Allied bombing and destruction of Dresden during February 1945."

The Destruction of Dresden - Wikipedia

 

A Proper Gander at War Propaganda in Post Modern 1969: 24 Years After WWII

Manufacturing Myth with Kurt Vonnegut,

The Guggenheim Award Winning Science Fiction Writer Guy Is Paid To Mix Lies With Reality In Order To Concoct Historical Propaganda

"It was in 1969, 24 years after witnessing the devastating air raid on Dresden, and 17 years after publishing his first novel, that Kurt Vonnegut published his sixth novel, Slaughterhouse-Five based on his own war experience.  John Tomedi attributes this achievement to three major causes: “The Writers Workshop at Iowa was pivotal, to be sure, in allowing Vonnegut to find a voice in which he may tell the story.  In 1967, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship which allowed him time to travel to Dresden to research the novel.  The windfall of his three-book-deal with Seymour Lawrence […] gave Vonnegut the time and money necessary to begin devoting himself to his Dresden book whole-heartedly” (54-55).  Yet Vonnegut confesses that “not many words about Dresden came from my mind then [...] not many words come now, either”.

In 1969, the number of soldiers stationed in Vietnam rose to over 550, 000, reaching its peak.  It is quite natural that Vonnegut was frustrated at his country’s involvement in the war and wanted to write “an anti-war book” based on his Dresden experience, but he also knew that “there would always be wars, that they were as easy to stop as glaciers”(3).  To overcome this difficulty, he exerted all of the science fiction techniques and devices which he had mastered as a popular science fiction writer, as well as his sense of humor.  However, Slaughterhouse-Five was not intended to be science fiction at all, as J. Michael Crichton clearly declares: “his science fiction heritage is clear, but his purposes are very different: he is nearly always talking about the past, not the future".  At the same time, because of the science fiction techniques and elements, this book is quite different from other war novels, not to mention the Holocaust novels."

"As the main character of an anti-war novel, Billy needs to be weak enough to reduce the “cognitive dissonance” caused by his war experience and to escape into a science fictional belief.  His belief can become all the more extraordinary because of his helplessness.  And the more extravagant the belief which he uses to reduce the “cognitive dissonance” becomes, the more terrible and bewildering Billy’s war experience looks.  Billy also needs to be a weak anti-hero so as to allow Vonnegut to supply various points of view on the war without an authentic comment and thus to establish postmodern characteristics in the book. "

Kurt Vonnegut's Psychological Strategies in ... - PsyArt Journal

 

Vonnegut & The Blurred Line Between Fiction & Reality

"In much of his writing, Vonnegut directly calls attention to the blurred line between fiction and reality, even in terms of his own personal "reality". Throughout his work, Vonnegut deliberately weaves truth into his fiction, without privilege one over the other."

New Critical Essays on Kurt Vonnegut - Page 75 - Google Books Result

 

Ian Flemming & The Kilgore Trout Memo

"Mincemeat swallowed rod, line and sinker."

"The Trout Memo, written in 1939, is a document comparing deception of an enemy in wartime with fly fishing. Issued under the name of Admiral John Godfrey, Britain's director of naval intelligence, according to the historian Ben Macintyre it bore the hallmarks of having been written by Godrey's assistant, Ian Fleming.

The memo reads, in part: "The Trout Fisher casts patiently all day. He frequently changes his venue and his lures. If he has frightened a fish he may 'give the water a rest for half-an-hour,' but his main endeavour, viz. to attract fish by something he sends out from his boat, is incessant." The memo goes on to describe numerous ways that the enemy, like trout, may be fooled or lured in.

One idea from the memo was broadly similar to Operation Mincemeat, a World War II plan to convince the Germans that the Allies would attack Greece rather than Italy in 1943, although that idea was developed by Charles Cholmondeley in October 1942. Confirmation of the success of the plan was sent to Churchill: "Mincemeat swallowed rod, line and sinker." "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trout_memo

 

Kilgore Trout Was Here

"Kilgore Trout is a fictional character created by author Kurt Vonnegut. In Vonnegut's work, Trout is a notably unsuccessful author of paperback science fiction novels.

