A Proper Gander At Propaganda


PLEASE NOTE: This is not a conspiracy theory blog.

This website exists to serve as public resource for reverse imagineering world-wide culture, one that takes a critical look at the numerous artifacts and other types of relics that represent our shared collective international heritage. This blog is dedicated to examining social engineering and the use of tax funded governmental propaganda, and the mainstream media, as international human resource management tools.

About The AA Morris Proper Gander At Propaganda Podcast: Coming to you from one of the suburban metropolitan melting pots of international culture, outside of one of the multimedia capitals of the world, New York City, the Proper Gander at Propaganda podcast is meant to be a filter free look at our shared international cultural heritage, our shared social media infused and obsessed present, and what our children and their children could be looking forward to. This link will bring you to the podcast page of this website, with embedded squarespace audio: link: http://www.aamorris.net/podcast/

Thank you for taking the time to read this,

AA "The Proper Gander" Morris

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Web addresses: www.aamorris.net or www.aamorris.com

Podcast Episode 129: Retrograde Motion Does Not Exist, Part Three – The Martian Hex


AA Morris Presents: The Proper Gander At Propaganda Podcast


image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_motion_2018.png

Podcast Episode 129: Retrograde Motion Does Not Exist, Part Three – The Martian Hex

Outer space is not a real place best described in three dimensional terms.




Arts & Ideas - William Fleming - Google Books



The 20th Century Promise Still Unfulfilled:

"Whatever you feel about the man, the fact is that 60 years after those first broadcasts people still refer to the von Braun Paradigm. Put simply, it’s the steps the engineer set out to take mankind into space, with a shuttle and a space station, followed by missions to the Moon and Mars."

"The man who designed the V2 rocket also helped America reach the Moon. And he had a plan for deeper space exploration that was ahead of its time, it appears."

"Surrounded by beautifully sculpted spacecraft models and futuristic artwork, Wernher von Braun addressed the viewer, talking through his plan for a practical passenger rocket achievable, he claimed, within 10 years. The programme included spellbinding dramatic animations and a suspenseful orchestral score, full-sized spacesuits and detailed diagrams."

source: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151204-wernher-von-brauns-bold-plan-for-space-exploration

  "But if we can't observe the effects of our motion directly, how are we to tell whether we are moving at all?"

"Very early on, it was realized that if the Earth moved around the Sun the positions of the stars would change, due to stellar parallax. And in fact, many observers in the late 1500's claimed to have actually observed such changes; but the much more accurate observations of Tycho Brahe showed that there was no change in stellar positions which could be attributed to anything other than observational errors; and given the lack of any reliable observations of stellar parallax, Tycho rejected the idea that the Earth moved. The exact reason he did so isn't entirely clear (though it may have had to do with erroneous interpretations of the apparent size of stars of different brightness), but we can be certain that if he had observed stellar parallax, he would have adopted the Copernican view of things."

source: https://cseligman.com/text/history/bradley.htm


image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minute_and_second_of_arc

"Bradley's Efforts to Observe Stellar Parallax"

     "The star of greatest importance at this point in the story is γ (gamma) Draconis, also known as Eltanin, or Etamin (it is this sort of confusion in common names that led Bayer to adopt Greek letters for enumerating the stars), which was soon found to have an alteration in its position similar to that of Polaris. (The reason Eltanin/Etamin was chosen for this purpose is that it passes nearly overhead in London, and by observing it as it passed near the zenith on different dates the effects of atmospheric refraction, which are zero at the zenith, could be ignored.) In 1725 James Bradley, who held a position at Oxford as astronomer and natural philosopher, began observations of γ Draconis at the home of a friend, Samuel Molyneux. Using a telescope attached to a chimney so that it pointed nearly vertically, he changed the position of the telescope very slightly, and very accurately measured its change in position using a screw and plumb-line; and over the course of a year or so found that the star did indeed vary in position during the course of the year by 40 arc-seconds, just like Polaris. But, exactly like Polaris, the change in motion was in the wrong direction for stellar parallax, as shown in the following diagram..."

source: https://cseligman.com/text/history/bradley.htm

"A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree."

