A Proper Gander At Propaganda

Truth Transcends Community

"Propaganda in the United States is spread by both government and media entities. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to influence opinions. It's used in advertising, radio, newspaper, posters, books, television, and other media."  -  Propaganda in the United States - Wikipedia

"A man without a government is like a fish without a bicycle.” Alvaro Koplovich

Article index

Foucault’s Pendulum Fails


"And have you seen the Earth rotate?"

"Wherever it goes, Foucault’s pendulum and its sine of theta law are ridiculous, especially in Quito, Ecuador and along the whole equator. As George Berkeley correctly pointed out in “The Analyst”, division by zero is not an infinitesimal sign of infinity. It is completely undefined and has zero value. Division by zero has no meaning, it is nothing more than zero, since there is no number which multiplied by zero gives any value other than zero. Therefore, at the equator, they should just cut the cable or admit that it has all been only in some mischievous "New World Order" fun, and the sun orbits the earth ... and sorry for the damages and things arising from multivarious confusion.

If there could be any doubt, when it comes to division or multipilcation by zero, put the zero first to see what it really does. It does nothing. Nothing generates nothing There is no number that is multplied by zero that gives any value other than zero, therefore, division by zero is as meaningless, and so is Foucault's pendulum at the equator ... other than as a "scientific" materialist hoax and gateway drug into heliocentrism.

What a long strange trip it has been, as NASA continues to make fake trips to Pluto and Mars at the cost of billions upon billions of dollars, and the stuff inside the bag is smokey bad. If it is mathematically meaningless at the equator, and obtuse in terms of establishing any rotation of the Earth, then it is meaningless in those terms everywhere else, also on Pluto and Mars. A mathematical sign of absurdity like that, for irony's sake, would be universal.

From the North pole to the South pole, if it is not cranked up, driven, damped, and tuned in the first place, it eventually will come to rest, and remain at rest, as the earth is always at rest before it, under the influence of natural "gravity", simile gaudet simili, not the Newtonian inverse squared. Newton’s first law, “ … of uniform motion in a right line” is not correct, since all things loosed across the Earth tend to come to rest on the Earth, as the Earth is always at rest before them. But instead, heliocentric creditors of Newton and Foucault will claim the pendulum does remain in a greater "fixed-plane of cosmic oscillation along the Equator", not only as a joke, but as an infinitesimal sign of infinity, indicative of the theoretical infinite horizontal plane of Galileo and Newton.

By the strange lights of the Mendacitron*, then, and Foucault’s sine of theta law, by stepping carefully between grades in latitude, and in different directions within the two hemispheres, North and South,  if people can believe it, T = 24/sin(theta/latitude) --- and the Earth is flying around in space, at many different speeds at once, to orbit the Sun. 

(*mendacitron: a modernist, scientific materialist, liar's magic box. The Mendacitron would be the big one that has government education funding and is connected to a big switchboard.)"

Full Article:  https://www.geophysik.uni-muenchen.de/outreach/foucault-pendulum


A Harvard Study About Fudging Foucault Experimental Results:

"...it is difficult to obtain performance that obeys theoretical expectations."

For more: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1980QJRAS..21..108M


Named After The Goddess Columbia: The First of A Fleet of Future Ships To The Stars

What happened to this supposed empirical enterprise? Why can't we wait on a line to go through a body scanner to take rides into outer space as we were all promised so long ago? The American tax payer has long subsidized NASA's Star Trekking venture and yet space travel is still denied to most of us.

Fifty years after the first human flight one could fly from New York to Rome. Some fifty years after the Lunar landings: the Space Shuttle program is scrapped.

Funny that.

Whatever happened to the promised land of outer space?

Mission to the Future 1981 NASA; James Doohan, Isaac Asimov, James Michener; Space Shuttle  source: Jeff Quitney


Bill Clinton & The Meaning of To Be or Not To Be

"It has been suggested that perhaps the biggest fake marketing stunt of all time was the moon landing. Let’s look at the evidence. Teams of PRs and marketing people were hired by NASA for a national awareness campaign. On 20 July, 1969 at 20:18 UTC, 94% of all Americans turned on their TVs and were led to believe Apollo 11’s lunar module Eagle landed on the moon. Bill Clinton in his 2004 autobiography ‘My Life’ recounts how an old carpenter had told him he didn’t believe in the moon landing for a minute and that “them television fellers” could “make things look real that weren’t”. He said he wondered - once he’d been in power for eight years in Washington - whether the old man hadn’t been ahead of his time.