Trout was inspired by author Theodore Sturgeon (Vonnegut's colleague in the genre of science fiction—Vonnegut was amused by the notion of a person with the name of a fish, Sturgeon, hence Trout, although Trout's consistent presence in Vonnegut's works has also led critics to view him as the author's own alter ego. Neither Sturgeon nor Vonnegut was yet a successful writer when the two became friends."

Kilgore Trout - Wikipedia

 

Kilroy Was Here & There & Everywhere: Uniting A Global English Speaking Culture

"Kilroy was here is an American popular culture and a meme expression that became popular during World War II; it is typically seen in graffiti. Its origins are debated, but the phrase and the distinctive accompanying doodle – bald-headed man (sometimes depicted as having a few hairs) with a prominent nose peeking over a wall with the fingers of each hand clutching the wall – became associated with GIs in the 1940s.

"Kilroy" was the American equivalent of the Australian Foo was here, which originated during World War I and later became popular amongst schoolchildren.

"Mr Chad" or just "Chad", was the version that became popular in the United Kingdom. The character of Chad may have derived from a British cartoonist in 1938, possibly pre-dating "Kilroy was here".

Etymologist Dave Wilton says, "Some time during the war, Chad and Kilroy met, and in the spirit of Allied unity merged, with the British drawing appearing over the American phrase." Other names for the character include Smoe, Clem, Flywheel, Private Snoops, Overby, The Jeep (as both characters had sizable noses), and Sapo.

Author Charles Panati says that in the United States "the mischievous face and the phrase became a national joke... The outrageousness of the graffiti was not so much what it said, but where it turned up."  The major Kilroy graffiti fad ended in the 1950s, but today people all over the world still scribble the character and "Kilroy was here" in schools, trains, and other public areas.

It is believed that James J. Kilroy was the origin of the expression, as he used the phrase when checking ships at the Fore River Shipyard in Massachusetts during WWII."

"The phrase may have originated through United States servicemen, who would draw the doodle and the text "Kilroy was here" on the walls and other places they were stationed, encamped, or visited. An ad in Life magazine noted that WWII-era servicemen were fond of claiming that "[w]hatever beach-head they stormed, they always found notices chalked up ahead of them, that 'Kilroy was here'". 

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable notes that it was particularly associated with the Air Transport Command, at least when observed in the United Kingdom. At some point, the graffiti (Chad) and slogan (Kilroy was here) must have merged.

Many sources claim origins as early as 1939.  An early example of the phrase being used may date from 1937, before World War II. A US History Channel video broadcast in 2007, Fort Knox: Secrets Revealed, includes a shot of a chalked "KILROY WAS HERE" dated 1937-05-13: Fort Knox's vault was loaded in 1937 and inaccessible until the 1970s, when an audit was carried out and the footage was shot. However, historian Paul Urbahns who was involved in the production of the program says that the footage was a reconstruction.

According to one story, it was reported that German intelligence found the phrase on captured American equipment. This began leading Adolf Hitler to believe that Kilroy could be the name or codename of a high-level Allied spy. At the time of the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was rumored that Stalin found "Kilroy was here" written in the VIPs' bathroom, prompting him to ask his aides who Kilroy was. War photographer Robert Capa noted a use of the phrase at Bastogne in December 1944: "On the black, charred walls of an abandoned barn, scrawled in white chalk, was the legend of McAuliffe's GIs: KILROY WAS STUCK HERE." "

Kilroy was here - Wikipedia

Foo was here

 

Britain’s Propaganda War on America

"Just weeks after German bombers began their nightly raids on London in September 1940, Warner Brothers released to American theaters a quietly powerful 10-minute documentary, London Can Take It! Narrated by Quentin Reynolds, an American war correspondent for Collier’s Weekly, the film focuses on ordinary Londoners’ everyday stoicism under fire. Over Reynolds’s low-key, unemotional voice appear images of men, women, and children going about their daily lives, walking to work past mountains of debris, nonchalantly sweeping the glass out of broken shop windows, manning fire hoses and air-raid posts at night amid the flash of antiaircraft fire and the thunder of falling bombs. “These are not Hollywood sound effects,” Reynolds drawls in a hushed monotone. “This is the music they play every night in London. The symphony of war.”