"Since one degree is1/360 of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is 1/21600 of a turn. A minute of arc is π/10800 of a radian. A second of arc, arcsecond (arcsec), or arc second is 1/60 of an arcminute, 1/3600 of a degree, 1/1296000 of a turn, and π/648000(about1/206265) of a radian. These units originated in Babylonian astronomy as sexagesimal subdivisions of the degree; they are used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomy, optometry, ophthalmology, optics, navigation, land surveying, and marksmanship."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minute_and_second_of_arc


"When angles are as (small) as this we are inclined to agree with Tycho Brahe when he said that “ Angles of Parallax exist only in the minds of the observers; they are due to instrumental and personal errors.”

source: https://ia902705.us.archive.org/12/items/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich/kingsdethronedhi00hickrich.pdf

The Big Dipper & Sidereal Time

"A fixture of the northern sky, the Big and Little Dippers swing around the north star Polaris like riders on a Ferris wheel. They go full circle around Polaris once a day – or once every 23 hours and 56 minutes. If you live at temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, simply look northward and chances are that you’ll see the Big Dipper in your nighttime sky. It looks just like its namesake. Once you’ve found the Big Dipper, it’s only a hop, skip and jump to Polaris and the Little Dipper.If you’re in the northern U.S., Canada or at a similar latitude, the Big Dipper is circumpolar for you – always above the horizon. These images show the Dipper’s location at roughly 9 p.m. local time April 20 (top), July 20 (west or left), October 20 (bottom) and January 20 (east or right). Just remember “spring up and fall down” for the Dipper’s appearance in our northern sky. It ascends in the northeast on spring evenings, and descends in the northwest on fall evenings."

source: http://earthsky.org/favorite-star-patterns/big-and-little-dippers-highlight-northern-sky





James Bradley: English astronomer and priest, served as Astronomer Royal

"James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley. He is best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–1728), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–1748). These discoveries were called "the most brilliant and useful of the century" by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, historian of astronomy, mathematical astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory, in his history of astronomy in the 18th century (1821), because "It is to these two discoveries by Bradley that we owe the exactness of modern astronomy. .... This double service assures to their discoverer the most distinguished place (after Hipparchus and Kepler) above the greatest astronomers of all ages and all countries."

"In 1722 Bradley measured the angular diameter of Venus with a large aerial telescope with an objective focal length of 212 ft (65 m). Bradley's discovery of the aberration of light was made while attempting to detect stellar parallax. Bradley worked with Samuel Molyneux until Molyneux's death in 1728, trying to measure the parallax of Gamma Draconis. This stellar parallax ought to have shown up, if it existed at all, as a small annual cyclical motion of the apparent position of the star. However, while Bradley and Molyneux did not find the expected apparent motion due to parallax, they found instead a different and unexplained annual cyclical motion. Shortly after Molyneux's death, Bradley realised that this was caused by what is now known as the aberration of light."