We’re supposed to believe that back in 1969 we could just pop out to the moon like popping round to the corner shop and yet, nearly 50 years later, Sir Richard Branson is still struggling with his childhood dream to take tourists into space. Or could it just have been a ‘Big Swinging Dick’ attempt - all orchestrated from a Hollywood sound stage - to outdo Russia at the height of the Cold War and convince America that spending four per cent of the national budget on NASA’s space programme was a good idea?"

"The PR industry has long resembled a Carry On film of fakery for vested interests wanting to influence and control an unsuspecting public. That aspect of the business was depicted brilliantly in the 1997 film ‘Wag the Dog’ starring Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro. Its cynical swipe at PR was less fiction, more fly-on-the-wall documentary.

In a recent paper published in Europhysics News four respected physicists struggled to understand why and how the unprecedented structural failures of the World Trade Centre towers on 9/11 occurred other than through a controlled demolition. George Bush was facing an election. Subsequent fears for national security rallied support for the status quo and helped ensure victory. For an insight into how fear industries control and manage swathes of the population, watch the 2004 film ‘The Village’."

Fake news? There's nothing new about it | The Drum



Marketing Pee as "We":

We is a marketing slogan and we are all forever just about to begin to go to outer space. We are forever infinitesimally approaching the extraterrestrial singularity. 

MYSTERIES OF THE GODS (1977) - William Shatner  Josh Reeves


Flat Earth: 19th Century Propaganda Resurrected For The Facebook, GOOGLE, YouTube Age of Digitilly Enhanced Stupidty

2 + 2 = 1 984

Google Presents: The Flat Earth Follies

Flat Earth noise has long existed to be used to drown out actual criticism of heliocentric theory. Today such absurdity seems designed to associate obvious NASA/Hollywood fakery with Flat Earth absurdist nonsense. Most people equate Flat Earth with ignorance. NASA fakery does not equate with a flat world, but to the Flat Earth true believer tabloid online myth can indeed be used to change how governments operate. The Flat Earth true believer is as bad as a UFO ET true believer. If the self proclaimed Flat Earther truly desired to change the world they might start off learning about the art of communications. The Flat Earth strategy seems to be one designed to make the Flat Earth follower look quite foolish. NASA fakery and other governmental criticism ends up associated with the Flat Earth movement, discrediting such ideas by association.

"Beginning in the 19th century, a historical myth arose which held that the predominant cosmological doctrine during the Middle Ages was that the Earth was flat. An early proponent of this myth was the American writer Washington Irving, who maintained that Christopher Columbus had to overcome the opposition of churchmen to gain sponsorship for his voyage of exploration. Later significant advocates of this view were John William Draper and Andrew Dickson White, who used it as a major element in their advocacy of the thesis[139] that there was a long lasting and essential conflict between science and religion. Subsequent studies of medieval science have shown that most scholars in the Middle Ages, including those read by Christopher Columbus, maintained that the Earth was spherical. Studies of the historical connections between science and religion have demonstrated that theories of their mutual antagonism ignore examples of their mutual support."

"In 1956, Samuel Shenton set up the International Flat Earth Research Society (IFERS), better known as the Flat Earth Society from Dover, UK, as a direct descendant of the Universal Zetetic Society. This was just before the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik; he responded, "Would sailing round the Isle of Wight prove that it were spherical? It is just the same for those satellites."

His primary aim was to reach children before they were convinced about a spherical Earth. Despite plenty of publicity, the space race eroded Shenton's support in Britain until 1967 when he started to become famous due to the Apollo program.