Toward the end of the film, the king and queen—pointedly unremarked on in the narration—are seen visiting bombed-out neighborhoods. Families calmly salvage their possessions from destroyed homes, double-decker buses thread their way through rubble-piled streets, and civil defense workers pull a live cat from a heap of wreckage. “I am a neutral reporter,” Reynolds says. “I have watched the people of London live and die ever since death in its most ghastly garb began to come here as a nightly visitor five weeks ago.… I can assure you there is no panic, no fear, no despair…among the people of Churchill’s island…. London can take it.” The closing image is of the statue of Richard the Lionheart, on horseback, sword raised, before the bomb-pocked façade of the Houses of Parliament.

Within a couple of months the film had been shown in 12,000 theaters to an audience estimated at 60 million. “All America imagined that this was an unbiased, personal report made by one of their own people,” one of the film’s directors, Harry Watt, later recalled. In fact Watt and his codirector, Humphrey Jennings, were employees of the Crown Film Unit of the British Ministry of Information (MOI), whose job was to deliver propaganda in aid of the war effort. Nowhere on the American release of London Can Take It! is there any mention of the film’s producers; Reynolds’s is the only name that appears on the opening credits. But in reality, his role was limited to providing an American accent to go with newsreel footage assembled by the film’s real authors, and his voice-over was recorded in the bar of London’s posh Savoy Hotel—from which Reynolds rarely ventured forth during the day, and from whose basement air-raid shelter he never ventured forth at night."

Britain's Propaganda War on America | HistoryNet

 

World War & Fake News: Room 3603: The British Passport Control Office

"For example, BIS writers supplied stories for its New Jersey radio station based on reports in friendly newspapers that originated with the Overseas News Agency. The gullible American press even reprinted the anti-Hitler predictions of a bogus Hungarian astrologer named Louis de Wohl. More effective still was a concerted campaign aimed at undermining morale on German U-boats. The ONA put out a story stating that the British had invented a new superexplosive for filling depth charges. The story appeared on the front pages of all the leading American newspapers, which were known to be regularly monitored by the Germans. Nobody suspected they were emanating from Rockefeller Center."

"Stephenson also tried to influence American politics, sending rabble-rousers to spark fighting and riots at meetings of isolationist organizations such as the Committee for America First, and providing funds to pro-interventionist organizations and candidates for political office. Newspapers reported on the violence as much as they did on the political speeches.

Those relatively kid glove efforts went on along with a hidden, iron fist with which Stephenson punched at the Germans from deep within Room 3603, as well as out of the British Embassy in Washington and a school for spycraft known as Camp X he set up across the New York State border in Ontario, Canada. Known as the British Security Coordination (BSC), the clandestine intelligence empire Stephenson spawned battled Germany throughout the Western Hemisphere. He purportedly ran a network of upwards of 3,000 secret agents, counterintelligence operatives, forgers, burglars, codebreakers, and killers.

BSC Camp X taught operatives to forge documents, break into offices, crack safes, wiretap phones, and kill in silence. Stephenson was purportedly a hands-on operative. One of his U.S. agents, Ian Fleming, later modeled his James Bond character on Stephenson, a man he described as “very tough, very rich, single-minded, patriotic, and a man of few words.” Fleming claimed that Stephenson personally tracked down a British sailor selling information about Allied convoy sailings to the Germans—and killed the traitor with a single blow to the neck.

The murder may have been apocryphal, but Stephenson’s handiwork could be deadly effective even without committing acts of violence himself. BSC operatives delivered documents to the White House they had forged showing a coup by businessmen and officers in cahoots with the Nazis was in the works to topple the government of Bolivia. FDR personally forwarded the information to the Bolivian government. The German Embassy staff was booted from the country, and some 150 Nazi sympathizers named in the document were rounded up, imprisoned, and most were shot."

http://www.thedailybeast.com/the-real-007-used-fake-news-to-get-the-us-into-world-war-ii

 

War: What Is It Good For?

