Young minds are indoctrinated with solar system models that are not to scale.
This lack of perspective makes for a profound foundation of manifested mental sleight of hand illogic.
Size and Scale Matter
The Relative Size of the Earth, Moon and Sun source: RichardB1983
One Needs A Whole Lot of (empty) Space To Model The Solar System
Nature abhors a vacuum.
Imagine the vast magnitude of unimaginable vacuous "space". A sub atomic sized rocket could not really travel the immense relative distances even were we to suppose an environment free from atmosphere. Gravity is still a problem and one would need what would seem to be quite an unlimited kind of fuel supply to achieve the unimaginable speeds needed to reach out into the imagined heavens in an attempt to touch the deities of spaced out dreams. Of course the idea that rockets can actually work in a vast 'infinite' vacuum as outer space is described, is also a ridiculous one.
"Science Fiction" is really just mythic and religious based fantasy and nothing more.
Science fiction is spaced out pulp publishing propaganda designed amaze generations of lost minds.
All the peer reviewed and royal rewarded math in the world can't save an illogically founded house of cards from collapsing.
When we put just the solar system (never mid the rest of the Universe of infinite galaxies and the rest), we can see that the model is quite fantastic and were this the case we would not really expect to be able to easily navigate such an immense vacuum.
The Solar System To Scale
Watch This Guy Build a Massive Solar System in the Desert | Short Film Showcase source: National Geographic
Please notice how these guys do not attempt to emulate how the Sun would actually illuminate the planets of the solar system.
In fact the planet Saturn and the rest are represented with lit light bulbs. Are planets supposed to be light sources like suns and lightbulbs?
The mainstream model is demonstrably very flawed and complicated.
Modern cosmology is a patchwork of conflicting ideas built on a glass house of cards backed with peer reviewed and illogically premised math and Hollywood wizardry.
Try to emulate an eclipse to scale.
Proportions Do Matter
We are minuscule compared to the size of the Earth.
No matter how tall a steel building humanity manages to construct, and no matter how high humanity manages to actually climb or fly, all we do is as nothing compared to the scale of our very real world. The vacuum of space would be "infinite" relative to all our infinitesimal feats of engineering. No rationale mind should buy into the space race from the mid 20th century Atomic Age so easily. The model itself reveals the scale of this particular long standing historical absurdity. Whatever shape one wants to use to model this place we call home, we know that relative to it we are not even specks of dust. We are less than subatomic dust. We are even and more fantastically smaller than that, relative to the solar system model of the early so-called scientists. Infinitesimally smaller are we considered in the multiverse of black matter and quantum foaming dark energy of today. The current cosmological model is a far cry from the Sun centered Universe of Fixed Stars that minds like Sir Isaac Newton embraced. Newton would deem the current Mandela gas-lit cartoon cosmology insane and he'd be right.
Escape velocity is on the order of some 25,000 mph, do you really believe such feats are really achievable?
Even if you accept that such things are real, doesn't the immense relative size of the solar system make such travel at least near impossible?
"Proof that the Earth is smoother than a billiard ball"
"The World Pool-Billiard Association Tournament Table and Equipment Specifications (November 2001) state: "All balls must be composed of cast phenolic resin plastic and measure 2 ¼ (+.005) inches [5.715 cm (+ .127 mm)] in diameter and weigh 5 ½ to 6 oz [156 to 170 gms]." (Specification 16.)
This means that balls with a diamenter of 2.25 inches cannot have any imperfections (bumps or dents) greater than 0.005 inches. In other words, the bump or dent to diameter ratio cannot exceed 0.005/2.25 = 0.0022222"
"The Earth's diameter is approximately 12,756.2 kilometres or 12,756,200 metros. 12,756,200 x 0.0022222 = 28,347.111
So, if a billiard ball were enlarged to the size of Earth, the maximum allowable bump (mountain) or dent (trench) would be 28,347 metros."
Earth's highest mountain, Mount Everest, is only 8,848 metres above sea level. Earth's deepest trench, the Mariana Trench, is only about 11 kilometres below sea level. So if the Earth were scaled down to the size of a billiard ball, all its mountains and trenches would fall well within the WPA's specifications for smoothness."
Maybe Someone Might Want to Notice That Hollywood Cartoon Guys Sold America On The Space Race
The Aptly Titled Disney's Fantasyland Presents: Man in Space
Disney Animated Educational Video Man in Space 1955 source: Rick Morgan
Digging A Gravity Well With A Post (Script) Auger
Think gravity can be measured? Think gravity means a big sphere attracts smaller ones?
Do You think the Cavendish Experiment valid?