"The basis on which Bradley distinguished the annual motion actually observed from the expected motion due to parallax, was that its annual timetable was different. Calculation showed that if there had been any appreciable motion due to parallax, then the star should have reached its most southerly apparent position in December, and its most northerly apparent position in June. What Bradley found instead was an apparent motion that reached its most southerly point in March, and its most northerly point in September; and that could not be accounted for by parallax: the cause of a motion with the pattern actually seen was at first obscure. A story has often been told, probably apocryphally, that the solution to the problem eventually occurred to Bradley while he was in a sailing-boat on the River Thames. He noticed that when the boat turned about, a small flag at the top of the mast (a telltale) changed its direction, even though the wind had not changed; the only thing that had changed was the direction and speed of the boat. Bradley worked out the consequences of supposing that the direction and speed of the earth in its orbit, combined with a consistent speed of light from the star, might cause the apparent changes of stellar position that he observed. He found that this fitted the observations well, and also gave an estimate for the speed of light, and showed that the stellar parallax, if any, with extremes in June and December, was far too small to measure at the precision available to Bradley. (The smallness of any parallax, compared with expectations, also showed that the stars must be many times more distant from the Earth than anybody had previously believed.) This discovery of what became known as the aberration of light was, for all realistic purposes, conclusive evidence for the movement of the Earth, and hence for the correctness of Aristarchus' and Kepler's theories; it was announced to the Royal Society in January 1729 (Phil. Trans. xxxv. 637). The theory of the aberration also gave Bradley a means to improve on the accuracy of the previous estimate of the speed of light, which had previously been estimated by the work of Ole Rømer and others. The earliest observations upon which the discovery of the aberration was founded were made at Molyneux's house on Kew Green, and were continued at the house of Bradley's uncle James Pound in Wanstead, Essex. After publication of his work on the aberration, Bradley continued to observe, to develop and check his second major discovery, the nutation of the Earth's axis, but he did not announce this in print until 14 February 1748 (Phil. Trans. xlv. I), when he had tested its reality by minute observations during an entire revolution (18.6 years) of the moon's nodes. The publication of Bradley's observations was delayed by disputes about their ownership; but they were finally issued by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, in two folio volumes (1798, 1805). The insight and industry of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel were, however, needed for the development of their fundamental importance."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley

see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidereal_time






image source: (assuming I recall correctly) AA Morris


image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Draconis

Compare to: Bradley's observations of γ Draconis and 35 Camelopardalis as reduced by Busch to the year 1730.

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberration_of_light#/media/File:Bradley%27s_observations_of_γ_Draconis_and_35_Camelopardalis_as_reduced_by_Busch.jpg

The Eye of The Dragon Revealed:

"Gamma Draconis (γ Draconis, abbreviated Gamma Dra, γ Dra), also named Eltanin, is a star in the northern constellation of Draco. Contrary to its gamma-designation (historically third-ranked), it is the brightest star in Draco at magnitude 2.4, outshining Rastaban (Beta Draconis) by nearly half a magnitude. In 1.5 million years, Eltanin will pass within 28 light years of Earth. For a period, if its current absolute magnitude does not change, it will be the brightest star in the night sky, nearly as bright as Sirius is at present. It is by far the brightest star having a zenith above a point near London (and thus Leipzig, Dusseldorf, Astana and Calgary) which occurs near midnight (24:00h) at London which led to its vaunting in these places as the "zenith star" or "London zenith star". From other locations it has a nearby bright, well-known star in Lyra in night sky; finding Vega, Eltanin is the red star just north-northwest of it. Eltanin is at a distance of 154.3 light-years (47.3 parsecs) from the Sun, as determined by parallaxmeasurements from the Hipparcos astrometry satellite."

"In 1728, while unsuccessfully attempting to measure the parallax of this star, James Bradley discovered the aberration of light resulting from the movement of the Earth. Bradley's discovery confirmed Copernicus' theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun."

It is by far the brightest star having a zenith above a point near London (and thus Leipzig, Dusseldorf, Astana and Calgary) which occurs near midnight (24:00h) at London which led to its vaunting in these places as the "zenith star" or "London zenith star". From other locations it has a nearby bright, well-known star in Lyra in night sky; finding Vega, Eltanin is the red star just north-northwest of it." 

