image source: File:Scriptorium-monk-at-work.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
Related links: Scriptorium - Wikipedia • Byblos - Wikipedia • "Isis in papyrus swamp suckling Horus" • papyrus | Origin and meaning of papyrus by Online Etymology Dictionary • byblos | Origin and meaning of the name byblos by Online Etymology ... • The Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos: A Commentary
Can history be forged?
"Active in the Florentine art circles at the beginning of the Renaissance, patrons at the time were more inclined to collect classical sculptures that were being rediscovered, rather than buying offerings by living artists. Struggling to support himself, Michelangelo got involved in an art forgery, selling a fake antiquity he had sculpted and then aged artificially."
The Sleeping Cupid Canard
"The Cupid was a sculpture created by Renaissance artist Michelangelo, which he artificially aged to make it look like an antique on the advice of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. It was this sculpture which first brought him to the attention of patrons in Rome. The work is now lost. In 1496, Michelangelo made a sleeping cupid figure and treated it with acidic earth to make it seem ancient. He then sold it to a dealer, Baldassare del Milanese, who in turn sold it to Cardinal Riario of San Giorgio who later learned of the fraud and demanded his money back. However, Michelangelo was permitted to keep his share of the money. When Michelangelo offered to take the sculpture back from Baldassarre, the latter refused, saying he would rather destroy it. The Cupid was a significant work in establishing the reputation of the young Michelangelo, who was about 20 years old at the time. The sculpture was later donated by Cesare Borgia to Isabella d'Este, and was probably collected by Charles I of England when all the Gonzaga collections were bought and taken to London in the seventeenth century. In 1698, the Cupid was probably destroyed in the great fire in the Palace of Whitehall, London."
source: Cupid (Michelangelo) - Wikipedia
"canard (n.) "absurd or fabricated story intended as an imposition... to cheat..."
"canard (n.) "absurd or fabricated story intended as an imposition," 1851, perhaps 1843, from French canard "a hoax," literally "a duck" (from Old French quanart, probably echoic of a duck's quack); said by Littré to be from the phrase vendre un canard à moitié "to half-sell a duck," thus, perhaps from some long-forgotten joke, "to cheat."
"imposition (n.) late 14c., "a tax, duty, tribute,"
"imposition (n.) late 14c., "a tax, duty, tribute," from Old French imposicion "tax, duty; a fixing" (early 14c.), from Latin impositionem (nominative impositio) "a laying on," noun of action from past participle stem of imponere "to place upon," from assimilated form of in "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). Sense of "the act of putting (something) on (something else)" is from 1590s. Meaning "an act or instance of imposing" (on someone) first recorded 1630s, a noun of action from impose, which is unrelated to the earlier word."
Historical research and recovery, "backed by the wealth of Cosimo de' Medici".
"I now turn to the person to whom the recovery of Latin manuscripts in the early part of the fifteenth century was chiefly due, viz. Niccolò Niccoli (1363-1437). Many modern writers speak of him as a copyist of manuscripts. This description is very inadequate. After the death of Coluccio he became the central figure in the humanistic movement, and the first organizer of research on a large-scale. He was himself not a rich man, but he was backed by the wealth of Cosimo de' Medici, who paid all his bills, and put at his service the agents of his bank in various countries. Niccolò seldom left Florence, and never went far, but all manuscripts made their way to him, and he formed a great collection of manuscripts, both Greek and Latin, which after his death passed to St. Marco, and are now in the Laurentian and National. Libraries in Florence. In each of them the owner's name is inscribed."
History is a tool used by government.
History is used to craft human identity products. History provides foundation for government building culture.
"The transmission of the Greek Classics to Latin Western Europe during the Middle Ages was key factor in the development of intellectual life in Western Europe. Interest in Greek texts and their availability was scarce in the Latin West during the earlier Middle Ages, but as traffic to the East increased so did Western scholarship."
"Classical Greek philosophy consisted of various original works ranging from those from Ancient Greece (e.g. Aristotle) to those Greco-Roman scholars in the classical Roman Empire (e.g. Ptolemy). Though these works were originally written in Greek, for centuries the language of scholarship in the Mediterranean region, many were translated into Syriac, Arabic, and Persian during the Middle Ages and the original Greek versions were often lost. As the Arab caliphates absorbed Greek/Roman knowledge, the medieval Islamic world gradually became the dominant intellectual center in the Mediterranean region. Subsequent efforts at Latin translations of Arab scholarship, including the Greek classics, began what would later be known as the Renaissance in the West. With increasing Western presence in the East due to the Crusades, and the gradual collapse of the Byzantine Empire during the later Middle Ages, many Byzantine Greek scholars fled to Western Europe bringing with them many original Greek manuscripts, and providing impetus for Greek-language education in the West and further translation efforts of Greek scholarship into Latin. The line between Greek scholarship and Arab scholarship in Western Europe was very blurred during the Middle Ages and the early Modern Period. Westerners were often biased toward giving credit for knowledge they received to the Greeks, who were perceived as Christians, rather than the Arab Muslims. Thus, depending of context, the concept of the transmission of Greek Classics is often used to refer to the collective knowledge that was obtained from the Arab and Byzantine Empires, regardless of where the knowledge actually originated."
"As knowledge of declined in the west with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, so did knowledge of the Greek texts, many of which had remained without a Latin translation. The fragile nature of papyrus, as a writing medium, meant that older texts not copied onto expensive parchment would eventually crumble and be lost. After the Fourth Crusade (1202-4) and the Sack of Constantinople (1204), scholars such as William of Moerbeke gained access to the original Greek texts of scientists and philosophers, including Aristotle, Archimedes, Hero of Alexandria and Proclus, that had been preserved in the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and translated them directly into Latin. The final decline and collapse of the Byzantine empire in the fifteenth century heightened contact between its scholars and those of the west. Translation into Latin of the full range of Greek classics ensued, including the historians, poets, playwrights and non-Aristotelian philosophers. Manuel Chrysoloras (c. 1355 – 1415) translated portions of Homer and Plato. Guarino da Verona (1370 – 1460) translated Strabo and Plutarch. Poggio Bracciolini (1380 – 1459) translated Xenophon, Lucan and Diodorus. Francesco Filelfo (1398 – 1481) translated portions of Plutarch, Xenophon and Lysias. Lorenzo Valla (1407 – 1457) translated Thucydides and Herodotus. Marsilio Ficino (1433 – 1499) and his Platonic Academy translated Plato. Poliziano (1454 – 1494) translated Herodian and portions of Epictetus and Plutarch. Regiomontanus and George of Trebizond translated Ptolemy's Almagest. Important patrons were Basilios Bessarion (1403 – 1472) and Pope Nicholas V (1397 – 1455)."
image and quote source: Transmission of the Greek Classics - Wikipedia
How Byzantium saved and transmitted classic art and the Greek classics
via: Quidam Graecus
"epistemology (n.) "theory of knowledge," 1856, coined by Scottish philosopher James F. Ferrier (1808-1864) from Greek episteme "knowledge, acquaintance with (something), skill, experience," from Ionic Greek epistasthai "know how to do, understand," literally "overstand," from epi"over, near" (see epi-) + histasthai "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." The scientific (as opposed to philosophical) study of the roots and paths of knowledge is epistemics (1969). Related: Epistemological; epistemologically."
"etymology (n.) ...analysis of a word to find its true origin,"