Think gravity is anything but an accelerated motion towards Earth's center?
Do you think gravity can explain the motion of the heavenly bodies?
Do you really believe rocks can fly magically in orbits above the sky?
YOU MIGHT WANT TO THINK AGAIN:
“The Newtonian constant of gravitation, a constant too difficult to measure?”
"The results of a painstaking 10-year experiment to calculate the value of “big G,” the universal gravitational constant, were published this month—and they’re incompatible with the official value of G, which itself comes from a weighted average of various other measurements that are mostly mutually incompatible and diverge by more than 10 times their estimated uncertainties."
Zombie Parrots In Peer Reviewed Echo Chamber Choirs Make For Lousy Researchers
Do you believe you can trust textbooks?
"In this article we analyze how physics textbooks authors treat one of the most famous experiments in physics history: Cavendish’s determination of the density of Earth. Authors of all revised textbooks continue to repeat erroneous information, claiming that Cavendish measured the gravitational constant. As the erroneous nature of that claim for the Cavendish experiment was demonstrated many times in pedagogical and other journals, it is normal to ask: why do the authors continue to repeat it? Our hypothesis is that the “culture of teaching” is different from the “culture of research” regarding the appearance and correction of errors. We believe that only way to fight against errors in textbooks is to establish better mechanisms of veracity control, similar to those in research journals. "
"In what follows we present briefly a growing research field on textbooks and a framework proposed for analyzing the use of history in them. After that we illustrate how the aim of the Cavendish experiment is formulated in recent American physics textbooks. Finally, we try to understand the presence of denounced error of attributing to Cavendish the measurement of the gravitational constant as a consequence of some basic differences between “culture of research” and “culture of teaching”. We believe that the presence of physics textbook errors would be drastically reduced if teaching community and publishing industry start to apply the same mechanism of quality control already present in the “culture of research”.
"More studies are also needed on historical evolution and persistence of conceptual errors. For example, such an error is the idea according to which a “total force” of a fluid, being air or water, exerted on an immersed body is obtained as a product of pressure (aerostatic or hydrostatic) and total surface of the body. This erroneous idea is present in the textbooks almost three centuries, changing its terminological and numerical forms (Slisko, 2010)."
"Cavendish could not determinate the gravitational constant because the very idea of that constant didn’t exist yet, not only in the time when Cavendish carried out the experiment but it was introduced almost a century later (Cornu & Baile, 1873; Roche, 1998; Ducheyne, 2011a;Ducheyne, 2011b)."
"Although, knowing the mean density of the Earth, Cavendish could calculate the mass of the Earth, he didn’t calculate it because he was not interested in that number. Namely, that number in itself could not help geologists to infer about internal structure of the Earth.
Being so, wrong the textbooks must have influenced answers of physics teachers to the question “what did Cavendish in his famous experiment?” they use or they had read.
As it was said, historical errors related to the Cavendish experiment were denounced in pedagogical and educational journals more than once, among which were two widely known and read American journals (American Journal of Physics and The Physics Teacher). That is the reason which lead us to inspect what more recent American physics textbooks say about Cavendish experiment."
"The other, not less important reason, is that American physics textbooks are used all over the world. For instance, their translations completely dominate textbook markets in Latin America, Spain and Portugal. "
Do You Believe In Magic?
Consider how easy it is to fudge the results derived from this kind of 'sensitive experiment'. What's the deal with the twisting wire's clockwise and counterclockwise motion?
"Cavendish's equipment was remarkably sensitive for its time. The force involved in twisting the torsion balance was very small, 1.47 x 10 –7N, about 1/50,000,000 of the weight of the small balls or roughly the weight of a large grain of sand. "
"To find the wire's torsion coefficient, the torque exerted by the wire for a given angle of twist, Cavendish timed the natural oscillation period of the balance rod as it rotated slowly clockwise and counterclockwise against the twisting of the wire. The period was about 7 minutes. The torsion coefficient could be calculated from this and the mass and dimensions of the balance. Actually, the rod was never at rest; Cavendish had to measure the deflection angle of the rod while it was oscillating."
THE APOCALYPSE OF THE HOUSES OF THE HOLY ROAMING ENTERPRiSE™
Please Meet Lord Henry Cavendish of The Rich & Highly Influential Aristocratic House of Cavendish
Do You Have Divine Faith In The Right of Royalty To Rule Over You?