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Draconis



Zenith Defined:

"The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location. The opposite direction, i.e. the direction in which gravity pulls, is toward the nadir. The zenith is the "highest" point on the celestial sphere."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenith


Planetary Exploitation Exposed: An Invisible Path

"The Naked-eye Planets in Motion  The Sun and the five brightest naked-eye planets are shown here in continuous motion from January 2000 to December 2015 (a star map identifying the constellations is shown below). The 'invisible path' along which the Sun appears to move - and which the Moon and planets follow very closely - is known as the ecliptic (indicated by the curved yellow line in the star map below). Note from the animation how the inferior planets (Mercury and Venus) always remain within a limited angular distance of the Sun, their positions swiftly alternating between East and West of it (i.e. between evening and morning appearances). The superior planets (i.e. from Mars outwards) move well clear of the Sun (up to 180º away) and describe looping motions at angular speeds which are determined by the planet's orbital distance from the Sun; hence Mars moves steadily through the constellations whilst Saturn seems to move at a snail's pace. The overlay grid marks intervals of 10º in celestial longitude and latitude. The animation was produced (and is kindly made available for public use) by David Colarusso (note that the animation requires the Shockwave Flash Player plug-in to display correctly)."

source: http://www.nakedeyeplanets.com/movements.htm

The Equation of Time Defined:

"The equation of time describes the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time. The word equation is used in the medieval sense of "reconcile a difference". The two times that differ are the apparent solar time, which directly tracks the diurnal motion of the Sun, and mean solar time, which tracks a theoretical mean Sun with noons 24 hours apart. Apparent solar time can be obtained by measurement of the current position (hour angle) of the Sun, as indicated (with limited accuracy) by a sundial. Mean solar time, for the same place, would be the time indicated by a steady clock set so that over the year its differences from apparent solar time would resolve to zero. The equation of time is the east or west component of the analemma, a curve representing the angular offset of the Sun from its mean position on the celestial sphere as viewed from Earth. The equation of time values for each day of the year, compiled by astronomical observatories, were widely listed in almanacs and ephemerides."

"During a year the equation of time varies as shown on the graph; its change from one year to the next is slight. Apparent time, and the sundial, can be ahead (fast) by as much as 16 min 33 s (around 3 November), or behind (slow) by as much as 14 min 6 s (around 12 February). The equation of time has zeros near 15 April, 13 June, 1 September and 25 December. Ignoring very slow changes in the Earth's orbit and rotation, these events are repeated at the same times every tropical year. However, due to the non-integer number of days in a year, these dates can vary by a day or so from year to year."

"The graph of the equation of time is closely approximated by the sum of two sine curves, one with a period of a year and one with a period of half a year. The curves reflect two astronomical effects, each causing a different non-uniformity in the apparent daily motion of the Sun relative to the stars: the obliquity of the ecliptic (the plane of the Earth's annual orbital motion around the Sun), which is inclined by about 23.44 degrees relative to the plane of the Earth's equator; and the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit around the Sun, which is about 0.0167. The equation of time is constant only for a planet with zero axial tilt and zero orbital eccentricity. On Mars the difference between sundial time and clock time can be as much as 50 minutes, due to the considerably greater eccentricity of its orbit. The planet Uranus, which has an extremely large axial tilt, has an equation of time that makes its days start and finish several hours earlier or later depending on where it is in its orbit."




The Lunar Standstill Defined:

"At a major lunar standstill, which takes place every 18.6 years, the Moon's range of declination, and consequently its range of azimuth at moonrise and moonset, reaches a maximum. As a result, viewed from middle latitudes, the Moon's altitude at upper culmination (the daily moment when the object appears to contact the observer's meridian) changes in just two weeks – from high in the sky to low over the horizon. Similarly, its azimuth at moonrise changes from northeast to southeast and at moonset from northwest to southwest."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_standstill



The "Speed of Light"

"This would give light a velocity of about 220,000 kilometres per second in SI units, about 26% lower than the true value of 299,792.458 km/s."