Altering  human behavior, cultural manipulation and the creation of "brave new worlds" for a continuous stream of new products that are designed to become obsolete.

War births new and fantastic promised lands of commercial enterprise.

Hollywood Loves Shilling For War

WW2 Training Film for US Soldiers | How to Behave in Britain | 1943  source: The Best Film Archives

 

Hollywood Actors Love War: Burgess Meredith

"Oliver Burgess Meredith (November 16, 1907  – September 9, 1997 was an American actor, director, producer, and writer in theater, film, and television. Active for more than six decades,[4] Meredith has been called "a virtuosic actor" and "one of the most accomplished actors of the century". "

"A life member of the Actors Studio by invitation, he won several Emmys, was the first male actor to win the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor twice, and was nominated for two Academy Awards."

"Meredith was born in 1907 in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Ida Beth (née Burgess) and Dr. William George Meredith, a Canadian-born physician, of English descent. 

Meredith graduated from Hoosac School in 1926 and then attended Amherst College (class of 1931).

He left Amherst, and became a reporter for the Stamford Advocate. He later served in the United States Army Air Forces in World War II, reaching the rank of captain. During 1943 he appeared in a training film for the US Army on "A Welcome to Britain" which discussed how to behave in Britain  He was discharged in 1944 to work on the movie The Story of G.I. Joe, in which he played the war correspondent Ernie Pyle."

Burgess Meredith - Wikipedia

 

Newspeak: Post-Post Modern Babel

(Please excuse the typos in the quoted material below)

Postmodernism and Consumer Society: 

by FREDRIC JAMESON

"The concept of postmodernism is not widely accepted or even understood today. Some of the resistance to it may come from the unfamiliarity of the works it covers, which can be found in all the arts: the poetry of John Ashbery, for instance, but also the much simpler talk poetry that carat out of the reaction against complex, ironic, academic modernist poetry in the '60s; the reaction against modern architecture and in particular against the monumental buildings of the International Style, the pop buildings and decorated sheds celebrated by Robert Venturi in his manifesto, Learning from Gas Vegas; Andy Warhol and Pop art, but also the more recent Photorealism; in music, the moment of John Cage but also the later synthesis of classical and "popular" styles found in composers like Philip Glass and Terry Riley, and also punk and new- wave rock with such groups as the Clash, the Talking Heads and the Gang of Four, in film, everything that comes out of Godard - contemporary vanguard film and video - but also a whole new style of commercial or fiction films, which has its equivalent in contemporary novels as well, where the works of William Burroughs, Thomas Pynchon and Ishmael Reed on the one hand, and the French new novel on the other, are also to be numbered among the varieties of what can be called postmodernism.

This list would seem to make two things clear at once: first, most of the postmodernisms mentioned above emerge as specific reactions against the established forms of high modernism, against this or that dominant high modernism which conquered the university, the museum, the art gallery network, and the foundations. "Those formerly subversive and embattled styles - Abstract Expressionism; the great modernist poetry of Pound, Eliot or Wallace Stevens; the International Style (Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies); Stravinsky; Joyce, Proust and Mann - felt to be scandalous or shocking by our grandparents are, for the generation which arrives at the gate in the 1960s, felt to be the establishment and the enemy - dead, stifling, canonical, the reified monuments one has to destroy to do anything new. This means that there will be as many different forms of postmodernism as there were high modernisms in place, since the former are at least initially specific and local reactions against those models. That obviously does not make the job of describing postmodernism as a coherent thing any easier, since the unity of this new impulse - if it has one - is given not in itself but in the very modernism it seeks to displace.