"Cavendish (/ˈkævəndɪʃ/) is the surname of a British noble family, also known as the House of Cavendish. This Cavendish family has been one of the richest and most influential aristocratic families in England since the 16th century, and has been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby."
source: House of Cavendish
A Royal Lord Cavendish
"Lord Charles Cavendish spent his life, first, in politics and then increasingly in science, especially in the Royal Society of London. In 1758, he took Henry to meetings of the Royal Society and also to dinners of the Royal Society Club. In 1760, Henry Cavendish was elected to both these groups, and he was assiduous in his attendance thereafter. He took virtually no part in politics, but followed his father in to science, through his researches and through his participation in scientific organizations. He was active in the Council of the Royal Society of London (to which he was elected in 1765)."
Atlas Once Was Thought To Have Held Up The Sky: Today Most Believe Atlas Has The Back Breaking Task of Upholding The Weight of The World
"The Cavendish Experiment, was one of his most notable experiments. Cavendish performed the experiment in 1797-1798. The Cavendish Experiment was the first experiment to measure the force between masses in the laboratory. Moreover, the first experiment to produce definitive values for the gravitational constant and the mass density of the Earth. The experiment was originally conceived by John Michell before 1783, however in 1793 Michell died before completing his work. Soon thereafter, Cavendish was given Michell's apparatus for the experiment, which he then re-constructed his own model, while keeping major components similar to Michell's original plan. The results of the Cavendish Experiment was the mass density of the earth, yet others were able to derive the actual value of the gravitational constant from the experiments results. The Cavendish Experiment's purpose is frequently misunderstood to think its goal was to determine the gravitational constant(G). When in fact, Cavendish's only goal was to measure the mass density of the Earth. The gravitational constant does not appear in Cavendish's published paper on the topic, nor is there any indication that he regarded it as a goal of this experiment. Nearly 100 years later when G was first measure in a laboratory, they realized that Cavendish had obtained a value of G that was accurate to 1%."
"To find the wire's torsion coefficient, the torque exerted by the wire for a given angle of twist, Cavendish timed the natural oscillation period of the balance rod as it rotated slowly clockwise and counterclockwise against the twisting of the wire. The period was about 7 minutes. The torsion coefficient could be calculated from this and the mass and dimensions of the balance. Actually, the rod was never at rest; Cavendish had to measure the deflection angle of the rod while it was oscillating.
Cavendish's equipment was remarkably sensitive for its time. The force involved in twisting the torsion balance was very small, 1.47 x 10 –7N, about 1/50,000,000 of the weight of the small balls or roughly the weight of a large grain of sand. To prevent air currents and temperature changes from interfering with the measurements, Cavendish placed the entire apparatus in a wooden box about thick, tall, and wide, all in a closed shed on his estate. Through two holes in the walls of the shed, Cavendish used telescopes to observe the movement of the torsion balance's horizontal rod. The motion of the rod was only about 0.16 inch. Cavendish was able to measure this small deflection to an accuracy of better than one hundredth of an inch using vernier scales on the ends of the rod."
"The motion of the rod was only about 0.16 inch. Cavendish was able to measure this small deflection to an accuracy of better than one hundredth of an inch using vernier scales on the ends of the rod."
Cavendish's 1/100th of an Inch: An Ineffable Claim
"The introduction of the thousandth of an inch as a sensible base unit in engineering and machining is generally attributed to Joseph Whitworth who wrote in 1857:
...instead of our engineers and machinists thinking in eighths, sixteenths and thirty-seconds of an inch, it is desirable that they should think and speak in tenths, hundredths, and thousandths..."
"Communication about sizes smaller than a 64th of an inch was subjective and hampered by a degree of ineffability—while phrases such as "scant 64th" or "heavy 64th" were used, their communicative ability was limited by subjectivity. Dimensions and geometry could be controlled to high accuracy, but this was done by comparative methods: comparison against templates or other gauges, feeling the degree of drag of calipers, or simply repeatably cutting, relying on the positioning consistency of jigs, fixtures, and machine slides. Such work could only be done in craft fashion: on-site, by feel, rather than at a distance working from drawings and written notes. Although measurement was certainly a part of the daily routine, the highest-precision aspects of the work were achieved by feel or by gauge, not by measuring (as in determining counts of units). This in turn limited the kinds of process designs that could work, because they limited the degree of separation of concerns that could occur."
Circular Fallacies Lie At The Foundation of Modern 'Science'
"Maxwell claimed that the electrostatic inverse square law could be deduced from Cavendish's spherical condenser experiment. This is true only if the accuracy claims made by Cavendish and Maxwell are ignored, for both used the inverse square law as a premise in their analyses of experimental accuracy. By so doing, they assumed the very law the accuracy of which the Cavendish experiment was supposed to test. This paper attempts to make rational sense of this apparently circular procedure and to relate it to some variants of traditional problems concerning old and new evidence."