"Ole Rømer (1644–1710) was already a statesman in his native Denmark some time after his discovery of the speed of light (1676). The engraving is probably posthumous. Rømer's determination of the speed of light was the demonstration in 1676 that light has a finite speed, and so does not travel instantaneously. The discovery is usually attributed to Danish astronomer Ole Rømer (1644–1710),[note 1] who was working at the Royal Observatory in Paris at the time. By timing the eclipses of the Jupiter moon Io, Rømer estimated that light would take about 22 minutes to travel a distance equal to the diameter of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This would give light a velocity of about 220,000 kilometres per second in SI units, about 26% lower than the true value of 299,792.458 km/s."

"Rømer's theory was controversial at the time he announced it, and he never convinced the director of the Paris Observatory, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, to fully accept it. However, it quickly gained support among other natural philosophers of the period, such as Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton. It was finally confirmed nearly two decades after Rømer's death, with the explanation in 1729 of stellar aberration by the English astronomer James Bradley."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C3%B8mer%27s_determination_of_the_speed_of_light

see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe#The_Tychonic_cosmological_model

"The first fellows of the Royal Society, as it is now known, were followers of Sir Francis Bacon, a 17th-century statesman and philosopher who ..."

source: https://www.economist.com/britain/2010/01/07/the-establishment-of-science



Sir Francis Bacon Agreed With The Geocentric Model of Existence

"Even Sir Francis Bacon (1567-1631) with all his modernity of thought, failed in this instance to recognize the value of the new idea and, despite his interest in Galileo's discoveries, harked back to the time-honored objections. At first mild in his opposition, he later became emphatically opposed to it. In the Advancement of Learning (1604), he speaks of it as a possible explanation of the celestial phenomena according to astronomy but as contrary to natural philosophy. Some fifteen years later in the Novum Organon, he asserts that the assumption of the earth's movement cannot be allowed; for, as he says in his Thema Cœli, at that time he considered the opinion that the earth is stationary the truer one. Finally, in his De Augmentis Scientiarum (1622-1623) he speaks of the old notions of the solidity of the heavens, etc., and adds, "It is the absurdity of these opinions that has driven men to the diurnal motion; which I am convinced is most false." He gives his reasons in the Descriptio Globi Intellectualis[305] (ch. 5-6): "In favor of the earth [as the center of the world] we have the evidence of our sight, and an inveterate opinion; and most of all this, that as dense bodies are contracted into a narrow compass, and rare bodies are widely diffused (and the area of every circle is contracted to the center) it seems to follow almost of necessity that the narrow space about the middle of the world be set down as the proper and peculiar place for dense bodies." The sun's claims to such a situation are satisfied through having two satellites of its own, Venus and Mercury. Copernicus's scheme is inconvenient; it overloads the earth with a triple motion; it creates a difficulty by separating the sun from the number of the planets with which it has much in common; and the "introduction of so much immobility into nature ... and making the moon revolve around the earth in an epicycle, and some other assumptions of his are the speculations of one who cares not what fictions he introduces into nature, provided his calculations answer." The total absence of all reference to the Scriptures is the unique and refreshing part of Bacon's thought."

source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/35744/35744-h/35744-h.htm

Celestial Sphere Defined:

"In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth. All objects in the sky can be conceived as being projected upon the inner surface of the celestial sphere, which may be centered on Earth or the observer. If centered on the observer, half of the sphere would resemble a hemispherical screen over the observing location. The celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy, allowing astronomers to specify the apparent positions of objects in the sky if their distances are unknown or irrelevant."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celestial_sphere

Geocentric Model:

"As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth. In the planetarium projector, motors and gears provide uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. One motor moves the planet projector around in a big circle, which in this case is the deferent, and another gear or motor takes the place of the epicycle."

source: http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/EveningStar/Unit2/unit2_sub1.htm

see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocentric_model

What did Galileo really see?

"Venus (and also Mercury) is not visible from Earth when it is full, since at that time it is at superior conjunction, rising and setting concomitantly with the Sun and hence lost in the Sun's glare."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observations_and_explorations_of_Venus

see also: The Birth of a New Physics - I. Bernard Cohen - Google Books


Albert Einstein Claims:

"According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; ..."

"Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it."

source: Einstein: "Ether and Relativity"


"Most famous "failed" experiment"

"The Experiments on the relative motion of the earth and ether have been completed and the result decidedly negative. The expected deviation of the interference fringes from the zero should have been 0.40 of a fringe – the maximum displacement was 0.02 and the average much less than 0.01 – and then not in the right place. As displacement is proportional to squares of the relative velocities it follows that if the ether does slip past the relative velocity is less than one sixth of the earth’s velocity."

— Albert Abraham Michelson, 1887

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson%E2%80%93Morley_experiment


"Michelson and Morley's results."

"The upper solid line is the curve for their observations at noon, and the lower solid line is that for their evening observations. Note that the theoretical curves and the observed curves are not plotted at the same scale: the dotted curves, in fact, represent only one-eighth of the theoretical displacements."

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson%E2%80%93Morley_experiment


Special and General Principle of Relativity

The principle of relativity; original papers

"For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were canals on Mars."

"It is not necessarily odd that the idea of Martian canals was so readily accepted by many. At this time in the late 19th century, astronomical observations were made without photography. Astronomers had to stare for hours through their telescopes, waiting for a moment of still air when the image was clear, and then draw a picture of what they had seen."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martian_canal

see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopic_analysis

An Airy Disk: Telescopic Limits

"...the star is then seen (in favourable circumstances of tranquil atmosphere, uniform temperature, &c.) as a perfectly round, well-defined planetary disc, surrounded by two, three, or more alternately dark and bright rings, which, if examined attentively, are seen to be slightly coloured at their borders. They succeed each other nearly at equal intervals round the central disc...."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airy_disk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquarius_(constellation)  •  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_precession



The Dawning of the Golden Age of Aquarius: Redefining the Concepts of God ... By Albert Amao




  Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon, taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (published London, 1728)  •  Master of the Mint - Wikipedia  •  Later life of Isaac Newton - Wikipedia

Solomon's Temple - Wikipedia

 Isaac Newton's occult studies - Wikipedia  •  File:Freemasons structure.jpg - Wikimedia Commons  •  Masonic ritual and symbolism - Wikipedia  •  Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac Newton


Recommended Reading:

A Brief History of Time - Stephen W. Hawking - Google Books

The History of Magic and the Occult - Kurt Seligmann - Google Books

see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_stars


Cosmos - Carl Sagan - Google Books

You and the Universe

The Birth of a New Physics - I. Bernard Cohen - Google Books

"The Gradual Acceptance of The Copernican Theory of the Universe"


Sir Francis Bacon: The Novum Organum

"The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620. The title is a reference to Aristotle's work Organon, which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. In Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of syllogism. This is now known as the Baconian method. For Bacon, finding the essence of a thing was a simple process of reduction, and the use of inductive reasoning. In finding the cause of a 'phenomenal nature' such as heat, one must list all of the situations where heat is found. Then another list should be drawn up, listing situations that are similar to those of the first list except for the lack of heat. A third table lists situations where heat can vary. The 'form nature', or cause, of heat must be that which is common to all instances in the first table, is lacking from all instances of the second table and varies by degree in instances of the third table. The title page of Novum Organum depicts a galleon passing between the mythical Pillars of Hercules that stand either side of the Strait of Gibraltar, marking the exit from the well-charted waters of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean. The Pillars, as the boundary of the Mediterranean, have been smashed through by Iberian sailors, opening a new world for exploration. Bacon hopes that empirical investigation will, similarly, smash the old scientific ideas and lead to greater understanding of the world and heavens. This title page was liberally copied from Andrés García de Céspedes's Regimiento de Navegación, published in 1606. The Latin tag across the bottom – Multi pertransibunt & augebitur scientia – is taken from the Old Testament (Daniel 12:4). It means: "Many will travel and knowledge will be increased"."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novum_Organum

Just Imagine: Earth as a child's toy...