In 1972 Shenton's role was taken over by Charles K. Johnson, a correspondent from California, US. He incorporated the IFERS and steadily built up the membership to about 3,000. He spent years examining the studies of flat and round Earth theories and proposed evidence of a conspiracy against flat-Earth: "The idea of a spinning globe is only a conspiracy of error that Moses, Columbus, and FDR all fought..." His article was published in the magazine Science Digest, 1980. It goes on to state, "If it is a sphere, the surface of a large body of water must be curved. The Johnsons have checked the surfaces of Lake Tahoe and the Salton Sea without detecting any curvature."

The Society declined in the 1990s following a fire at its headquarters in California and the death of Johnson in 2001.  It was revived as a website in 2004 by Daniel Shenton (no relation to Samuel Shenton). He believes that no one has provided proof that the world is not flat."



The Flat Earth: A Mainstream Media Meme

Alphabet Agencies Unite!

Alphabet Inc. - Wikipedia


Flat Earth Is A Logical Fallacy Most Equate With Ignorance

From basketball stars to Neil deGrasse Tyson and Joe Rogan, and so many more, the Flat Earth meme is a mainstream media parroted and promoted piece of propaganda poop and not much else. Its stench seems designed to cling to skepticism of governmental and media claims.


The Colorado Flat Earth Gravity Hoax

"These Coloradans say Earth is flat. And gravity’s a hoax. Now, they’re being persecuted."

"The Flat Earth movement is growing in Colorado, thanks to technology and skepticism about science"

"That research tends to fall on the shoulders of movement leaders, many of whom have backgrounds in related fields. Mark Sargent is the father of Flat Earth organizing in the United States. He worked as a software analyst in Boulder for 20 years before relocating to Seattle, where he sets up Flat Earth meet-ups through YouTube. His channel has amassed 7.7 million video views and almost 40,000 regular subscribers."

"Like nearly every member of the movement, Sargent converted to Flat Earthism late in life. For most of his first five decades, he believed Earth to be a spinning globe. But something changed around the summer of 2014, when he stumbled upon a YouTube video contending that Earth is flat.

“It was interesting, but I didn’t think it was real,” he says. “I started the same way as everyone else, saying, ‘Oh, I’ll just prove the earth is round.’ Nine months later, I was staring at my computer thinking, ‘I can’t prove the globe anymore.’ ”

He remembers the date — Feb. 10, 2015 — when he took the plunge and started creating Flat Earth content of his own. To his surprise, the daily videos he had begun churning out ignited a firestorm online. The 49-year-old now devotes himself to Flat Earth propagation full time. He has made 600 YouTube videos and been interviewed more than 120 times.

His conversion to the cult of globe-busting follows a common pattern among proselytes: latent anti-authoritarianism, which first found outlet in popular conspiracy theories of the mid-aughts, that by the mid-2010s transformed into full-blown contempt for the global model. In most cases, the catalyst was YouTube, with its highly popular flat-earth videos that began proliferating in late 2014.

Sargent acknowledges that he didn’t found Flat Earthism, which has existed in some form since antiquity. But he and a handful of others combined communications technology with old-fashioned salesmanship to grow a shambolic rump of mostly silent believers into a fledgling movement that spans the country.

“Before I did the first few videos back in 2015, if you typed ‘flat earth’ into YouTube you’d get 50,000 results,” he says. “Now, you’ll come in with 17.4 million. That’s more than a 30,000 percent increase. And we’re growing.”

The Centennial State has been the cradle of the American flat earth renaissance since birth. The first Flat Earth International Conference, which will be in Raleigh, N.C., in November, features a number of Colorado-based Flat Earthers, including Sargent, Knodel and Matthew Procella, or ODD Reality, a Denver-based rapper and YouTuber with 75,000 subscribers and nearly 7 million video views."

"These Coloradans say Earth is flat. And gravity’s a hoax. Now, they’re being persecuted."

Full source article: http://www.denverpost.com/2017/07/07/colorado-earth-flat-gravity-hoax/

Tip Of The Proverbial Hat To Fakeologist: http://flatearth.fakeologist.com/2017/07/14/colorado-flat-earth-movement-is-spreading-via-technology/


The Mainstream Discrediting Meme: NASA faking space with Hollywood special effects and stage magician technology means the Earth is flat.