From Scientific America:
"Puzzling Measurement of "Big G" Gravitational Constant Ignites Debate"
By Clara Moskowitz on September 18, 2013
"Despite dozens of measurements over more than 200 years, we still don’t know how strong gravity is."
"Gravity, one of the constants of life, not to mention physics, is less than constant when it comes to being measured. Various experiments over the years have come up with perplexingly different values for the strength of the force of gravity, and the latest calculation just adds to the confusion.
The results of a painstaking 10-year experiment to calculate the value of “big G,” the universal gravitational constant, were published this month—and they’re incompatible with the official value of G, which itself comes from a weighted average of various other measurements that are mostly mutually incompatible and diverge by more than 10 times their estimated uncertainties.
The gravitational constant “is one of these things we should know,” says Terry Quinn at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Sévres, France, who led the team behind the latest calculation. “It’s embarrassing to have a fundamental constant that we cannot measure how strong it is.”
In fact, the discrepancy is such a problem that Quinn is organizing a meeting in February at the Royal Society in London to come up with a game plan for resolving the impasse. The meeting’s title—“The Newtonian constant of gravitation, a constant too difficult to measure?”—reveals the general consternation.
Although gravity seems like one of the most salient of nature’s forces in our daily lives, it’s actually by far the weakest, making attempts to calculate its strength an uphill battle. “Two one-kilogram masses that are one meter apart attract each other with a force equivalent to the weight of a few human cells,” says University of Washington physicist Jens Gundlach, who worked on a separate 2000 measurement of big G. “Measuring such small forces on kg-objects to 10-4 or 10-5 precision is just not easy. There are a many effects that could overwhelm gravitational effects, and all of these have to be properly understood and taken into account.”
This inherent difficulty has caused big G to become the only fundamental constant of physics for which the uncertainty of the standard value has risen over time as more and more measurements are made. “Though the measurements are very tough, because G is so much weaker than other laboratory forces, we still, as a community, ought to do better,” says University of Colorado at Boulder physicist James Faller, who conducted a 2010 experiment to calculate big G using pendulums.
The first big G measurement was made in 1798 by British physicist Henry Cavendish using an apparatus called a torsion balance. In this setup, a bar with lead balls at either end was suspended from its middle by a wire. When other lead balls were placed alongside this bar, it rotated according to the strength of the gravitational attraction between the balls, allowing Cavendish to measure the gravitational constant.
Quinn and his colleagues’ experiment was essentially a rehash of Cavendish’s setup using more advanced methods, such as replacing the wire with a wide, thin strip of copper beryllium, which allowed their torsion balance to hold more weight. The team also took the further step of adding a second, independent way of measuring the gravitational attraction: In addition to observing how much the bar twisted, the researchers also conducted experiments with electrodes placed inside the torsion balance that prevented it from twisting. The strength of the voltage needed to prevent the rotation was directly related to the pull of gravity. “A strong point of Quinn’s experiment is the fact that they use two different methods to measure G,” says Stephan Schlamminger of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Md., who led a separate attempt in 2006 to calculate big G using a beam balance setup. “It is difficult to see how the two methods can produce two numbers that are wrong, but yet agree with each other.” "
"The Newtonian constant of gravitation—a constant too difficult to measure? An introduction"
"Why is G so badly known, why have recent experiments given such widely different results and how should we proceed now to resolve the problem? These were the questions addressed at the meeting held on 27 and 28 February 2014 of which papers in this issue of the Philosophical Transactions A are the proceedings."
Scientists Can't Actually Measure Gravity Consistently
"It is one of nature’s most fundamental numbers, but humanity still doesn’t have an accurate value for the gravitational constant. And, bafflingly, scientists’ ability to pinpoint G seems to be getting worse. This week, the world’s leading gravity metrologists are meeting to devise a set of experiments that will try to set the record straight. This will call for precision measurements that are notoriously difficult to make — but it will also require former rivals to work together."
"Independent groups of physicists have been trying to pin down the true value of the constant for decades, but in recent years, rather than converging on an ever more precise figure, the results of their experiments have been diverging, causing the uncertainty in the official figure to rise (see ‘Trouble with Big G’). “There’s no other fundamental constant of physics where we’ve had such a wide dispersion of results,” says Terry Quinn, former director of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris."