The Earth is nothing like a spinning top, of course, despite all hype to the contrary. The imagined rotation of the Earth is on the order of an extremely slow 23 hours and 56 minutes a day. This is far slower than a child's toy, than a spinning top. The Earth's imagined yearly orbit is also too slow to take seriously this childish analogy.

"The Earth circles the Sun in a flat plane. It is as if the spinning Earth is also rolling around the edge of a giant, flat plate, with the Sun in the center. The shape of the Earth’s orbit—the plate—changes from a nearly perfect circle to an oval shape on a 100,000-year cycle (eccentricity). Also, if you drew a line from the plate up through the Earth’s North and South Poles—Earth’s axis—the line would not rise straight up from the plate. Instead the axis is tilted, and the angle of the tilt varies between 22 and 24 degrees every 41,000 years (obliquity). Finally, the Earth wobbles on its axis as it spins. Like the handle of a toy top that wobbles toward you and away from you as the toy winds down, the “handle” of the Earth, the axis, wobbles toward and away from the Sun over the span of 19,000 to 23,000 years (precession). These small variations in Earth-Sun geometry change how much sunlight each hemisphere receives during the Earth’s year-long trek around the Sun, where in the orbit (the time of year) the seasons occur, and how extreme the seasonal changes are."

"In the early 1900s, a Serbian mathematician named Milutin Milankovitch meticulously calculated the amount of sunlight each latitude received in every phase of Earth’s orbital variations. His work culminated in the 1930 publication of Mathematical Climatology and the Astronomical Theory of Climate Change. He theorized that the ice ages occurred when orbital variations caused the Northern Hemisphere around the latitude of the Hudson Bay and northern Europe to receive less sunshine in the summer."

source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Paleoclimatology_Evidence

Tropics Defined:

"The word "tropical" comes from the Greek tropikos meaning "turn" (tropic 1992). Thus, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn mark the extreme north and south latitudes where the Sun can appear directly overhead, and where it appears to "turn" in its annual seasonal motion. Because of this connection between the tropics and the seasonal cycle of the apparent position of the Sun, the word "tropical" also lent its name to the "tropical year". The early Chinese, Hindus, Greeks, and others made approximate measures of the tropical year."

"During the Middle Ages and Renaissance a number of progressively better tables were published that allowed computation of the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars. An important application of these tables was the reform of the calendar. The Alfonsine Tables, published in 1252, were based on the theories of Ptolemy and were revised and updated after the original publication; the most recent update in 1978 was by the French National Centre for Scientific Research. The length of the tropical year was given as 365 solar days 5 hours 49 minutes 16 seconds (≈ 365.24255 days). This length was used in devising the Gregorian calendar of 1582 (Meeus & Savoie 1992, p. 41). In the 16th century Copernicus put forward a heliocentric cosmology. Erasmus Reinhold used Copernicus' theory to compute the Prutenic Tables in 1551, and gave a tropical year length of 365 solar days, 5 hours, 55 minutes, 58 seconds (365.24720 days), based on the length of a sidereal year and the presumed rate of precession. This was actually less accurate than the earlier value of the Alfonsine Tables."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_year

Airy Disc: Telescopic Patterns Defined

"In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics, and astronomy. The diffraction pattern resulting from a uniformly-illuminated circular aperture has a bright region in the center, known as the Airy disk, which together with the series of concentric bright rings around is called the Airy pattern. Both are named after George Biddell Airy. The disk and rings phenomenon had been known prior to Airy; John Herschel described the appearance of a bright star seen through a telescope under high magnification for an 1828 article on light for the Encyclopedia Metropolitana: ...the star is then seen (in favourable circumstances of tranquil atmosphere, uniform temperature, &c.) as a perfectly round, well-defined planetary disc, surrounded by two, three, or more alternately dark and bright rings, which, if examined attentively, are seen to be slightly coloured at their borders. They succeed each other nearly at equal intervals round the central disc...."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airy_disk