The second feature of this list of postmodernisms is the effacement in it of some key boundaries or separations, most notably the erosion of the older distinction between high culture and so- called mass or popular culture. This is perhaps the most distressing development of all from an academic standpoint, which has traditionally had a vested interest in preserving a realm of high or elite culture against the surrounding environment of philistinism, of schlock and kitsch, of TV series and Readers Digest culture, and in transmitting difficult and complex skills of reading, listening and seeing to its initiates. But many of the newer postmodernisms have been fascinated precisely by that whole landscape of advertising and motels, of the Las Vegas strip, of the late show and Grade-B Hollywood film, of so-called paraliterature with its airport paperback categories of the gothic and the romance, the popular biography, the murder mystery and the science fiction or fantasy novel. They no longer "quote" such "texts" as a Joyce might have done, or a Mahler; they incorporate them, to the point where the line between high-art and commercial forms seems increasingly difficult to draw.

A rather different indication of this effacement of the older categories of genre and discourse can be found in what is sometimes called contemporary theory. A generation ago there was still a technical discourse of professional philosophy-the great systems of Same or the phenomenologists, the work of Wittgenstein or analytical or common language philosophy- alongside which one could still distinguish that quite different discourse of the other academic disciplines - of political science, for example, or sociology or literary criticism. Today, increasingly, wt have a kind of writing simply called "theory" which is all or none of those things at once. This new kind of discourse, generally associated with France and so - called French theory, is becoming widespread and marks the end of philosophy as such. Is the worn of Michel Foucault, for example, to be called philosophy, history, social theory or political science? It's undecidable, as they say nowadays; and I will suggest that such "theoretical discourse" is also to be numbered among the manifestations of postmodernism.

Now I must say a word about the proper use of this concept: it is not just another word for the description of a particular style. It is also, at least in my use, a periodizing concept whose function is to correlate the emergence of new formal features in culture with the emergence of a new type of social life and a new economic order-what is often euphemistically called modernization, postindustrial or consumer society, the society of the media or the spectacle, or multinational capitalism. This new moment of capitalism can be dated from the postwar boom in the United States in the late 1940s and early '50s or, in France, from the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1958. The 1960s are in many ways the key transitional period, a period in which the new international order (neocolonialism, the Green Revolution, computerization and electronic information) is at one and the same time set in place and is swept and shaken by its own internal contradictions and by external resistance. I want here to sketch a few of the ways in which the new postmodernism expresses the inner truth of that newly emergent social order of late capitalism, but will haul to limit the description to only two of its significant features, which I will call pastiche and schizophrenia: they will give us a chance to sense the specificity of the postmodernist experience of space and time respectively.

One of the most significant features or practices in postmodernism today is pastiche. I must first explain this term, which people generally tend to confuse with or assimilate to that related verbal phenomenon called parody. Both pastiche and parody involve the imitation or, better still, the mimicry of other styles and particularly of the mannerisms and stylistic twitches of other styles. It is obvious that modern literature in general offer a vary rich field for parody, since the great modern writers have all been defined by the invention or production of rather unique styles: think of the Faulknerian long sentence or of D.H. Lawrence's characteristic nature imagery; think of Wallace Stevens's peculiar way of using abstractions; think also of the mannerisms of the philosophers, of Heidegger for example, or Sartre; think of the musical styles of Mahler or Prokofiev. All of these styles, however different from each other, arc comparable in this: each is quite unmistakable; once one is learned, it is not likely to be confused with something else."

"But what would happen if one no longer believed in the existence of normal language, of ordinary speech, of the linguistic norm (the kind of clarity and communicative power celebrated by Orwell in his famous essay, say)? One could think of it in this way: perhaps the immense fragmentation and privatization of modern literature-its explosion into a host of distinct private styles and mannerisms-foreshadows deeper and more general tendencies in social life as a whole. Supposing that modern art and modernism-far from being a kind of specialized aesthetic curiosity-actually anticipated social developments along these lines; supposing that in the decades since the emergence of the great modern styles society has itself begun to fragment in this way, each group coming to speak a curious private language of its own, each profession developing its private code or idiolect, and finally each individual coming to be a kind of linguistic island, separated from everyone else? But then in that case, the very possibility of any linguistic norm in terms of which one could ridicule private languages and idiosyncratic styles would vanish, and we would have nothing but -stylistic diversity and heterogeneity."