"Henry Cavendish took over the endeavor of one John Michell who contrived a method of determining the density of the Earth, by rendering sensible the attraction of small quantities of matter". Michell built what is called a torsion balance. This entails suspended weights and a means for measuring the attraction between the weights. If today you claimed that you could determine the density of the Earth from the attraction between two weights on a torsion balance you would be put into the category of a crank. And yet, the Cavendish Experiment is claimed to be one of the great physics experiments. Later is was seen as the first experiment to determine the value of a factor which physics calls the gravitational constant (G). On reading the Cavendish paper I was struck by two results. The first entails repulsion. Cavendish discovered that "the arm moved backwards, in the same manner that it before move forward". Gravity is not supposed to involve repulsion. The second result was that after heating one of the weights "the effect was so much increased, that the arm was drawn 14 division aside, instead of about three". Heating one of the weights increased the attraction. I had no problem with this. The heating increased the emission of the weight and when this was absorbed by the other weight it increased the attraction. This is also against the physics law of gravity. Despite the fact that the Cavendish Experiment is seen as a great physics experiment the results are ignored because they do not fit in with their measurement and mathematics obsession. So what about this gravitational constant (G) which Cavendish demonstrated was not constant? It's obviously nonsense. But, then, so are all the other constants of physics."
John MIchell: Father of Black Holes & Inspired The Cavendish Experiment
"John Michell (/ˈmɪtʃəl/; 25 December 1724 – 29 April 1793) was an English clergyman and natural philosopher who provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation. Considered "one of the greatest unsung scientists of all time", he was the first person known to propose the existence of black holes in publication, the first to suggest that earthquakes travel in waves, the first to explain how to manufacture artificial magnets, and the first to apply statistics to the study of the cosmos, recognizing that double stars were a product of mutual gravitation. He also invented an apparatus to measure the mass of the Earth. He has been called both the father of seismologyand the father of magnetometry."
"According to one source, "a few specifics of Michell's work really do sound like they are ripped from the pages of a twentieth century astronomy textbook." The American Physical Society(APS) has described Michell as being "so far ahead of his scientific contemporaries that his ideas languished in obscurity, until they were re-invented more than a century later." The APS states that while "he was one of the most brilliant and original scientists of his time, Michell remains virtually unknown today, in part because he did little to develop and promote his own path-breaking ideas."
"Michell devised a torsion balance for measuring the mass of the Earth, but died before he could use it. His instrument passed into the hands of his lifelong friend Henry Cavendish, who first performed in 1798 the experiment now known as the Cavendish Experiment. Placing two 1-kg lead balls at the ends of a six-foot rod, he suspended the rod horizontally by a fibre attached to its centre. Then he placed a massive lead ball beside each of the small ones, causing a gravitational attraction that led the rod to turn clockwise. By measuring the rod’s movement, Cavendish was able to calculate the force exerted by each of the large balls on the 1-kg balls. From these calculations, he was able to provide an accurate estimate of the gravitational constant and of the mass and average density of the Earth. Cavendish gave Michell full credit for his accomplishment."
source: John Michell - Wikipedia
Imagining Black Holes That Magically & Mathematically Turn Out To Be Peer Reviewed
"The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was briefly proposed by astronomical pioneer John Michell in a letter published in 1783–84. Michell's simplistic calculations assumed that such a body might have the same density as the Sun, and concluded that such a body would form when a star's diameter exceeds the Sun's by a factor of 500, and the surface escape velocity exceeds the usual speed of light. Michell correctly noted that such supermassive but non-radiating bodies might be detectable through their gravitational effects on nearby visible bodies. Scholars of the time were initially excited by the proposal that giant but invisible stars might be hiding in plain view, but enthusiasm dampened when the wavelike nature of light became apparent around the early nineteenth century. If light were a wave rather than a "corpuscle", it became unclear what, if any, influence gravity would have on escaping light waves In any case, thanks to modern relativity, we now know that Michell's picture of a light ray shooting directly out from the surface of a supermassive star, being slowed down by the star's gravity, stopping, and then free-falling back to the star's surface, is fundamentally incorrect."
The Problem With The Global Mass
"There probably have been experiments done that yielded wildly different values of G, but as Dean Sessions pointed out, rigorous experiments are hard to do, and lots of things can go wrong! If things could go wrong with the Cavendish experiment, why couldn’t they have gone wrong with whatever experiment Sessions set up in his garage? Replication of important experimental results is a hallmark of science, and the vast, vast majority of G measurements have been very close to one another.
When this point was made on the UM internet forum, the UM team eventually responded with this stunning admission.
The “appreciable effect on the pendulum” stated by Carter in regards to UM experimentation was a faulty test of a continuing experiment that will not be finished until the release of the Universal System – Volume III of the Universal Model.
That’s right. After the publication of Volume 1, the UM team found out that their garage experiment was faulty, but they seem quite confident that by the time they roll out Volume 3, they will get the result they need to save their model.