‘Flat Earth’ Billboard Turning Heads On The Schuylkill:

"Filed under Flat Earth"

"PHILADELPHIA (CBS) – A billboard on the Schuylkill Expressway eastbound is turning drivers’ heads. Sandwiched between two insurance ads, the billboard reads “Research Flat Earth.”

“We believe this is something that needs to be talked about,” Math Powerland, who purchased the billboard, said.

Powerland lives in New Mexico and is one of the founders of the Flat Plane Society, a group which believes the earth is flat. Powerland says NASA pictures and videos of the curved earth are faked.

“We believe it’s all faked. All of it is in front of CGI, augmented reality, the space walks are most part done in desalinated water tanks,” Powerland said.

“What many of us have come to believe is that what we’re shown as a globe is not a map of reality but it just shows a region of what we’re allowed to inhabit on what all intents and purposes may be a flat plane that extends far beyond what is Antarctica,” he continued.

The Franklin Institute’s Chief Astronomer Derrick Pitts says it’s fine to have different theories and opinions, but some research, like that proving the earth is round has been studied for centuries.

“If you go back as far as 330BC the Greek mathematicians found out the earth was round simply by looking at the angle of shadows and placement on different places on the surface of the planet. That was in 330BC and it wasn’t the Greeks who said this, it was the mathematics that told them it was the case,” explained Pitts.

Pitts says there is easy visual proof the earth is round, and it doesn’t require mathematics.

“The other way we know the earth is round is we’ve been able to observe lunar eclipses from earth,” he said.

“The only way you can make a curved shadow is if you have a curved object that blocks the light,” he continued.

Powerland plans to run the billboard for the next week at a cost of $900. He says he chose Philadelphia for the first billboard because of the cost, and hopes to place other billboards in cities like Phoenix and Denver."

'Flat Earth' Billboard Turning Heads On The Schuylkill « CBS Philly


There's Also Plenty of Flat Earth Merch To Purchase

"You can support Math Powerland by buying an authentic T-shirt from him. Photo? or Painting T-Shirt - Ebay"

Math Powerland - FlatEarthWiki.com

Flat Earth T Shirts, Shirts & Tees | Custom Flat Earth Clothing

Flat Earth: Gifts & Merchandise | Redbubble



Playing The Victim Card

Nothing like falling for old timey con artist type tricks and following Flat Earth gurus off the edge of a flattened world.


GOOGLE: Governmental Alphabet Agencies

"Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate created in a corporate restructuring on October 2, 2015.  It is the parent company of Google and several former Google subsidiaries. The two founders of Google assumed executive roles in the new company, with Larry Page serving as CEO and Sergey Brin as President.[9] The company is based in Mountain View, California. It has over 72,053 employees as of 2017.

Alphabet's portfolio encompasses several industries, including technology, life sciences, investment capital, and research. Some of its subsidiaries include Google, Calico, GV, CapitalG, Verily, Waymo, X, Nest Labs and Google Fiber. Some of the subsidiaries of Alphabet have altered their names since leaving Google—Google Ventures becoming GV, Google Life Sciences becoming Verily and Google X becoming just X. Following the restructuring Page became CEO of Alphabet while Sundar Pichai took his position as CEO of Google.[4][5] Shares of Google's stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google's former ticker symbols of "GOOG" and "GOOGL".

The establishment of Alphabet was prompted by a desire to make the core Google Internet services business "cleaner and more accountable" while allowing greater autonomy to group companies that operate in businesses other than Internet services."



"Google experiments with communal YouTube-watching with new app Uptime"

"A flashy, neon-colored marriage of Facebook Live, Periscope, and YouTube."

BY: VALENTINA PALLADINO -  3/13/2017, 12:01 PM

"Google's internal incubator, Area 120, launched a new app today. Dubbed Uptime, it makes YouTube videos more social by letting viewers react to and comment on videos and share them with friends to watch together in real time. Currently the app is only available for iOS users, and there's no word if Android users will ever get the app. Google opened Area 120 to encourage its employees to use 20 percent of their time to work on side projects and start their own companies, so there's no telling how much support Uptime will receive over time."

Google experiments with communal YouTube-watching with new app ...