FULL ARTICLE: http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf

 

Wag The Dog: Propaganda, Hollywood & Your Mind

"The PR industry has long resembled a Carry On film of fakery for vested interests wanting to influence and control an unsuspecting public. That aspect of the business was depicted brilliantly in the 1997 film ‘Wag the Dog’ starring Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro. Its cynical swipe at PR was less fiction, more fly-on-the-wall documentary.

In a recent paper published in Europhysics News four respected physicists struggled to understand why and how the unprecedented structural failures of the World Trade Centre towers on 9/11 occurred other than through a controlled demolition. George Bush was facing an election. Subsequent fears for national security rallied support for the status quo and helped ensure victory."

"For an insight into how fear industries control and manage swathes of the population, watch the 2004 film ‘The Village’. "

Fake news? There's nothing new about it | The Drum

 

RKO - Pathe Presents:

Tick Tock Goes The Clock: Time For Work, Time To Live & Time To Die,

Money is Time and Time Means Money

Did people really buy into this silly, scripted and cartoonish, newsreel nonsense? Talk about dumbing down America...

World War II Home Front Productivity: "Conquer by the Clock" 1943 RKO-Pathe  source: Jeff Quitney

Newsreel Era Propaganda, Pathe Style:

Pathé News - Wikipedia

Pathé - Wikipedia

British Pathé: Newsreels, video, archive, film, footage, stills

 

Charlie Munger: The Psychology of Human Misjudgement

"Charlie Munger is the Vice Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway. He gave three talks that were combined into this talk at Harvard University on 25 different biases that are the root of most poor decision making."

The Psychology of Human Misjudgment by Charlie Munger - Medium

https://cogly.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/psychology-misjudgement-munger.pdf

Charlie Munger: The Psychology of Human Misjudgement  source: Tiny

"Published on Jun 22, 2017

In 1995, Charlie Munger gave a speech about how the human mind tricks itself into making poor decisions. This is an abridged and animated version of that speech."

 

Poor Decision Making Processes & Post Modern Planned Obsolescence

"New types of consumption planned obsolescence: an ever more rapid rhythm of fashion and ...styling ...changes the penetration of advertising, television and the media generally to a hitherto unparalleled degree throughout society; the replacement of the old tension between city and country, center and province, by the suburb and by universal standardization; the growth of the great networks of superhighways and the arrival of automobile culture - these are some of the features which would seem to mark a radical break with that older prewar society in which high-modernism was still an underground force."

FULL ARTICLE: http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf

 

Over Influenced By The Opinions Of Others

(Please excuse the typos in the quoted material below)

"But now we need to introduce a new piece into this puzzle, which may help explain why classical modernism is a thing of the past and why postmodernism should have taken its place. This new component is what is generally called the "death of the subject" or, to say it in more conventional language, the end of individualism as such. The great modernisms were, as we have said, predicated on the invention of a personal, private style, as unmistakable as your fingerprint, as incomparable as your own body. But this mesas that the modernist aesthetic is in some way organically linked to the conception of a unique self and private identity, a unique personality and individuality, which can be expected to generate its own unique vision of the world and to forge its own unique, unmistakable style.

Yet today, from any number of distinct perspectives, the social theorists, the psychoanalysts, even the linguists, not to speak of those of us who work in the area of culture and cultural and formal change, are all exploring the notion that that kind of individualism and personal identity is a thing of the past; that the old individual a individualist subject is "dead": and that one might even describe the concept of the unique individual and the theoretical basis of individualism as ideological. There are in fact two positions on all this, one of which is more radical than the other."

"The first one is content W say: yes, once upon a time, in the classic age of competitive capitalism, in the heyday of the nuclear family and the emergence of the bourgeoisie as the hegemonic social class, there was such a thing as individualism, as individual subjects. But today, in the age of corporate capitalism, of the so-called organization man, of bureaucracies in business as well as in the state, of demographic explosion-today, that older bourgeois individual subject no longer exists."

"Then there is a second position, the more radical of the two, what ells might call the poststructuralist position. It adds: not only is the bourgeois individual subject a thing of the past, it is also a myth; it never really existed in the first place; there have never been autonomous subjects of the type. Rather, this construct is merely a philosophical and cultural mystification which sought to persuade people that they "had" individual subjects and possessed this unique personal identity."