To be blunt, if the accepted value of G is even remotely accurate, there is no way the UM “hydroplanet” model can be right, or even in the ballpark."
Big G Needs Help!
"Ever since Henry Cavendish first measured Newton's gravitational constant in 1798, the value of "big G" has remained the least accurate of all the fundamental physical constants. Indeed, when the most recent list of recommended values for the fundamental constants was published in 1998, the uncertainty in G had increased by a factor of 10 from the previous list."
Of course this does not mean the world is flat.
Modern science relies on religious adherence to officially sanctioned and peer reviewed dogma.
Only one official explanation may be entertained. All other ideas are ignored as bat shat crazy.
Perhaps all the (somewhat) obvious flaws in mainstream cosmology are the motivation for flat earth based follies in the first place.
The Cavendish experiment is an example of dogma. We are not supposed to, nor are we officially sanctioned to consider other explanations. We are supposed to have faith in the official explanation as if it was the word of God. We are not supposed to consider the medium of gaseous atmosphere that surrounds the apparatus nor are we to consider too that fact that a true vacuum is not something humanity can achieve.
We are also not supposed to consider the Earth's demonstrable magnetic field and the possibility that our Universe is best described as an electrochemical process.
Do you have faith that rocks in magical flight can orbit the Earth?
Are celestial objects like apples and rocks?
Do apples and rocks emit radio waves like celestial objects, lightning strikes and other natural electrical phenomena do?
"Many astronomical objects are not only observable in visible light but also emit radiation at radio wavelengths. Besides observing energetic objects such as pulsars and quasars, radio telescopes are able to "image" most astronomical objects such as galaxies, nebulae, and even radio emissions from planets."
source: Radio telescope - Wikipedia
"Radio telescope is an astronomical instrument consisting of a radio receiver and an antenna system that is used to detect radio-frequency radiation emitted by extraterrestrial sources. Because radio wavelengths are much longer than those of visible light, radio telescopes must be very large in order to attain the resolution of optical telescopes."
source: Radio Telescope
What Are Asteroids, Exactly?
Flying chunks of spinning rock or some kind of electromagnetic type of phenomena?
Like plasma or ionized gas?
Apparently Plasma Can Reflect Radar
"Methods of generating a -planar plasma are investigated. The application is a reflector for radar waves. The use of the plasma reflector could
allow electronic beam steering at frequencies above what is ganerally viable for phased arrays. Three aspects of the planar plasma production are investigated; the localization of the plasma, the main plasma production, and the long term viability of the system. Possible applications include ship based antennae at X-Band, and space based antennae at 60 C'-Hz."
Plasma can supposedly be used to refract radar and this is supposed to have military use.
Mythical Mars & Nikola Tesla
"“Apart from love and religion there happened the other day to Mr. Tesla the most momentous experience that has ever visited a human being on this earth. As he sat beside his instrument on the hillside in Colorado, in the deep silence of that austere, inspiring region, where you plant your feel in gold and your head brushes the constellations — as he sat there one evening, alone, his attention, exquisitively alive at that juncture, was arrested by a faint sound from the receiver — three fairy taps, one after the other, at a fixed interval. What man who has ever lived on this earth would not envy Tesla that moment! Never before since the globe first swung into form had that sound been heard. Those three soft impulses, reflected from the sensitive disc of the receiver, had not proceeded from any earthly source. The force which propelled them, the measure which regarded them, the significance they were meant to convey, had their origin in no mind native to this planet.
They were sent, those marvelous signals, by a human being living and thinking so far away from us, both in space and in condition, that we can only accept him as a fact, not comprehend him as a phenomenon. Traveling with the speed of light, they must have been dispatched but a few moments before Tesla, in Colorado, received them. But they came fromj (sic) some Tesla on the planet Mars!
“This was two years ago; it has just been made public. Thereupon all the tame beasts with long ears in the stables of science begin waving those ears vigorously and braying forth indignant scoffs and denials. Yes, so has it ever been, and will be. How eagerly will every so-called son of science who has the power of absorbing, but not of assimilating or of creating, rush to trample under his hoofs the man of genius, imagination and wisdom who commits the crime of disclosing to them the means of their own uplifting and humanization! “Charlatan-fraud-fool!” they cry; and fetch out their musty little books of statistics and logarithms to show why it cannot be anything else but a humbug and delusion. Well, let us leave them trampling and braying, and consider for a moment what has occurred.”
THE REAL QUESTION.