A Sight Seeing Post Script: The Canigou Refraction

"The Canigou is located in Pyrénées-Orientales, south of Prades and north of Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste. Its summit is a quadripoint between the territories of Casteil, Taurinya, Valmanya and Vernet-les-Bains. Its location makes it visible from the plains of Roussillon and from Conflent in France, and as well from Empordà in Spain.

Twice a year, in early February and at the end of October, with good weather, the Canigou can be seen at sunset from as far as Marseille, 250 km away, by refraction of light. This phenomenon was observed in 1808 by baron Franz Xaver von Zach from the Notre-Dame de la Garde basilica in Marseille. All year long, it can also be seen, with good weather, from Agde, Port-Camargue and the Montagne Noire."

Canigou - Wikipedia


Atmospheric Refraction Is Not Like A Magnifying Lens Despite Flat Earth Guru Parroted Hype To The Contrary

"Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height. This refraction is due to the velocity of light through air, decreasing (the refractive index increases) with increased density. Atmospheric refraction near the ground produces mirages and can make distant objects appear to shimmer or ripple, elevated or lowered, stretched or shortened, with no mirage involved. The term also applies to the refraction of sound. Atmospheric refraction is considered in measuring the position of both astronomical and terrestrial objects.

Astronomical or celestial refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality. Terrestrial refraction usually causes terrestrial objects to appear higher than they actually are, although in the afternoon when the air near the ground is heated, the rays can curve upward making objects appear lower than they really are."

"Atmospheric refraction of the light from a star is zero in the zenith, less than 1′ (one arc-minute) at 45° apparent altitude, and still only 5.3′ at 10° altitude; it quickly increases as altitude decreases, reaching 9.9′ at 5° altitude, 18.4′ at 2° altitude, and 35.4′ at the horizon;[4] all values are for 10 °C and 1013.25 hPa in the visible part of the spectrum.

On the horizon refraction is slightly greater than the apparent diameter of the Sun, so when the bottom of the sun's disc appears to touch the horizon, the sun's true altitude is negative. If the atmosphere suddenly vanished, the sun would too. By convention, sunrise and sunset refer to times at which the Sun’s upper limb appears on or disappears from the horizon and the standard value for the Sun’s true altitude is −50′: −34′ for the refraction and −16′ for the Sun’s semi-diameter. The altitude of a celestial body is normally given for the center of the body’s disc. In the case of the Moon, additional corrections are needed for the Moon’s horizontal parallax and its apparent semi-diameter; both vary with the Earth–Moon distance.



Atmospheric Refraction and Temperature Variation Mean The Sun & Moon Do Not Always Rise And Set As Expected

 Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition

"Refraction near the horizon is highly variable, principally because of the variability of the temperature gradient near the Earth's surface and the geometric sensitivity of the nearly horizontal rays to this variability. As early as 1830, Friedrich Bessel had found that even after applying all corrections for temperature and pressure (but not for the temperature gradient) at the observer, highly precise measurements of refraction varied by ±0.19' at two degrees above the horizon and by ±0.50' at a half degree above the horizon.[5] At and below the horizon, values of refraction significantly higher than the nominal value of 35.4′ have been observed in a wide range of climates.

Georg Constantin Bouris measured refraction of as much of 4° for stars on the horizon at the Athens Observatory and, during his ill-fated Endurance expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton recorded refraction of 2°37':

“The sun which had made ‘positively his last appearance’ seven days earlier surprised us by lifting more than half its disk above the horizon on May 8. A glow on the northern horizon resolved itself into the sun at 11 am that day. A quarter of an hour later the unreasonable visitor disappeared again, only to rise again at 11:40 am, set at 1 pm, rise at 1:10 pm and set lingeringly at 1:20 pm. These curious phenomena were due to refraction which amounted to 2° 37' at 1:20 pm. The temperature was 15° below 0° Fahr., and we calculated that the refraction was 2° above normal.”

Day-to-day variations in the weather will affect the exact times of sunrise and sunset  as well as moon-rise and moon-set, and for that reason it generally is not meaningful to give rise and set times to greater precision than the nearest minute.  More precise calculations can be useful for determining day-to-day changes in rise and set times that would occur with the standard value for refraction[note 1] if it is understood that actual changes may differ because of unpredictable variations in refraction.