...

"So now we come back to the question of why nostalgia film or pastiche is to be considered different from the older historical novel or film (I should also include in this discussion the major literary example of all this, to my mind the novels of E.L. Doctorow – Ragtime, with its turn-of- the-century atmosphere, and Loon Lake, for the most part about our 1930s. But these are, to my mind, historical novels in appearance only. Doctorow is a serious artist and one of the few genuinely Left or radical novelists at work today. It is no disservice to him, however, to suggest that his narratives do not represent our historical past so much as they represent our ideas or cultural stereotypes about that past.) Cultural production has been driven back inside the mind, within the monadic subject: it can no longer look directly out of its eyes at the real world for the referent but must, as in Plato's cave, trace its mental images of the world on its confining walls. If there is any realism left here, it is a "realism" which springs from the shock of grasping that confinement and of realizing that, for whatever peculiar reasons, we seem condemned to seek the historical past through our own pop images and stereotypes about that past, which itself remains forever out of reach."

...

"But one can also come at the break from the other side, and describe it in terms of periods of recent social life. As I have suggested, non-Marxists and Marxists alike have come around to the general feeling that at some point following World War II a new kind of society began to emerge (variously described as postindustrial society, multinational capitalism, consumer society, media society and so forth). New types of consumption planned obsolescence: an ever more rapid rhythm of fashion and sty styling g changes the penetration of advertising, television and the media generally to a hitherto unparalleled degree throughout society; the replacement of the old tension between city and country, center and province, by the suburb and by universal standardization; the growth of the great networks of superhighways and the arrival of automobile culture - these are some of the features which would seem to mark a radical break with that older prewar society in which high-modernism was still an underground force.

I believe that the emergence of postmodernism is closely related to the emergence of this new moment of late, consumer or multinational capitalism. I believe also that its formal features in many ways express the deeper logic of that particular social system. I will only be able, however, to show this for one major theme: namely the disappearance of a sense of history, the way in which our entire contemporary social system has little by little begun to lose its capacity to retain its own past, has begun to live in a perpetual present and in a perpetual change that obliterates traditions of the kind which all earlier social formations have had in one way or another to preserve. Think only of the media exhaustion of news: of how Nixon and, even more so, Kennedy are figures from a now distant past. One is tempted to say that the very function of the news media is to relegate such recent historical experiences as rapidly as possible into the past."

"The informational function of the media would thus be to help us forget, to serve as the very agents and mechanisms for our historical amnesia."

"But in that cast the two features of postmodernism on which I have dwelt here - the transformation of reality into images, the fragmentation ‘me’ into a series of perpetual presents - are both extraordinarily consonant with this process. My own conclusion here must take the form of a question about the critical value of the newer art. There is some agreement that the older modernism functioned against its society in ways which are variously described as critical, negative, contestatory, subversive, oppositional and the like. Can anything of the sort be affirmed about postmodernism and its social moment? We have seen that there is a way in which postmodernism replicates or reproduces – reinforces - the logic of consumer capitalism; the more significant question is whether there is also a way in which it resists that logic. But that is a question we must leave open."

FULL ARTICLE: http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf

 

Crowd Fund Your Mind For Change

"Crowds and collective action also leads to changes in the collective ideologies themselves. Indeed, as Eyerman and Jamison (1991) argue, the actions of social movements are bearers of new ideas, and have often been the sources of scientific theories and of whole scientific fields, as well as new political and social identities."

"The second obvious feature of crowd phenomena is that they are not only shaped by society but that they in turn bring about social change. Indeed the changes wrought by crowds exist at three levels. There is change in the ways that crowd members see themselves as social actors. Autobiographies and studies of activists (e.g. Biko, 1988; Burns, 1990; Cluster, 1979; Haley, 1980, Teske, 1997) repeatedly show that people do not enter collective movements with fully fledged movement ideologies but that they develop their understanding of society and who they are within it as a consequence of participation. Crowds and collective action also leads to changes in the collective ideologies themselves. Indeed, as Eyerman and Jamison (1991) argue, the actions of social movements “are bearers of new ideas, and have often been the sources of scientific theories and of whole scientific fields, as well as new political and social identities” (p. 3). To take but one example, the rise of environmental science, of ‘green’ sensibilities and ‘green’ identities cannot be understood outside the actions of anti-nuclear activists, roads protestors and other collective acts of opposition. Finally, crowd action can bring about the entire restructuring of society."