The real question, however, is how will these interplanetary communications be conducted; what the medium to be employed; with such interplanetary communication as is proposed, electricity will doubtless be revealed as but the fractional aspect of a force possessing a vastly greater scope and power than have any of the phenomena of our experiments yet revealed to us. The energy of man’s brain, if properly applied, may suffice to propogate (sic) waves of meaning from one end of the universe to the other, and science will unquestionably aid.
Nicola (sic) Tesla promises us communication with our terrestrial neighbors. How, when and where? remain to be seen."
Mars is Radioactively Calling To You
"Nikola Tesla spent 50 years of his life trying to find a way to communicate with Mars. Tesla believed that Mars was inhabited with intelligent Martians and had a civilization, as evidence by the canals of the red planet -Mars, which could be seen by telescope. This belief about Martians was common at the time when Tesla was alive. This novel "To Mars with Tesla" illustrated Tesla's intention to communicate with Mars. This is science fiction.
Nikola Tesla contributed to the exploration of cosmos by discovering the first wireless robot in 1898 which he demonstrated in Madison Square Garden. This was the first radio guided robot. Tesla discovered remote control, so important to send signals to satellites and spaceship around the globe, to guide their movement. Tesla discovered cosmic radio waves in his laboratory in Colorado Springs, 1899. Cosmic radio waves are important for the analysis of planetary matter and the composition of stars/planets, which emit those cosmic waves. Today there are numerous installations in the world made by the United States, Russia, Japan, etc. which are analyzing cosmic radio waves.
Tesla is one of the first scientists in the world who used the ionosphere for scientific purposes (see BBC film: "Masters of the Ionosphere"). The ionosphere is used for radio communications around the globe. The HAARP project is based on Tesla's principles. When Tesla built the Wardenclyffe Tower in Shoreham, Long Island, he included the "Tesla Tower" function for communication with Mars"
"Nikola Tesla is discoverer of radio and remote control, so important for computer guided spaceships from mission control centers. Nikola Tesla is the father of radio astronomy, in his laboratory in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 1899 he recorded cosmic radio waves. The cosmic radio waves were emitted from hydroxyl molecules of interstellar gas clouds and the envelopes of Red Giant Stars. They are very important for the exploration of cosmos. The BBC film Masters of the Ionosphere features Nikola Tesla as the first scientist who utilized the ionosphere for the scientific purposes. The ionosphere is the ionic-charged part of the atmosphere, important for the transmission of radio waves. Nikola Tesla signaled Mars by radio, he spent fifty years of his life to establish communications among of the planets by means of radio."
"Plasma antennae neatly overcome these problems, physicist Igor Alexeff of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, reported this week at the American Physical Society's annual meeting of its Division of Plasma Physics in Orlando, Florida. The antennae work just like their metal counterparts, except that currents flow through ionized gas, explains Theodore Anderson, Alexeff's collaborator and a physicist at the University of Tennessee, who conceived of the concept in the mid-1990s as a way to allow submarines to communicate more easily while submerged. Because the antennae, which resemble fluorescent lighting tubes, can steer radio beams, they can function just like phased metal arrays but in much smaller packages.
The devices respond to signals only at or below their operating frequency, so the high-frequency signals typically used for jamming simply pass through with no effect, Anderson says. The antennae also can be nested inside one another to serve many radio frequencies simultaneously without interference. And they can operate on a pulsed electrical current without losing signal clarity, which can reduce power requirements 1000-fold, says Anderson, whose Haleakala R&D Inc. in Brookfield, Massachusetts, is attempting to commercialize the technology."
Plasma is for more than just screens.
"When electromagnetic waves, such as radar signals, propagate into a conductive plasma, ions and electrons are displaced as a result of the time varying electric and magnetic fields. ... A plasma will simply reflect radio waves below a certain frequency"
source: Plasma stealth - Wikipedia
The Secret of Colorado Springs:
"In 1891, Nikola Tesla gave a lecture for the members of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York City, where he made a striking demonstration. In each hand he held a gas discharge tube, an early version of the modern fluorescent bulb. The tubes were not connected to any wires, but nonetheless they glowed brightly during his demonstration. Tesla explained to the awestruck attendees that the electricity was being transmitted through the air by the pair of metal sheets which sandwiched the stage. He went on to speculate how one might increase the scale of this effect to transmit wireless power and information over a broad area, perhaps even the entire Earth. As was often the case, Tesla’s audience was engrossed but bewildered."
"Back at his makeshift laboratory at Pike’s Peak in Colorado Springs, the eccentric scientist continued to wring the secrets out of electromagnetism to further explore this possibility. He rigged his equipment with the intent to produce the first lightning-scale electrical discharges ever accomplished by mankind, a feat which would allow him to test many of his theories about the conductivity of the Earth and the sky. For this purpose he erected a 142-foot mast on his laboratory roof, with a copper sphere on the tip. The tower’s substantial wiring was then routed through an exceptionally large high-voltage Tesla coil in the laboratory below. On the night of his experiment, following a one-second test charge which momentarily set the night alight with an eerie blue hum, Tesla ordered his assistant to fully electrify the tower.