Because atmospheric refraction is nominally 34′ on the horizon, but only 29′ at 0.5° above it, the setting or rising sun seems to be flattened by about 5′ (about 1/6 of its apparent diameter)."



Astronaut Flight Control: Special Effects Stage, Universal Studios Hollywood

Astronaut Flight Control @ Special Effects Stage, Universal Studios Hollywood  source:  Eduardo Oliveira


Mythical Promises of The Future That Never Comes To Pass:

Manned Interplanetary Missions 1962 NASA-General Dynamics, Krafft Ehricke

Manned Interplanetary Missions 1962 NASA-General Dynamics, Krafft Ehricke  source:  Jeff Quitney

" "A Study of Early Manned Interplanetary Missions" is a report by General Dynamics Astronautics Director of Advanced Studies Krafft Ehricke under NASA contract # NAS8-5026. This 1962 report considers the possibilities for manned interplanetary missions to Mars and Venus which would take place in the 1970's. Use of a NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) engine, or a more advanced metal carbide nuclear engine, is assumed for all but one of the suggested mission profiles. 

Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).


Krafft Arnold Ehricke (March 24, 1917 – December 11, 1984) was a German rocket-propulsion engineer and advocate for space colonization...


Born in Berlin, Ehricke believed in the feasibility of space travel from a very young age, influenced by his viewing of the Fritz Lang film Woman in the Moon. At the age of 12, he formed his own rocket society. He attended Berlin Technical University and studied celestial mechanics and nuclear physics under such luminaries as Hans Geiger and Werner Heisenberg, attaining his degree in Aeronautical Engineering.

He worked at Peenemünde as a propulsion engineer from 1942 to 1945 with Walter Thiel, then went to the United States with other German rocket scientists and technicians under "Operation Paperclip" in 1947. He worked for a short time with the Von Braun Rocket Team at Huntsville.

In 1948, while working for the U.S. Army, Ehricke wrote a story about a manned mission to Mars called "Expedition Ares". It anticipated the many challenges that still face explorers who will make the journey in the future. In the same year he wrote a book with Wernher von Braun, The Mars Project, which detailed how man could travel to Mars using a ferry system.

Upon leaving government service Ehricke worked at Bell Aircraft, and then for Convair in 1952. While at Convair, he designed the D-1 Centaur, the world's first upper-stage-booster that used liquid hydrogen and oxygen. He also created an early space station design, based on launch by Convair's Atlas rocket. The NEXUS reusable rocket was a 1960s concept design by a group at General Dynamics led by Krafft Ehricke. Also, during his stay at General Dynamics, he participated on Project Orion (nuclear propulsion).

Krafft Ehricke undertook a major, multi-decade study of the industrial development of the Moon, which he described as Earth's "seventh continent." His lunar industrialization concept was based on the most advanced technologies, such as nuclear-powered freight transporters, and using fusion energy to power his city, Selenopolis, on the Moon.

Ehricke received a space burial on April 21, 1997, when a rocket sent a small amount of his cremated remains into Earth orbit...


Interplanetary spaceflight or interplanetary travel is travel between planets, usually within a single planetary system. In practice, spaceflights of this type are confined to travel between the planets of the Solar System...


NERVA is an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a U.S. nuclear thermal rocket engine development program that ran for roughly two decades. NERVA was a joint effort of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA, managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) until both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

NERVA demonstrated that nuclear thermal rocket engines were a feasible and reliable tool for space exploration, and at the end of 1968 SNPO certified that the latest NERVA engine, the NRX/XE, met the requirements for a manned Mars mission. Although NERVA engines were built and tested as much as possible with flight-certified components and the engine was deemed ready for integration into a spacecraft, much of the U.S. space program was cancelled by the Nixon Administration before a manned visit to Mars could take place.

NERVA was considered by the AEC, SNPO and NASA to be a highly successful program; it met or exceeded its program goals. Its principal objective was to "establish a technology base for nuclear rocket engine systems to be utilized in the design and development of propulsion systems for space mission application". Virtually all space mission plans that use nuclear thermal rockets use derivative designs from the NERVA NRX or Pewee..."