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2ed1/dacbd7177d6c1709dda3a8254e7e58a6d1af.pdf

THE HIVE MIND - CROWD PSYCHOLOGY - Why Social Media Failed  source: geistreiches

Le Bon's Crowd Psych 101

"In establishing a valid crowd theory, it seems to have become comme il faut to criticize French mass psychologist Gustave Le Bon’s mass theory. In this respect, football fan studies are no exception. A repeated criticism of Le Bon echoes in publications from scholars who analyse football fan behaviour through the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM). Pioneered by Clifford Stott, the logic of the ESIM has gained ground when interactions between football fans and authorities are to be explained and understood. Therefore, it is tempting to think that the ESIM delivers a solid theoretical understanding of crowd or mass behaviour that proves Le Bon’s crowd theory wrong. However, in this paper, we challenge this perception not only by questioning Drury, Reicher and Stott’s interpretation of Le Bon, but also suggesting that the dialogue strategy that is based upon the ESIM, in fact, validates Le Bon’s theory."

Revisiting Gustave Le Bon's crowd theory in light of present-day critique

 

Socially Proving Herd Mentality

"Social proof, also known as informational social influence, is a psychological phenomenon where people assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior for a given situation. This effect is prominent in ambiguous social situations where people are unable to determine the appropriate mode of behavior, and is driven by the assumption that surrounding people possess more knowledge about the situation.

The effects of social influence can be seen in the tendency of large groups to conform to choices which may be either correct or mistaken, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as herd behavior. Although social proof reflects a rational motive to take into account the information possessed by others, formal analysis shows that it can cause people to converge too quickly upon a single choice, so that decisions of even large groups of individuals may be grounded in very little information (see information cascades).

Social proof is a type of conformity. When a person is in a situation where they are unsure of the correct way to behave, they will often look to others for cues concerning the correct behavior. When "we conform because we believe that others' interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more accurate than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action," it is informational social influence. This is contrasted with normative social influence wherein a person conforms to be liked or accepted by others.

Social proof often leads not only to public compliance (conforming to the behavior of others publicly without necessarily believing it is correct) but also private acceptance (conforming out of a genuine belief that others are correct). Social proof is more powerful when being accurate is more important and when others are perceived as especially knowledgeable."

Social proof - Wikipedia

 

The Mechanism For Herd Mentality: The Mirror Neuron

"A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_neuron

 

Le Bon's Work Influenced Goebbels, Hitler & Mussolini

"Le Bon’s book on the crowd was first published in 1895. Moscovici (1981) has argued that it has not simply served as an explanation of crowd phenomena but has served to create the mass politics of the twentieth century. Certainly, Le Bon influenced a plethora of dictators and demagogues, most notoriously, Goebbels, Hitler and Mussolini. This influence was not in spite of but rather an expression of Le Bon’s intentions. He repeatedly urged contemporary establishment figures to employ his principles in order to use the power of crowd for, rather than against, the state. His perspective matched the concerns of the age in their entirety: fear and fascination in equal measure; denigration of the collective intellect, harnessing of collective energy. Both are equally represented in the core concept of submergence which, for Le Bon, marked the transition from individual psychology to crowd psychology. Simply by being part of the crowd,"

"Once individual identity, and the capability to control behaviour disappears, crowd members become subject to contagion. That is, they are unable to resist any passing idea or, more particularly and because the intellect is all but obliterated, any passing emotion. This may even lead crowd members to sacrifice their personal interests - a further sign of irrationality. Contagion, however, is but an effect of suggestibility."

The Psychology of Crowd Dynamics