Though his notes do not specifically say so, one can only surmise that Tesla stood at Pike’s Peak and cackled diabolically as the night sky over Colorado was cracked by the man-made lightning machine. Colossal bolts of electricity arced hundreds of feet from the tower’s top to lick the landscape. A curious blue corona soon enveloped the crackling equipment. Millions of volts charged the atmosphere for several moments, but the awesome display ended abruptly when the power suddenly failed. All of the windows throughout Colorado Springs went dark as the local power station’s industrial-sized generator collapsed under the strain. But amidst such dramatic discharges, Tesla confirmed that the Earth itself could be used as an electrical conductor, and verified some of his suspicions regarding the conductivity of the ionosphere. In later tests, he recorded success in an attempt to illuminate light bulbs from afar, though the exact conditions of these experiments have been lost to obscurity. In any case, Tesla became convinced that his dream of world-wide wireless electricity was feasible."
Ready For An Electric Neurological Bugaloo?
"Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (13 December 1867 - 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist who has been called "the first space scientist" and "the father of plasma experiments in the laboratory and space"  . He is perhaps most well-known for his scientific work on the aurora using a terrella (a magnetized globe), and as inventor of an electromagnetic cannon, and, a method of electrically producing artificial fertilizer. He also became a full professor of physics at the University of Oslo at the age of 31.
Birkeland also had astrophysical research published on cathode rays, the Zodiacal lights, comets, the Sun and sunspots, the origin of planets and their satellites, the Earth's magnetism
Some of Birkeland's other contributions to science included: • Derived the general expression for the Poynting vector • Gave the first general solution to Maxwell's equations• Pioneered the field of charged-particle beams • Utilized the concept of "longitudinal mass" • Constructed the first foil diodes • Pioneered the field of visible-light photography of electrical discharges • Advocated charged-particle propulsion engines for space travel • Created Norsk Hydro's nitrogen-fertilizer industry (the Birkeland-Eyde method for production of potassium nitrate) • Invented an electromagnetic rail gun capable of firing a 10-kg projectile • Established Birkeland's Firearms company • Anticipated cosmic rays (discovered in 1911) with his calculations involving energies of several billion electron volts • Held patents on the electromagnetic cannon, electric blankets, solid margarine, and hearing aids.
In 1969 when field-align currents had been identified in the Earth's atmosphere, they were named in his honor: Birkeland currents."
"After encouragement from his maths teacher encouraged, Birkeland bought a bar magnetic, and read about William Gilbert's (1544-1603) study of the Earth's magnetism, and his terrellamade from naturally magnetized lodestone. Gilbert surmised that the Earth was like a bar magnet whose magnetism was somehow related to electricity.
He organized several expeditions to Norway's high-latitude regions where he established a network of observatories under the auroral regions to collect magnetic field data. The results of the Norwegian Polar Expedition conducted from 1899 to 1900 contained the first determination of the global pattern of electric currents in the polar region from ground magnetic field measurements. The discovery of X-rays inspired Birkeland to develop vacuum chambers to study the influence of magnets on cathode rays. An example of one of his experiments is depicted on the left front of the bank note. It shows a magnetized terrella, simulating the Earth, suspended in an evacuated box. Birkeland noticed that an electron beam directed toward the terrella was guided toward the magnetic poles and produced rings of light around the poles and concluded that the aurora could be produced in a similar way. He developed a theory in which energetic electrons were ejected from sunspots on the solar surface, directed to the Earth, and guided to the Earth's polar regions by the geomagnetic field where they produced the visible aurora. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize no less than seven times."
Do Legendary Experiments Live Up To Hype?
Cavendish experiments done in supposed vacuum chambers do not quite live up to advertising hype. Nature abhors a vacuum and the imagined infinite vacuum of space is a huge problem for the infinitesimally minded so-called scientists.
Modern cosmology has insane faith in the concept that light and gravity require no medium*.
(* or some kind of quasi reality quantum foam nonsense: apparently clearly communicated concepts are not considered very scientific.)
We are also supposed to ignore the fact that the Cavendish Experiment does not take into account the very real land masses the would surround the laboratory.
The Le Sage theory of gravity gives us an idea about how the atmosphere could be responsible for the results of this legendary exercise.
Exploring The Singularity Vacuum: Speaking About Imagined Things As If They Were True